Netrin-1 promotes diabetic corneal wound healing through molecular mechanisms mediated via the adenosine 2B receptor.
ABSTRACT: Netrins are secreted chemoattractants with the roles in axon guidance, cell migration and epithelial plasticity. In the present study, we investigated the roles of netrin-1 in the regulation of corneal epithelial wound healing, inflammation response and nerve fiber regeneration in diabetic mice and cultured corneal epithelial cells. In diabetic mice, the expression of netrin-1 was decreased when compared with that of normal mice. Furthermore, high glucose blocked the wounding-induced up-regulation of netrin-1 expression in corneal epithelial cells. Exogenous netrin-1 promoted the corneal epithelial wound healing in diabetic mice, and facilitated the proliferation and migration by reactivating the phosphorylation of ERK and EGFR in high-glucose treated corneal epithelial cells. Moreover, netrin-1 decreased the neutrophil infiltration and promoted M2 macrophage transition, accompanied with the attenuated expression of pro-inflammatory factors in diabetic mouse corneal epithelium. The promotions of netrin-1 on corneal epithelial wound healing and inflammation resolution were mediated at least through the adenosine 2B receptor. In addition, netrin-1 promoted the regeneration of corneal nerve fibers that was impaired in diabetic mice. Taken together, netrin-1 regulates corneal epithelial wound healing, inflammation response and nerve fiber regeneration in diabetic mice, indicating the potential application for the therapy of diabetic keratopathy.
Project description:DNase I has been reported to improve diabetic wound healing through the clearance of neutrophils extracellular traps (NETs) caused by neutrophil aggregation. However, the function of DNase I on diabetic corneal wound healing remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect and mechanism of topical DNase I application on diabetic mouse corneal epithelial and nerve regeneration. Corneal epithelial defects, inflammatory response, regeneration-related signalling pathways, oxidative stress, corneal innervation and sensation were examined and compared between the diabetic and normal mice. The results confirmed firstly the increased NETs production during the delayed corneal epithelial wound healing of diabetic mice, which was significantly improved through either DNase I or Cl-amidine administration. Mechanistically, DNase I improved inflammation resolution, reactivated epithelial regeneration-related signalling pathways and attenuated the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, DNase I application also promoted corneal nerve regeneration and restored the impaired corneal sensitivity in diabetic mice. Therefore, these results indicate that topical DNase I application promotes corneal epithelial wound healing and mechanical sensation restoration in diabetic mice, representing the potential therapeutic approach for diabetic keratopathy.
Project description:The diabetic cornea exhibits pathological alterations, such as delayed epithelial wound healing and nerve regeneration. We investigated the role of semaphorin (SEMA) 3C in corneal wound healing and reinnervation in normal and diabetic B6 mice. Wounding induced the expression of SEMA3A, SEMA3C, and their receptor neuropilin-2 (NRP2), but not NRP1, in normal corneal epithelial cells; this upregulation was suppressed for SEMA3C and NRP2 in diabetic corneas. Injections of Sema3C-specific small interfering RNA and NRP2-neutralizing antibodies in wounded mice resulted in a decrease in the rate of wound healing and regenerating nerve fibers, whereas exogenous SEMA3C had opposing effects in diabetic corneas. NRP1 neutralization, on the other hand, decreased epithelial wound closure but increased sensory nerve regeneration in diabetic corneas, suggesting a detrimental role in nerve regeneration. Taken together, epithelium-expressed SEMA3C plays a role in corneal epithelial wound closure and sensory nerve regeneration. The hyperglycemia-suppressed SEMA3C/NRP2 signaling may contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic neurotrophic keratopathy, and SEMA3C might be used as an adjunctive therapeutic for treating the disease.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To evaluate the efficacy of sodium hyaluronate (HA) eye drops for the treatment of diabetic ocular surface diseases in mice.<h4>Methods</h4>Male 6- to 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice underwent induction of type 1 diabetes with intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin, with normal mice as the control. Topical 0.3% HA, 0.1% HA, 0.4% polyethylene glycol eye drops, and normal saline were administered to diabetic mice with an intact or debrided corneal epithelium. Normal saline was applied in the controls. Corneal epithelial wound healing rate, corneal sensation, nerve fiber density, conjunctival goblet cell number, and MUC-5AC content were measured and compared.<h4>Results</h4>Compared with the controls, topical 0.3% HA use in diabetic mice showed significant improvements in the corneal epithelial wound healing rate (48 hours: 91.5% ± 4.8% vs. 79.8% ± 6.1%; P < 0.05), corneal sensitivity (4.1 ± 0.3 cm vs. 3.5 ± 0.3 cm; P < 0.05), nerve fiber density (12.9% ± 2.3% vs. 6.6% ± 2.4%; P < 0.05), conjunctival goblet cell number (31.0 ± 8.4/100 ?m vs. 19.6 ± 7.1/100 ?m; P < 0.05), and MUC-5AC content (12.5 ± 1.4 ng/mg vs. 7.8 ± 1.5 ng/mg protein; P < 0.05). The beneficial effects of 0.3% HA were better than those of 0.1% HA and 0.4% polyethylene glycol.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Topical 0.3% HA treatment promoted corneal epithelial regeneration, improved corneal sensation, and increased density of corneal nerve fibers and conjunctival goblet cells in mice with diabetic ocular surface diseases.
Project description:Corneal nerves are mainly derived from the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal ganglion (TG). Corneal neuropathy contributes to epithelial degenerative changes in diabetic keratopathy. Efficient drug delivery to TG may be beneficial for the treatment of diabetic keratopathy. This article described intranasal delivery of nanomicelle curcumin to correct pathophysiological conditions in TG to promote corneal epithelial/nerve wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. A diabetic mice model with corneal epithelium abrasion was established. Ocular topical and/or intranasal nanomicelle curcumin treatments were performed, and treatment efficacy and mechanisms of action were explored. Results showed that intranasal nanomicelle curcumin treatment promoted corneal epithelial wound healing and recovery of corneal sensation. Enhanced accumulation of reactive oxygen species, reduced free radical scavengers, increased mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines, and decreased mRNA expressions of neurotrophic factors in the cornea and TG neuron were observed in diabetic mice with corneal epithelium abrasions. Intranasal nanomicelle curcumin treatment effectively recovered these pathophysiological conditions, especially that of the TG neuron, and a strengthened recovery was observed with ocular topical combined with intranasal treatment. These findings indicated that intranasal curcumin treatment effectively helped promote diabetic corneal epithelial/nerve wound healing. This novel treatment might be a promising strengthened therapy for diabetic keratopathy.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disorder. Long-term hyperglycemia may induce diabetic keratopathy (DK), which is mainly characterized by delayed corneal epithelial regeneration. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play regulatory roles during tissue regeneration. However, the molecular mechanism by which miRNAs influence epithelial regeneration in DK is largely unknown. In this study, we performed miRNA and mRNA sequencing of regenerative corneal epithelium tissue from streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic (T1DM) and wild-type mice to screen for differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs. Based on regulatory network analysis, miR-223-5p was selected for subsequent experiments and Hpgds was then identified as a direct target gene. MiR-223-5p downregulation significantly promoted diabetic corneal epithelial wound healing and nerve regeneration. However, the beneficial effects of miR-223-5p inhibition were abolished by an Hpgds inhibitor. Furthermore, mechanistic studies demonstrated that miR-223-5p suppression ameliorated inflammation and enhanced cell proliferation signaling in DK. Taken together, our findings revealed that the regulatory role of miR-223-5p in diabetic corneal epithelial and nerve regeneration by mediating inflammatory processes and cell proliferation signaling. And silencing miR-223-5p may contribute to the development of potential therapeutic strategies for DK. Overall design: Regenerative corneal epithelium tissue mRNA profiles of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic (T1DM) and counterparts
Project description:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex metabolic disorder. Long-term hyperglycemia may induce diabetic keratopathy (DK), which is mainly characterized by delayed corneal epithelial regeneration. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play regulatory roles during tissue regeneration. However, the molecular mechanism by which miRNAs influence epithelial regeneration in DK is largely unknown. In this study, we performed miRNA and mRNA sequencing of regenerative corneal epithelium tissue from streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic (T1DM) and wild-type mice to screen for differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs. Based on regulatory network analysis, miR-223-5p was selected for subsequent experiments and Hpgds was then identified as a direct target gene. MiR-223-5p downregulation significantly promoted diabetic corneal epithelial wound healing and nerve regeneration. However, the beneficial effects of miR-223-5p inhibition were abolished by an Hpgds inhibitor. Furthermore, mechanistic studies demonstrated that miR-223-5p suppression ameliorated inflammation and enhanced cell proliferation signaling in DK. Taken together, our findings revealed that the regulatory role of miR-223-5p in diabetic corneal epithelial and nerve regeneration by mediating inflammatory processes and cell proliferation signaling. And silencing miR-223-5p may contribute to the development of potential therapeutic strategies for DK. Overall design: Regenerative corneal epithelium tissue miRNA profiles of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic (T1DM) and counterparts
Project description:Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-B possesses the capacity of promoting injured peripheral nerve regeneration and restore their sensory and trophic functions. However, the contribution and mechanism of VEGF-B in diabetic peripheral neuropathy remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the expression and role of VEGF-B in diabetic corneal neuropathy by using type 1 diabetic mice and cultured trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. Hyperglycemia attenuated the endogenous expression of VEGF-B in regenerated diabetic corneal epithelium, but not that of VEGF receptors in diabetic TG neurons and axons. Exogenous VEGF-B promoted diabetic corneal nerve fiber regeneration through the reactivation of PI-3K/Akt-GSK3?-mTOR signaling and the attenuation of neuronal mitochondria dysfunction via the VEGF receptor-1 and neuropilin-1. Moreover, VEGF-B improved corneal sensation and epithelial regeneration in both normal and diabetic mice, accompanied with the elevated corneal content of pigment epithelial-derived factor (PEDF). PEDF blockade partially abolished trophic function of VEGF-B in diabetic corneal re-innervation. In conclusion, hyperglycemia suppressed endogenous VEGF-B expression in regenerated corneal epithelium of diabetic mice, while exogenous VEGF-B promoted recovery of corneal innervations and trophic functions through reactivating PI-3K/Akt-GSK-3?-mTOR signaling, attenuating neuronal oxidative stress and elevating PEDF expression.
Project description:Purpose:Neurotrophic keratopathy is a corneal epitheliopathy induced by trigeminal denervation that can be treated with eyedrops containing the neuropeptide substance P (or the peptide FGLM-NH2 derived therefrom) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (or the peptide SSSR derived therefrom). Here, we examine the mechanism by which substance P (or FGLM-NH2) promotes corneal epithelial wound healing in a mouse model of neurotrophic keratopathy. Methods:The left eye of mice subjected to trigeminal nerve axotomy in the right eye served as a model of neurotrophic keratopathy. Corneal epithelial wound healing was monitored by fluorescein staining and slit-lamp examination. The distribution of substance P, neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R), and phosphorylated Akt was examined by immunohistofluorescence analysis. Cytokine and chemokine concentrations in intraocular fluid were measured with a multiplex assay. Results:Topical administration of FGLM-NH2 and SSSR promoted corneal epithelial wound healing in the neurotrophic keratopathy model in a manner sensitive to the NK-1R antagonist L-733,060. Expression of substance P and NK-1R in the superficial layer of the corneal epithelium decreased and increased, respectively, in model mice compared with healthy mice. FGLM-NH2 and SSSR treatment suppressed the production of interleukin-1?, macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP-1?) and MIP-1? induced by corneal epithelial injury in the model mice. It also increased the amount of phosphorylated Akt in the corneal epithelium during wound healing in a manner sensitive to prior L-733,060 administration. Conclusions:The substance P-NK-1R axis promotes corneal epithelial wound healing in a neurotrophic keratopathy model in association with upregulation of Akt signaling and attenuation of changes in the cytokine-chemokine network.
Project description:It is well known that the cornea plays an important role in providing protection to the eye, but it is fragile and vulnerable. To clarify the biological effects and molecular mechanisms of the pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP)-derived peptide MPAPO (named MPAPO) to promote corneal wound healing, we applied a mechanical method to establish a corneal injury model and analyzed the repair effects of MPAPO on corneal injury. MPAPO significantly promoted corneal wound repair in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, we established injury models of epithelial cells and trigeminal ganglion cells with H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>. The results show that when the concentration of MPAPO is 1 ?M, it can significantly promote the repair of injured corneal epithelial cells and the regeneration of trigeminal ganglion cell axons. MPAPO repairs epithelial cells through the promotion of GSK3? phosphorylation by binding to PAC1 and activating AKT. ?-catenin escapes the phosphorylation of GSK3? and enters the nucleus to promote the expression of cyclin D1, accelerate cell cycle progression and promote cell proliferation. MPAPO promotes axonal regeneration by binding to the PAC1 receptor and activating adenylate cyclase activity, followed by the cAMP activation of protein kinase A activity and the promotion of CREB phosphorylation. Phosphorylated CREB promotes Bcl<sub>2</sub> expression and axonal regeneration. In conclusion, our data support the role of MPAPO to facilitate corneal wound healing by promoting corneal epithelial cell proliferation and trigeminal ganglion cell axon regeneration.
Project description:Purpose:Establishing the dynamics of corneal wound healing is of vital importance to better understand corneal inflammation, pathology, and corneal regeneration. Numerous studies have made great strides in investigating multiple aspects of corneal wound healing; however, some aspects remain to be elucidated. This study worked toward establishing (1) if epithelial limbal stem cells (LSCs) are necessary for healing all corneal wounds, (2) the mechanism by which epithelial cells migrate toward the wound, and (3) if centrifugal epithelial cell movement exists. Methods:To establish different aspects of corneal epithelial wound healing we subjected mice lacking hyaluronan synthase 2 (previously shown to lack LSCs) and wild-type mice to different corneal debridement injury models. Results:Our data show that both LSCs and corneal epithelial cells contribute toward closure of corneal wounds. In wild-type mice, removal of the limbal rim delayed closure of 1.5-mm wounds, and not of 0.75-mm wounds, indicating that smaller wounds do not rely on LSCs as do larger wounds. In mice shown to lack LSCs, removal of the limbal rim did not affect wound healing, irrespective of the wound size. Finally, transient amplifying cells and central epithelial cells move toward a central corneal wound in a centripetal manner, whereas central epithelial cells may move in a centrifugal manner to resurface peripheral corneal wounds. Conclusions:Our findings show the dimensions of the corneal wound dictate involvement of LSCs. Our data suggest that divergent findings by different groups on the dynamics of wound healing can be in part owing to differences in the wounding models used.