Brain structure and cognition 3 years after the end of an early menopausal hormone therapy trial.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The effects of 2 frequently used formulations of menopausal hormone therapy (mHT) on brain structure and cognition were investigated 3 years after the end of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in recently menopausal women with good cardiovascular health. METHODS:Participants (aged 42-56 years; 5-36 months past menopause) were randomized to one of the following: 0.45 mg/d oral conjugated equine estrogen (oCEE); 50 ?g/d transdermal 17?-estradiol (tE2); or placebo pills and patch for 4 years. Oral progesterone (200 mg/d) was given to mHT groups for 12 days each month. MRIs were performed at baseline, at the end of 4 years of mHT, and 3 years after the end of mHT (n = 75). A subset of participants also underwent Pittsburgh compound B-PET (n = 68). RESULTS:Ventricular volumes increased more in the oCEE group compared to placebo during the 4 years of mHT, but the increase in ventricular volumes was not different from placebo 3 years after the discontinuation of mHT. Increase in white matter hyperintensity volume was similar in the oCEE and tE2 groups, but it was statistically significantly greater than placebo only in the oCEE group. The longitudinal decline in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volumes was less in the tE2 group compared to placebo, which correlated with lower cortical Pittsburgh compound B uptake. Rates of global cognitive change in mHT groups were not different from placebo. CONCLUSIONS:The effects of oCEE on global brain structure during mHT subside after oCEE discontinuation but white matter hyperintensities continue to increase. The relative preservation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortical volume in the tE2 group over 7 years indicates that mHT may have long-term effects on the brain. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE:This study provides Class III evidence that the rates of change in global brain volumes and cognitive function in recently menopausal women receiving mHT (tE2 or oCEE) were not significantly different from women receiving placebo, as measured 3 years after exposure to mHT.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Little is known regarding the progression of preclinical atherosclerosis upon cessation of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). This study evaluated changes in carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) in a subgroup of participants during 4 years and 3 years after the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). METHODS:Of the women enrolled in KEEPS at Mayo Clinic (n?=?118), a subset (n?=?76) agreed to participate in this follow-up study. KEEPS MHT assignments were placebo (PBO), n?=?33; transdermal 17?-estradiol (tE2), n?=?23; and oral conjugated equine estrogens group (oCEE), n?=?20. CIMT was measured by B-mode ultrasonography. Longitudinal analysis of CIMT was performed using all available data from pre-, on-, and post-treatment periods. RESULTS:At 7 years, median age of participants was 60.2 years; median time since menopause was 8.5 years. The mean difference in rates of increase was significantly greater over the post- than on-treatment period within the oCEE group (0.010 [0.002-0.017] mm/y), but not within the PBO (0.006 [-0.001 to 0.012] mm/y; P?=?0.072) or tE2 (0.002 [-0.005 to 0.010] mm/y; P?=?0.312) groups. There were, however, no significant treatment differences in the linear trends over those intervals (P?=?0.524). CONCLUSIONS:Cessation of MHT at the lower doses and formulations used in KEEPS did not appear to alter the trajectory of CIMT over a 3-year follow-up period. CIMT, however, increased in all groups over the entire 7-year timeframe as expected with age and timing of menopause possibly key contributors.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Response to menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) shows individual variation. SLCO1B1 encodes the OATP1B1 transporter expressed in the liver that transports many endogenous substances, including estrone sulfate, from the blood into hepatocytes. This study evaluated the relationship between genetic variation in SLCO1B1 and response to MHT in women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. METHODS:KEEPS participants were randomized to oral conjugated equine estrogen (n = 33, oCEE), transdermal 17β-estradiol (n = 33, tE2), or placebo (n = 34) for 48 months. Menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, night sweats, insomnia, palpitations) were self-reported before treatment and at 48 months. Estrone (E1), E2, and sulfated conjugates (E1S, E2S) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. SLCO1B1 rs4149056 (c.521T>C, p.Val174Ala) was genotyped using a TaqMan assay. RESULTS:After adjusting for treatment, there was a significant association between the SLCO1B1 rs4149056 TT genotype (encoding normal function transporter) and lower E1S, E1S/E1, and E2S (P = 0.032, 0.010, and 0.008, respectively) compared with women who were heterozygous (TC) or homozygous (CC) for the reduced function allele. The interactions between genotype, treatment, and E2S concentration were stronger in women assigned to tE2 (P = 0.013) than the women taking oCEE (P = 0.056). Among women assigned to active treatment, women with the CT genotype showed a significantly greater decrease in night sweats (P = 0.041) than those with the TT genotype. CONCLUSIONS:Individual variation in sulfated estrogens is explained, in part, by genetic variation in SLCO1B1. Bioavailability of sulfated estrogens may contribute to relief of night sweats.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Estrogen may inhibit cell senescence that contributes to age-related disorders. This study determined the effects of menopausal hormone treatments on circulating levels of markers of cell senescence. METHODS:Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), FAS, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1? (MIP1?) were measured in serum using multiplexed bead-based assays and compared among menopausal women participating in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study randomized to either placebo (n = 38), oral conjugated equine estrogen (oCEE, n = 37), or transdermal 17?-estradiol (tE2, n = 34). Serum levels of the senescent markers for each treatment were compared to placebo 36 months after randomization using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. RESULTS:Serum levels of GDF15, TNFR1, and FAS, but not MIP1?, were lower in both the oCEE and tE2 groups compared to placebo. The difference in levels between treatment and placebo for GDF15, TNFR1, and FAS were greater for oCEE [-108 pg/mL (p = .008), -234 pg/mL (p = .0006), and -1374 pg/mL (p < .0001), respectively] than for tE2 [-76 pg/mL (p = .072), -105 pg/mL (p = .076), and -695 pg/mL (p = .036), respectively]. Additionally, TNFR1 showed a positive association with time past menopause (correlation = 0.255, p = .019). CONCLUSIONS:Circulating levels of some markers of cell senescence were lower in menopausal women treated with oCEE and tE2 compared to placebo. Differences in the magnitude of effect of the two active treatments may reflect the differences in circulating levels of estrogen metabolites due to formulation and mode of delivery. These data generate new hypotheses with regard to the effects of menopause on the biology of aging.
Project description:Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is modulated by sex steroid hormones and affects vascular function and mood. In the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Cognitive and Affective Ancillary Study (KEEPS-Cog), women randomized to oral conjugated equine estrogens (oCEE) showed greater benefit on affective mood states than women randomized to transdermal 17?-estradiol (tE2) or placebo (PL). This study examined the effect of these treatments on the platelet content of 5-HT as a surrogate measure of 5-HT synthesis and uptake in the brain.The following were measured in a subset (n?=?79) of women enrolled in KEEPS-Cog: 5-HT by ELISA, carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) by ultrasound, endothelial function by reactive hyperemic index (RHI), and self-reported symptoms of affective mood states by the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire.Mean platelet content of 5-HT increased by 107.0%, 84.5% and 39.8%, in tE2, oCEE and PL groups, respectively. Platelet 5-HT positively correlated with estrone in the oCEE group and with 17?- estradiol in the tE2 group. Platelet 5-HT showed a positive association with RHI, but not CIMT, in the PL and oCEE groups. Reduction in mood scores for depression-dejection and anger-hostility was associated with elevations in platelet 5-HT only in the oCEE group (r?=?-0.5, p?=?0.02).Effects of oCEE compared to tE2 on RHI and mood may be related to mechanisms involving platelet, and perhaps neuronal, uptake and release of 5-HT and reflect conversion of estrone to bioavailable 17?-estradiol in platelets and the brain.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The effect of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT)-previously known as hormone replacement therapy-on cardiovascular health remains unclear and controversial. This cross-sectional study examined the impact of MHT on left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) structure and function, alterations in which are markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease, in a population-based cohort.<h4>Methods</h4>Post-menopausal women who had never used MHT and those who had used MHT ?3 years participating in the UK Biobank who had undergone cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and free of known cardiovascular disease were included. Multivariable linear regression was performed to examine the relationship between cardiac parameters and MHT use ?3 years. To explore whether MHT use on each of the cardiac outcomes differed by age, multivariable regression models were constructed with a cross-product of age and MHT fitted as an interaction term.<h4>Results</h4>Of 1604 post-menopausal women, 513 (32%) had used MHT ?3 years. In the MHT cohort, median age at menopause was 50 (IQR: 45-52) and median duration of MHT was 8 years. In the non-MHT cohort, median age at menopause was 51 (IQR: 48-53). MHT use was associated with significantly lower LV end-diastolic volume (122.8 ml vs 119.8 ml, effect size = -2.4%, 95% CI: -4.2% to -0.5%; p = 0.013) and LA maximal volume (60.2 ml vs 57.5 ml, effect size = -4.5%, 95% CI: -7.8% to -1.0%; p = 0.012). There was no significant difference in LV mass. MHT use significantly modified the effect between age and CMR parameters; MHT users had greater decrements in LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume and LA maximal volume with advancing age.<h4>Conclusions</h4>MHT use was not associated with adverse, subclinical changes in cardiac structure and function. Indeed, significantly smaller LV and LA chamber volumes were observed which have been linked to favourable cardiovascular outcomes. These findings represent a novel approach to examining MHT's effect on the cardiovascular system.
Project description:Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) increases breast cancer risk; however, most cohort studies omit MHT use after enrolment and many infer menopausal age.We used information from serial questionnaires from the UK Generations Study cohort to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for breast cancer among post-menopausal women with known menopausal age, and examined biases induced when not updating data on MHT use and including women with inferred menopausal age.Among women recruited in 2003-2009, at 6 years of follow-up, 58?148 had reached menopause and 96% had completed a follow-up questionnaire. Among 39?183 women with known menopausal age, 775 developed breast cancer, and the HR in relation to current oestrogen plus progestogen MHT use (based on 52 current oestrogen plus progestogen MHT users in breast cancer cases) relative to those with no previous MHT use was 2.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.05-3.65) for a median duration of 5.4 years of current use, reaching 3.27 (95% CI: 1.53-6.99) at 15+ years of use. The excess HR was underestimated by 53% if oestrogen plus progestogen MHT use was not updated after recruitment, 13% if women with uncertain menopausal age were included, and 59% if both applied. The HR for oestrogen-only MHT was not increased (HR=1.00; 95% CI: 0.66-1.54).Lack of updating MHT status through follow-up and inclusion of women with inferred menopausal age is likely to result in substantial underestimation of the excess relative risks for oestrogen plus progestogen MHT use in studies with long follow-up, limited updating of exposures, and changing or short durations of use.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Women who are currently using menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) have higher cerebrovascular reactivity when compared with postmenopausal women who are not taking MHT; however, the effect of cessation of MHT on cerebrovascular reactivity is not known. Given that MHT can have structural and activational effects on vascular function, this study was performed to characterize cerebrovascular reactivity following cessation of MHT in women at low risk for cerebrovascular disease. METHODS:Cerebrovascular reactivity was measured in a subset of women from the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) 3 years after cessation of the study drug (oral conjugated equine estrogen, transdermal 17?-estradiol, or placebo [PLA]). RESULTS:Age, body mass index, and blood pressure were comparable among groups. At rest, the middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), cerebrovascular conductance index, mean arterial pressure, and cerebral pulsatility index did not differ among groups. Slope-based summary measures of cerebrovascular reactivity did not differ significantly among groups. However, utilizing repeated-measures modeling, there was a significant upward shift in MCAv responses (p?=?0.029) in the combined MHT group compared with the PLA group. CONCLUSION:MHT has a marginal sustained effect on cerebrovascular reactivity when measured 3?years after cessation of hormone treatment.
Project description:Activated platelets serve as a catalyst for thrombin generation and a source of vasoactive and mitogenic factors affecting vascular remodeling. Oral menopausal hormone treatments (MHT) may carry greater thrombotic risk than transdermal products. This study compared effects of oral and transdermal MHT on platelet characteristics, platelet proteins, and platelet-derived microvesicles (MV) in recently menopausal women. Platelets and MV were prepared from blood of a subset of women (n = 117) enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study prior to and after 48 months of treatment with either oral conjugated equine estrogen (0.45 mg/day), transdermal 17?-estradiol (50 µg/day), each with intermittent progesterone (200 mg/day for 12 days a month), or placebo pills and patch. Platelet count and expression of platelet P-selectin and fibrinogen receptors were similar across groups. An aggregate measure of 4-year change in vasoactive and mitogenic factors in platelet lysate, by principle component analysis, indicated significantly lower values in both MHT groups compared to placebo. Increases in numbers of tissue factor positive and platelet-derived MV were significantly greater in the transdermal compared to placebo group. MHT was associated with significantly reduced platelet content of vasoactive and mitogenic factors representing a potential mechanism by which MHT may affect vascular remodeling. Various hormonal compositions and doses of MHT could differentially regulate nuclear transcription in bone marrow megakaryocytes and non-genomic pathways in circulating platelets thus determining numbers and characteristics of circulating MV. Thrombotic risk associated with oral MHT most likely involves liver-derived inflammatory/coagulation proteins rather than circulating platelets per se.
Project description:In women, cortical bone mass decreases significantly at menopause. By contrast, loss of trabecular bone begins in the third decade and accelerates after menopause.The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of estrogen on cortical and trabecular bone.The Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of menopausal hormone treatment (MHT) in women, enrolled within 6-36 months of their final menstrual period.The study was conducted at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.Subjects were treated with placebo (n = 31), or .45 mg/d conjugated equine estrogens (n = 20), or transdermal 50 ?g/d 17?-estradiol (n = 25) with pulsed micronized progesterone.Cortical and trabecular microarchitecture at the distal radius was assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography.At the distal radius, cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) decreased, and cortical porosity increased in the placebo group; MHT prevented these changes. By contrast, MHT did not prevent decreases in trabecular microarchitecture at the radius. However, MHT prevented decreases in trabecular vBMD at the thoracic spine (assessed in a subset of subjects; n = 51). These results indicate that MHT prevents deterioration in radial cortical vBMD and porosity in recently menopausal women.The maintenance of cortical bone in response to estrogen likely has important clinical implications because cortical bone morphology plays an important role in bone strength. However, effects of MHT on trabecular bone at the radius differ from those at the thoracic spine. Underlying mechanisms for these site-specific effects of MHT on cortical vs trabecular bone require further investigation.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Development of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in the brain is associated with blood thrombogenicity in recently menopausal women. This study examined the influence of menopausal hormone treatments (MHTs) on this association.<h4>Methods</h4>Measures of blood thrombogenicity were examined in women of the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (n?=?95) who had brain magnetic resonance imaging before and during the 48 months of randomization to transdermal 17?-estradiol (n?=?30), oral conjugated equine estrogen (n?=?29) both with progesterone for 12 days per month or placebo pills and patch (n?=?36). Principal components (PCs) analysis was used to reduce the dimensionality of 14 markers of platelet activation and blood thrombogenicity. The first 5 PCs were assessed for association with treatment and changes in WMH. Within-person slopes were obtained to capture the extent of WMH change for each woman.<h4>Results</h4>WMH increased in all groups over the 48 months (P?=?0.044). The partial effect of PC1, representing an average of six thrombogenicity variables (microvesicles derived from endothelium, leukocytes, and monocytes, and positive for tissue factor and adhesion molecules) on WMH was significant (P?=?0.003). PC3, reflecting a contrast of platelet microaggregates and adenosine triphosphate secretion versus total platelet count, differed across groups (P?=?0.006) with higher scores in the oral conjugated equine estrogen group. The global association between PCs and WMH increase, however, did not differ significantly by MHT (P?=?0.207 for interaction between MHT and PC's).<h4>Conclusion</h4>In recently menopausal women, the type of MHT did not significantly influence the association of markers of blood thrombogenicity with development of WMH in the brain.