CD29 is highly expressed on epithelial, myoepithelial, and mesenchymal stromal cells of human salivary glands.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The phenotype of the cells present in the ductal region of salivary glands has been well characterized. However, it is imperative to identify novel biomarkers that can identify different cell types present in other glandular components for the development of therapeutic strategies and diagnostics of salivary gland disorders and malignancies. Our study aimed at the characterization of the expression and distribution of various cell surface markers, especially with a focus on CD29 in human fetal as well as adult glands. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Paired human midgestation fetal and adult parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands were collected. Phenotypic expression of various lineage-specific cell surface markers including CD29 was investigated in freshly collected glands. The findings were further corroborated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:Enriched expression of CD29 was found on acinar and ductal epithelial, mesenchymal stromal, and myoepithelial cells; CD29+ cells co-expressed epithelial (CD324, CD326, NKCC1, and CD44), mesenchymal (CD73, CD90, vimentin, and CD34), and myoepithelial (?-SMA) cell-specific progenitor markers in both fetal as well as adult salivary glands. CONCLUSION:CD29 is widely expressed in human salivary glands, and it could serve as a potential biomarker for devising novel cellular therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for salivary gland disorders and malignancies.
Project description:Salivary glands have an essential secretory function for maintaining oral and overall health. The epithelial compartment of the gland is composed of several highly specialized cell types that cooperate to secrete and deliver saliva to the oral cavity. The mouse submandibular gland has been used as a model for major salivary glands in human. The secretory complex in this model is composed of 2 secretory compartments, including acini and granular ducts connected by intercalated ducts. Contractile myoepithelial cells surround the secretory complex to facilitate salivary flow. Whether differentiated cells in the secretory complex are maintained by self-duplication or contribution from stem cells has remained an open question. Here, in analyzing the expression of basal cytokeratin (K) 14 in the secretory complex, we discovered a subset of K14(+) ductal cells in the intercalated ducts of the adult gland. These cells are distinct from the K14-expressing basal/myoepithelial cells, proliferate at a significantly higher rate than any other epithelial cell type in the gland, and reside in a spatially defined domain within the intercalated duct. Using inducible genetic lineage tracing, we show that K14(+) ductal cells represent a long-lived yet cycling population of stem cells that are established during development and contribute to the formation and maintenance of the granular ducts throughout life. Our data provide direct evidence for the existence of stem cells contributing to homeostasis of salivary glands, as well as new insights into glandular pathobiology.
Project description:Myoepithelial cells are flat, stellate cells present in exocrine tissues including the salivary glands. While myoepithelial cells have been studied extensively in mammary and lacrimal gland tissues, less is known of the function of myoepithelial cells derived from human salivary glands. Several groups have isolated tumorigenic myoepithelial cells from cancer specimens, however, only one report has demonstrated isolation of normal human salivary myoepithelial cells needed for use in salivary gland tissue engineering applications. Establishing a functional organoid model consisting of myoepithelial and secretory acinar cells is therefore necessary for understanding the coordinated action of these two cell types in unidirectional fluid secretion. Here, we developed a bottom-up approach for generating salivary gland microtissues using primary human salivary myoepithelial cells (hSMECs) and stem/progenitor cells (hS/PCs) isolated from normal salivary gland tissues. Phenotypic characterization of isolated hSMECs confirmed that a myoepithelial cell phenotype consistent with that from other exocrine tissues was maintained over multiple passages of culture. Additionally, hSMECs secreted basement membrane proteins, expressed adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmitter receptors, and released intracellular calcium [Ca2+i] in response to parasympathetic agonists. In a collagen I contractility assay, activation of contractile machinery was observed in isolated hSMECs treated with parasympathetic agonists. Recombination of hSMECs with assembled hS/PC spheroids in a microwell system was used to create microtissues resembling secretory complexes of the salivary gland. We conclude that the engineered salivary gland microtissue complexes provide a physiologically relevant model for both mechanistic studies and as a building block for the successful engineering of the salivary gland for restoration of salivary function in patients suffering from hyposalivation.
Project description:Mouse submandibular salivary gland cells and liver progenitor cells from long-term in vitro cultures with a high proliferation potential were side-by-side compared by methods of immunocytochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, flow cytometry, and transcriptome analysis. The two cell types were found to be similar in expressing cell markers such as EpCAM, CD29, c-Kit, Sca-1, and c-Met. In addition, both cell types expressed cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19, alpha-fetoprotein, and (weakly) albumin. Unlike the liver cells, however, the salivary gland cells in culture showed high-level expression of cytokeratin 14 and CD49f, which was indicative of their origin from salivary gland ducts. Quantitative real-time PCR and deep-sequencing transcriptome analysis revealed similarities in the expression pattern of transcription factors between the two cell types. In this respect, however, the cultured salivary gland cells proved to be closer to exocrine cells of the pancreas than to the liver progenitor cells. Thus, ductal cells of postnatal submandibular salivary glands in culture show phenotypic convergence with progenitor cells of endodermal origin, suggesting that these glands may serve as a potential cell source for cellular therapy of hepatic and pancreatic disorders. The results of this study provide a deeper insight into the molecular features of salivary gland cells and may help optimize procedures for stimulating their differentiation in a specified direction.
Project description:The blood-saliva barrier (BSB) consists of the sum of the epithelial cell layers of the oral mucosa and salivary glands. In vitro models of the BSB are inevitable to investigate and understand the transport of salivary biomarkers from blood to saliva. Up to now, standardized, cell line-based models of the epithelium of the submandibular salivary gland are still missing for this purpose. Therefore, we established epithelial barrier models of the submandibular gland derived from human cell line HTB-41 (A-253). Single clone isolation resulted in five different clones (B2, B4, B9, D3, and F11). Clones were compared to the parental cell line HTB-41 using measurements of the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), paracellular marker permeability assays and analysis of marker expression for acinar, ductal, and myoepithelial cells. Two clones (B9, D3) were characterized to be of acinar origin, one clone (F11) to be of myoepithelial origin and one isolation (B4) derived from two cells, to be presumably a mixture of acinar and ductal origin. Clone B2, presumably of ductal origin, showed a significantly higher paracellular barrier compared to other clones and parental HTB-41. The distinct molecular identity of clone B2 was confirmed by immunofluorescent staining, qPCR, and flow cytometry. Experiments with ferritin, a biomarker for iron storage, demonstrated the applicability of the selected model based on clone B2 for transport studies. In conclusion, five different clones originating from the submandibular gland cell line HTB-41 were successfully characterized and established as epithelial barrier models. Studies with the model based on the tightest clone B2 confirmed its suitability for transport studies in biomarker research.
Project description:Myoepitheliomas are uncommon salivary gland neoplasms consisting entirely or predominantly of cells with myoepithelial phenotype. They commonly involve the parotid gland and the minor salivary glands of the palate.A case of plasmacytoid myoepithelioma of the hard palate is described.A 55-year-old woman presented to her oral surgeon with a tumor on the hard palate. Microscopic examination showed a well-circumscribed but non-encapsulated tumor, consisting mostly of plasmacytoid cells in a loose fibrovascular stroma. Neoplastic myoepithelial cells showed immunoreactivity for S-100 protein, CK AE1/AE3 (Figure 5b), GFAP, calponin, and CD138/Syndecan-1. Total excision of the tumor under local anesthesia was performed and no recurrence was noted 14 months after treatment.Since plasmacytoid myoepithelioma is uncommon, minor salivary glands, its immunohistochemical features, management and prognosis should be further investigated.
Project description:Breast glands and salivary glands are tubulo-acinar exocrine glands that can manifest as tumours with similar morphological features, but that differ in incidence and clinical behaviour depending on whether they are primary in breast or salivary glands. Salivary gland-like tumours of the breast are of two types: tumours with myoepithelial differentiation and those devoid of myoepithelial differentiation. The first and more numerous group comprises a spectrum of lesions ranging from "bona fide" benign (such as benign myoepithelioma and pleomorphic adenoma), to low grade malignant (such as adenoid cystic carcinoma, low grade adenosquamous carcinoma, and adenomyoepithelioma), to high grade malignant lesions (malignant myoepithelioma). The second group comprises lesions that have only recently been recognised, such as acinic cell carcinoma, oncocytic carcinoma of the breast, and the rare mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
Project description:Because sweat secretion is facilitated by mechanical contraction of sweat gland structures, understanding their structure-function relationship could lead to more effective treatments for patients with sweat gland disorders such as heat stroke. Conventional histological studies have shown that sweat glands are three-dimensionally coiled tubular structures consisting of ducts and secretory portions, although their detailed structural anatomy remains unclear. To better understand the details of the three-dimensional (3D) coiled structures of sweat glands, a whole-mount staining method was employed to visualize 3D coiled gland structures with sweat gland markers for ductal luminal, ductal basal, secretory luminal, and myoepithelial cells. Imaging the 3D coiled gland structures demonstrated that the ducts and secretory portions were comprised of distinct tubular structures. Ductal tubules were occasionally bent, while secretory tubules were frequently bent and formed a self-entangled coiled structure. Whole-mount staining of complex coiled gland structures also revealed the detailed 3D cellular arrangements in the individual sweat gland compartments. Ducts were composed of regularly arranged cuboidal shaped cells, while secretory portions were surrounded by myoepithelial cells longitudinally elongated along entangled secretory tubules. Whole-mount staining was also used to visualize the spatial arrangement of blood vessels and nerve fibers, both of which facilitate sweat secretion. The blood vessels ran longitudinally parallel to the sweat gland tubules, while nerve fibers wrapped around secretory tubules, but not ductal tubules. Taken together, whole-mount staining of sweat glands revealed the 3D cell shapes and arrangements of complex coiled gland structures and provides insights into the mechanical contraction of coiled gland structures during sweat secretion.
Project description:Salivary glands exert exocrine secretory function to provide saliva for lubrication and protection of the oral cavity. Its epithelium consists of several differentiated cell types, including acinar, ductal and myoepithelial cells, that are maintained in a lineage-restricted manner during homeostasis or after mild injuries. Glandular regeneration following a near complete loss of secretory cells, however, may involve cellular plasticity, although the mechanism and extent of such plasticity remain unclear. Here, by combining lineage-tracing experiments with a model of severe glandular injury in the mouse submandibular gland, we show that <i>de novo</i> formation of acini involves induction of cellular plasticity in multiple non-acinar cell populations. Fate-mapping analysis revealed that, although ductal stem cells marked by cytokeratin K14 and Axin2 undergo a multipotency switch, they do not make a significant contribution to acinar regeneration. Intriguingly, more than 80% of regenerated acini derive from differentiated cells, including myoepithelial and ductal cells, that appear to dedifferentiate to a progenitor-like state before re-differentiation into acinar cells. The potential of diverse cell populations serving as a reserve source for acini widens the therapeutic options for hyposalivation.
Project description:Epithelial organ morphogenesis involves reciprocal interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cell types to balance progenitor cell retention and expansion with cell differentiation for evolution of tissue architecture. Underlying submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis is the regulated proliferation and differentiation of perhaps several progenitor cell populations, which have not been characterized throughout development, and yet are critical for understanding organ development, regeneration, and disease. Here we applied a serial multiplexed fluorescent immunohistochemistry technology to map the progressive refinement of the epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations throughout development from embryonic day 14 through postnatal day 20. Using computational single cell analysis methods, we simultaneously mapped the evolving temporal and spatial location of epithelial cells expressing subsets of differentiation and progenitor markers throughout salivary gland development. We mapped epithelial cell differentiation markers, including aquaporin 5, PSP, SABPA, and mucin 10 (acinar cells); cytokeratin 7 (ductal cells); and smooth muscle α-actin (myoepithelial cells) and epithelial progenitor cell markers, cytokeratin 5 and c-kit. We used pairwise correlation and visual mapping of the cells in multiplexed images to quantify the number of single- and double-positive cells expressing these differentiation and progenitor markers at each developmental stage. We identified smooth muscle α-actin as a putative early myoepithelial progenitor marker that is expressed in cytokeratin 5-negative cells. Additionally, our results reveal dynamic expansion and redistributions of c-kit- and K5-positive progenitor cell populations throughout development and in postnatal glands. The data suggest that there are temporally and spatially discreet progenitor populations that contribute to salivary gland development and homeostasis.
Project description:Ascl3, also know as Sgn1, is a member of the mammalian achaete scute (Mash) gene family of transcription factors, which have been implicated in cell fate specification and differentiation. In the mouse salivary gland, expression of Ascl3 is restricted to a subset of duct cells. Salivary gland function depends on the secretory acinar cells, which are responsible for saliva formation, and duct cells, which modify the saliva and conduct it to the oral cavity. The salivary gland ducts are also the putative site of progenitor cells in the adult gland. Using a Cre recombinase-mediated reporter system, we followed the fate of Ascl3-expressing cells after the introduction of an EGFP-Cre expression cassette into the Ascl3 locus by homologous recombination. Lineage tracing shows that these cells are progenitors of both acinar and ductal cell types in all three major salivary glands. In the differentiated progeny, expression of Ascl3 is down-regulated. These data directly demonstrate a progenitor-progeny relationship between duct cells and the acinar cell compartment, and identify a population of multipotent progenitor cells, marked by expression of Ascl3, which is capable of generating both gland cell types. We conclude that Ascl3-expressing cells contribute to the maintenance of the adult salivary glands.