Maternal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins and risk of leukemia in offspring: a Childhood Leukemia International Consortium study.
ABSTRACT: Maternal prenatal supplementation with folic acid and other vitamins has been inconsistently associated with a reduced risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Little is known regarding the association with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a rarer subtype.We obtained original data on prenatal use of folic acid and vitamins from 12 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (enrollment period: 1980-2012), including 6,963 cases of ALL, 585 cases of AML, and 11,635 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for child's age, sex, ethnicity, parental education, and study center.Maternal supplements taken any time before conception or during pregnancy were associated with a reduced risk of childhood ALL; odds ratios were 0.85 (95% CI = 0.78-0.92) for vitamin use and 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for folic acid use. The reduced risk was more pronounced in children whose parents' education was below the highest category. The analyses for AML led to somewhat unstable estimates; ORs were 0.92 (0.75-1.14) and 0.68 (0.48-0.96) for prenatal vitamins and folic acid, respectively. There was no strong evidence that risks of either types of leukemia varied by period of supplementation (preconception, pregnancy, or trimester).Our results, based on the largest number of childhood leukemia cases to date, suggest that maternal prenatal use of vitamins and folic acid reduces the risk of both ALL and AML and that the observed association with ALL varied by parental education, a surrogate for lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics.
Project description:Genes, infection, malnutrition, and other factors affecting fetal brain development are a major component of risk for a child's emotional development and later mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. Prenatal interventions to ameliorate that risk have yet to be established for clinical use. A systematic review of prenatal nutrients and childhood emotional development and later mental illness was performed. Randomized trials of folic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements assess effects of doses beyond those adequate to remedy deficiencies to promote normal fetal development despite genetic and environmental risks. Folic acid to prevent neural tube defects is an example. Vitamins A and D are currently recommended at maximum levels, but women's incomplete compliance permits observational studies of their effects. Folic acid and phosphatidylcholine supplements have shown evidence for improving childhood emotional development associated with later mental illnesses. Vitamins A and D decreased the risk for schizophrenia and autism in retrospective observations. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation during early pregnancy increased the risk for schizophrenia and increased symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but in later pregnancy it decreased childhood wheezing and premature birth. Studies are complicated by the length of time between birth and the emergence of mental illnesses like schizophrenia, compared with anomalies like facial clefts identified at birth. As part of comprehensive maternal and fetal care, prenatal nutrient interventions should be further considered as uniquely effective first steps in decreasing risk for future psychiatric and other illnesses in newborn children. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future July 1959: Longitudinal Observations of Biological Deviations in a Schizophrenic Infant Barbara Fish described the course of an infant born with fluctuating motor problems who developed schizophrenia. (Am J Psychiatry 1959; 116:25-31 )].
Project description:Prenatal folic acid supplements reduce the risk of neural tube defects in children, but it has not been determined whether they protect against other neurodevelopmental disorders.To examine the association between maternal use of prenatal folic acid supplements and subsequent risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified [PDD-NOS]) in children.The study sample of 85,176 children was derived from the population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The children were born in 2002-2008; by the end of follow-up on March 31, 2012, the age range was 3.3 through 10.2 years (mean, 6.4 years). The exposure of primary interest was use of folic acid from 4 weeks before to 8 weeks after the start of pregnancy, defined as the first day of the last menstrual period before conception. Relative risks of ASDs were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs in a logistic regression analysis. Analyses were adjusted for maternal education level, year of birth, and parity.Specialist-confirmed diagnosis of ASDs.At the end of follow-up, 270 children in the study sample had been diagnosed with ASDs: 114 with autistic disorder, 56 with Asperger syndrome, and 100 with PDD-NOS. In children whose mothers took folic acid, 0.10% (64/61,042) had autistic disorder, compared with 0.21% (50/24,134) in those unexposed to folic acid. The adjusted OR for autistic disorder in children of folic acid users was 0.61 (95% CI, 0.41-0.90). No association was found with Asperger syndrome or PDD-NOS, but power was limited. Similar analyses for prenatal fish oil supplements showed no such association with autistic disorder, even though fish oil use was associated with the same maternal characteristics as folic acid use.Use of prenatal folic acid supplements around the time of conception was associated with a lower risk of autistic disorder in the MoBa cohort. Although these findings cannot establish causality, they do support prenatal folic acid supplementation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Parental age has been associated with several childhood cancers, albeit the evidence is still inconsistent. AIM:To examine the associations of parental age at birth with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) among children aged 0-14?years using individual-level data from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC) and non-CLIC studies. MATERIAL/METHODS:We analyzed data of 3182 incident AML cases and 8377 controls from 17 studies [seven registry-based case-control (RCC) studies and ten questionnaire-based case-control (QCC) studies]. AML risk in association with parental age was calculated using multiple logistic regression, meta-analyses, and pooled-effect estimates. Models were stratified by age at diagnosis (infants <1?year-old vs. children 1-14?years-old) and by study design, using five-year parental age increments and controlling for sex, ethnicity, birthweight, prematurity, multiple gestation, birth order, maternal smoking and education, age at diagnosis (cases aged 1-14?years), and recruitment time period. RESULTS:Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) derived from RCC, but not from the QCC, studies showed a higher AML risk for infants of mothers ?40-year-old (OR?=?6.87; 95% CI: 2.12-22.25). There were no associations observed between any other maternal or paternal age group and AML risk for children older than one year. CONCLUSIONS:An increased risk of infant AML with advanced maternal age was found using data from RCC, but not from QCC studies; no parental age-AML associations were observed for older children.
Project description:Some previous studies have suggested that home pesticide exposure before birth and during a child's early years may increase the risk of childhood leukemia. To further investigate this, we pooled individual level data from 12 case-control studies in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Exposure data were harmonized into compatible formats. Pooled analyses were undertaken using multivariable unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (ORs) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) associated with any pesticide exposure shortly before conception, during pregnancy and after birth were 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25, 1.55) (using 2,785 cases and 3,635 controls), 1.43 (95% CI: 1.32, 1.54) (5,055 cases and 7,370 controls) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.23, 1.51) (4,162 cases and 5,179 controls), respectively. Corresponding ORs for risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were 1.49 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.16) (173 cases and 1,789 controls), 1.55 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.99) (344 cases and 4,666 controls) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.53) (198 cases and 2,655 controls), respectively. There was little difference by type of pesticide used. The relative similarity in ORs between leukemia types, time periods and pesticide types may be explained by similar exposure patterns and effects across the time periods in ALL and AML, participants' exposure to multiple pesticides, or recall bias. Although some recall bias is likely, until a better study design can be found to investigate the associations between home pesticide use and childhood leukemia in an equally large sample, it would appear prudent to limit the use of home pesticides before and during pregnancy, and during childhood.
Project description:This article reviews the current literature addressing the treatment of schizophrenia with vitamin supplementation. It describes the important roles that vitamins play in normal metabolism, and reviews the evidence pertaining to vitamin deficiency and supplementation in patients with schizophrenia. There is mounting evidence suggesting that vitamin supplementation, in particular with folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin D, may be important in treatment within certain subgroups of patients. There is a need for larger randomized controlled trials, and further studies examining the incidence of schizophrenia in countries with poor prenatal care and malnutrition, as well as in countries that have adopted mandatory folic acid fortification of grain products, are recommended.
Project description:Data on parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood leukemia lack specificity. Using 19 task-based job modules, we examined the relationship between occupational exposure to organic solvents and other compounds and the risk of leukemia in children.Latino (48%) and non-Latino (52%) children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; n=670), acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n=104), and controls (n=1021) were enrolled in a study in California (2000-2008). Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for socio-demographic factors.Among children with non-Latino fathers, none of the exposures evaluated were associated with risks of ALL and AML. In contrast, exposure to any organic solvents in Latino fathers was associated with an increased risk of childhood ALL (OR=1.48; 95% CI: 1.01-2.16); in multivariable analyses, the OR for chlorinated hydrocarbons was 2.28 (95% CI: 0.97-5.37) while the ORs were close to one for aromatic hydrocarbons, glycol ethers, and other hydrocarbon mixtures. We also observed an increased risk of ALL with exposure to combustion exhaust/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (ORs=1.70; 95% CI: 1.16-2.57, and 1.46; 95% CI: 0.94-2.26 with and without adjustment for chlorinated hydrocarbons, respectively). Moderately elevated risks of ALL were seen with exposure to metals, paints, and wood dust, although not statistically significant. An increased risk was reported for asbestos based on small numbers of exposed Latino fathers. No associations were reported between maternal exposures to any exposures and childhood ALL and AML.Our data support associations between paternal occupational exposures to chlorinated hydrocarbons, combustion exhaust, metals, and possibly asbestos and the risk of ALL in the children of Latino fathers only.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pregnancy is a critical period for both woman and baby from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional education is considered an important tool for promoting a healthy lifestyle, but has not been studied as a determinant for maternal use of supplements during pregnancy, especially in Romania, where evidence about pregnancy and nutrition is scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional knowledge and the use of folic acid, iron and multivitamin supplements during pregnancy and to assess the influence of socio-demographic factors and prenatal care.<h4>Methods</h4>We conducted a cross-sectional study on a sample of 400 pregnant women admitted to the Cuza-Vod? Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinical Hospital in Ia?i, Romania, during August-September 2010. We collected self-reported data regarding socio-demographic characteristics, number of prenatal check-ups and the use of folic acid, iron and multivitamin supplements during pregnancy. We assessed nutritional knowledge using a standardized questionnaire divided into three sections: general nutritional recommendations for pregnant women; the roles of nutrients; and sources of nutrients. We used logistic regression to analyse the associations between these factors.<h4>Results</h4>The prevalence of the use of supplements during pregnancy was 48% for folic acid, 45.3% for iron and 68% for multivitamins. Above-average nutritional knowledge was independently associated with the use of folic acid (aOR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.6-13.8), iron (aOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-5.7) and multivitamins (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.2-6.8). The use of folic acid was independently associated with a higher level of formal education (aOR, 5.2; 95% CI, 2.1-12.8) and an early start in prenatal care (aOR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.0-11.1). Women with a higher education (aOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.9), more than 10 prenatal visits (aOR, 7.2; 95% CI, 3.4-15.0) and those who received advice on breastfeeding (aOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5) were more likely to use iron during pregnancy. Similar results were found when analysing the contributing factors for the use of multivitamins: more than 12 years of schooling (aOR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.4-7.9) and appropriate prenatal care (aOR, 9.4; 95% CI, 4.5-19.5).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Level of nutritional knowledge has a strong independent association with the use of supplements during pregnancy.
Project description:Supplementation with B vitamins for stroke prevention has been evaluated over the years, but which combination of B vitamins is optimal for stroke prevention is unclear. We performed a network meta-analysis to assess the impact of different combinations of B vitamins on risk of stroke.A total of 17 trials (86 393 patients) comparing 7 treatment strategies and placebo were included. A network meta-analysis combined all available direct and indirect treatment comparisons to evaluate the efficacy of B vitamin supplementation for all interventions.B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke and cerebral hemorrhage. The risk of stroke was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 as compared with folic acid plus vitamin B12 and was lower with folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 as compared with placebo or folic acid plus vitamin B12. The treatments ranked in order of efficacy for stroke, from higher to lower, were folic acid plus vitamin B6 > folic acid > folic acid plus vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > vitamin B6 plus vitamin B12 > niacin > vitamin B6 > placebo > folic acid plus vitamin B12.B vitamin supplementation was associated with reduced risk of stroke; different B vitamins and their combined treatments had different efficacy on stroke prevention. Folic acid plus vitamin B6 might be the optimal therapy for stroke prevention. Folic acid and vitamin B6 were both valuable for stroke prevention. The efficacy of vitamin B12 remains to be studied.
Project description:This study examined potential self-selection bias in a large pregnancy cohort by comparing exposure-outcome associations from the cohort to similar associations obtained from nationwide registry data. The outcome under study was specialist-confirmed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).The cohort sample (n = 89 836) was derived from the population-based prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and its substudy of ASDs, the Autism Birth Cohort (ABC) study. The nationwide registry data were derived from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (n = 507 856). The children were born in 1999–2007, and seven prenatal and perinatal exposures were selected for analyses.ASDs were reported for 234 (0.26%) children in the cohort and 2072 (0.41%) in the nationwide population. Compared with the nationwide population, the cohort had an under-representation of the youngest women (<25 years), those who had single status, mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and non-users of prenatal folic acid supplements. The ratios of the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in the cohort over the adjusted ORs in the nationwide population were as follows; primipara pregnancy: 1.39/1.22, prenatal folic acid use: 0.85/0.86, prenatal smoking: 1.20/1.17, preterm birth (<37 weeks): 1.48/1.42, low birthweight (<2500 g): 1.60/1.58, male sex: 4.39/4.59 (unadjusted only); and caesarean section history: 1.03/1.04.Associations estimated between ASDs and perinatal and prenatal exposures in the cohort are close to those estimated in the nationwide population. Self-selection does not appear to compromise validity of exposure-outcome associations in the ABC study.
Project description:It has been suggested that parental occupational paint exposure around the time of conception or pregnancy increases the risk of childhood leukemia in the offspring.We obtained individual level data from 13 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Occupational data were harmonized to a compatible format. Meta-analyses of study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were undertaken, as well as pooled analyses of individual data using unconditional logistic regression.Using individual data from fathers of 8,185 cases and 14,210 controls, the pooled OR for paternal exposure around conception and risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was 0.93 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76, 1.14]. Analysis of data from 8,156 ALL case mothers and 14,568 control mothers produced a pooled OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.39, 1.68) for exposure during pregnancy. For acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the pooled ORs for paternal and maternal exposure were 0.96 (95% CI 0.65, 1.41) and 1.31 (95% CI 0.38, 4.47), respectively, based on data from 1,231 case and 11,392 control fathers and 1,329 case and 12,141 control mothers. Heterogeneity among the individual studies ranged from low to modest.Null findings for paternal exposure for both ALL and AML are consistent with previous reports. Despite the large sample size, results for maternal exposure to paints in pregnancy were based on small numbers of exposed. Overall, we found no evidence that parental occupational exposure to paints increases the risk of leukemia in the offspring, but further data on home exposure are needed.