Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia on Sleep-Related Cognitions Among Patients With Stable Heart Failure.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND:Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) improves insomnia and fatigue among chronic heart failure (HF) patients, but the extent to which sleep-related cognitions explain CBT-I outcomes in these patients is unknown. We examined the effects of CBT-I on sleep-related cognitions, associations between changes in sleep-related cognitions and changes in sleep and symptoms after CBT-I, and the extent to which cognitions mediated the effects of CBT-I. PARTICIPANTS:Stable New York Heart Association Class II-III HF patients (total n = 51; n = 26 or 51.0% women; M age = 59.1 ± 15.1 years). METHODS:HF patients were randomized in groups to group CBT-I (n = 30) or attention control (HF self-management education, n = 21) and completed actigraphy, the Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep (DBAS) and Sleep Disturbance Questionnaires (SDQ), and self-reported fatigue, depression, anxiety, and sleepiness (baseline, immediately after treatment, six months). We used mixed-effects modeling, mediation analysis with a bootstrapping approach, and Pearson correlations. RESULTS:There was a statistically significant group × mult time effect on DBAS. DBAS mediated the effects of CBT-I on insomnia severity and partially mediated CBT-I effects on fatigue. Improvements in dysfunctional cognitions were associated with improved sleep quality, insomnia severity, sleep latency and decreased fatigue, depression, and anxiety, with sustained effects at six months. CONCLUSIONS:Improvement in dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions is an important mechanism for CBT-I effects among HF patients who are especially vulnerable to poor sleep and high symptom burden.
Project description:Background: Insomnia is common among patients with stable heart failure (HF) and associated with inflammation and altered autonomic function. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) on the Hypothalamic Pituitary (HPA) Axis, autonomic function, inflammation, and circadian rhythmicity and the associations between these biomarkers and insomnia, sleep characteristics, symptoms, functional performance, and sleep-related cognitions. Methods: We conducted a subanalysis of a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT, NCT02827799) whose primary aim was to test the effects of CBT-I on insomnia. We randomized 51 patients with stable Class II-IV HF to CBT-I (n = 30) or attention control (n = 21). Participants completed wrist actigraphy and self-reported insomnia severity, sleep characteristics, sleep-related cognitions, daytime symptoms, and functional performance. We measured day and nighttime urinary free cortisol, melatonin sulfate, epinephrine, and norepinephrine at baseline, and two weeks after CBT-I and computed general linear models and partial correlations. Results: CBT-I had no effects on the biomarkers, but there were statistically significant negative cross-sectional correlations between the ratio of day and night urinary free cortisol and sleep disturbance, anxiety, fatigue, depression, and negative sleep cognitions. Increases in the ratio between day and night cortisol were associated with statistically significant improvements in fatigue, depression, sleep duration, and sleep-related cognitions. Conclusions: Biomarkers of stress and autonomic function are associated with sleep, sleep-related symptoms, and cognitions among people with chronic HF. Future studies are needed to identify potential causal relationships and the impact of sleep interventions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Insomnia is highly prevalent in individuals recovering from alcohol dependence (AD) and increases their risk of relapse. Two studies evaluating cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) have demonstrated its efficacy in non-Veterans recovering from AD. The aim of this study was to extend these findings in an 8-week trial of CBT-I in Veterans. METHODS:Veterans recovering from AD were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of treatment with CBT-I (N = 11) or a Monitor-Only (MO; N = 11) condition and were evaluated 3 (N = 21/22) and 6 months posttreatment (N = 18/22). The primary outcome measure was the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) score. Secondary outcome measures were sleep diary measures, percent days abstinent (PDA), and scores on the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes About Sleep Scale (DBAS), Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI), Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS), Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (QIDS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait (STAI-T) scale, and Short Form 12-item (SF-12). Mixed-effects regression models, adjusted for race, evaluated differences in outcomes between the groups over a 6-month period (clinicaltrials.gov identifier = NCT01603381). RESULTS:Subjects were male, aged 54.5 (SD = 6.9) years, and had 26.4 (SD = 26.3) days of abstinence before their baseline evaluation. CBT-I produced a significantly greater improvement in model-based estimates than MO (mean change at 6 months compared to their baseline) for ISI, sleep latency from a daily sleep diary, DBAS mean score, and SHI total score. PDA and QIDS improved over time, but there was no difference between the groups. PACS, STAI-T, or SF-12 scale did not show any improvement from their baseline scores. CONCLUSIONS:CBT-I treatment demonstrated substantial efficacy in reducing insomnia, associated negative cognitions, and improving sleep hygiene in Veterans during early recovery, though it did not reduce drinking behavior.
Project description:Objective. The most effective nonpharmacological treatment for insomnia disorder is cognitive behavioural therapy-insomnia (CBT-i). However CBT-i may not suit everyone. Auricular acupuncture (AA) is a complementary treatment. Studies show that it may alleviate insomnia symptoms. The aim of this randomised controlled study was to compare treatment effects of AA with CBT-i and evaluate symptoms of insomnia severity, anxiety, and depression. Method. Fifty-nine participants, mean age 60.5 years (SD 9.4), with insomnia disorder were randomised to group treatment with AA or CBT-i. Self-report questionnaires, the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale (DBAS-16), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD), were collected at baseline, after treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. A series of linear mixed models were performed to examine treatment effect over time between and within the groups. Results. Significant between-group improvements were seen in favour of CBT-i in ISI after treatment and at the 6-month follow-up and in DBAS-16 after treatment. Both groups showed significant within-group postintervention improvements in ISI, and these changes were maintained six months later. The CBT-i group also showed a significant reduction in DBAS-16 after treatment and six months later. Conclusions. Compared to CBT-i, AA, as offered in this study, cannot be considered an effective stand-alone treatment for insomnia disorder. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01765959.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to investigate in a randomized clinical trial the role of sleep-related cognitive variables in the long-term efficacy of an online, fully automated cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for insomnia (CBT-I) (Sleep Healthy Using the Internet [SHUTi]). METHOD:Three hundred and three participants (Mage = 43.3 years; SD = 11.6) were randomly assigned to SHUTi or an online patient education condition and assessed at baseline, postintervention (nine weeks after baseline), and six and 12 months after the intervention period. Cognitive variables were self-reported internal and chance sleep locus of control, dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep (DBAS), sleep specific self-efficacy, and insomnia knowledge. Primary outcomes were self-reported online ratings of insomnia severity (Insomnia Severity Index), and sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from online sleep diaries, collected 12 months after the intervention period. RESULTS:Those who received SHUTi had, at postassessment, higher levels of insomnia knowledge (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.10-0.16) and internal sleep locus of control (95% CI = 0.04-0.55) as well as lower DBAS (95% CI = 1.52-2.39) and sleep locus of control attributed to chance (95% CI = 0.15-0.71). Insomnia knowledge, chance sleep locus of control, and DBAS mediated the relationship between condition and at least one 12-month postassessment sleep outcome. Within the SHUTi condition, changes in each cognitive variable (with the exception of internal sleep locus of control) predicted improvement in at least one sleep outcome one year later. CONCLUSION:Online CBT-I may reduce the enormous public health burden of insomnia by changing underlying cognitive variables that lead to long-term changes in sleep outcomes.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVES:To examine the effects of cognitive behavioral treatments for insomnia (CBT-I) and pain (CBT-P) in patients with comorbid fibromyalgia and insomnia. METHODS:One hundred thirteen patients (Mage = 53, SD = 10.9) were randomized to eight sessions of CBT-I (n = 39), CBT-P (n = 37), or a waitlist control (WLC, n = 37). Primary (self-reported sleep onset latency [SOL], wake after sleep onset [WASO], sleep efficiency [SE], sleep quality [SQ], and pain ratings) and secondary outcomes (dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep [DBAS]; actigraphy and polysomnography SOL, WASO, and SE; McGill Pain Questionnaire; Pain Disability Index; depression; and anxiety) were examined at posttreatment and 6 months. RESULTS:Mixed effects analyses revealed that both treatments improved self-reported WASO, SE, and SQ relative to control at posttreatment and follow-up, with generally larger effect sizes for CBT-I. DBAS improved in CBT-I only. Pain and mood improvements did not differ by group. Clinical significance analyses revealed the proportion of participants no longer reporting difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep was higher for CBT-I posttreatment and for both treatments at 6 months relative to control. Few participants achieved >50% pain reductions. Proportion achieving pain reductions of >30% (~1/3) was higher for both treatments posttreatment and for CBT-I at 6 months relative to control. CONCLUSIONS:CBT-I and CBT-P improved self-reported insomnia symptoms. CBT-I prompted improvements of larger magnitude that were maintained. Neither treatment improved pain or mood. However, both prompted clinically meaningful, immediate pain reductions in one third of patients. Improvements persisted for CBT-I, suggesting that CBT-I may provide better long-term pain reduction than CBT-P. Research identifying which patients benefit and mechanisms driving intervention effects is needed. CLINICAL TRIAL:Sleep and Pain Interventions in Fibromyalgia (SPIN), clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02001077.
Project description:Chronic insomnia is associated with disabling symptoms and decrements in functional performance. It may contribute to the development of heart failure (HF) and incident mortality. In our previous work, cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), compared to HF self-management education, provided as an attention control condition, was feasible, acceptable, and had large effects on insomnia and fatigue among HF patients.The purpose of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to evaluate the sustained effects of group CBT-I compared with HF self-management education (attention control) on insomnia severity, sleep characteristics, daytime symptoms, symptom clusters, functional performance, and health care utilization among patients with stable HF. We will estimate the cost-effectiveness of CBT-I and explore the effects of CBT-I on event-free survival (EFS).Two hundred participants will be randomized in clusters to a single center parallel group (CBT-I vs. attention control) RCT. Wrist actigraphy and self-report will elicit insomnia, sleep characteristics, symptoms, and functional performance. We will use the psychomotor vigilance test to evaluate sleep loss effects and the Six Minute Walk Test to evaluate effects on daytime function. Medical record review and interviews will elicit health care utilization and EFS. Statistical methods will include general linear mixed models and latent transition analysis. Stochastic cost-effectiveness analysis with a competing risk approach will be employed to conduct the cost-effectiveness analysis.The results will be generalizable to HF patients with chronic comorbid insomnia and pave the way for future research focused on the dissemination and translation of CBT-I into HF settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Insomnia is effectively treated with online Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I). Previous research has suggested the effects might not be limited to sleep and insomnia severity, but also apply to depressive symptoms. Results, however, are mixed. METHODS:In this randomized controlled trial we investigated the effects of guided online CBT-I on depression and insomnia in people suffering from symptoms of both. Participants (n = 104) with clinical insomnia and at least subclinical depression levels were randomized to (1) guided online CBT-I and sleep diary monitoring (i-Sleep) or (2) control group (sleep diary monitoring only). The primary outcome was the severity of depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 without sleep item; PHQ-WS). Secondary outcomes were insomnia severity, sleep diary parameters, fatigue, daytime consequences of insomnia, anxiety, and perseverative thinking. RESULTS:At post-test, participants in the i-Sleep condition reported significantly less depressive symptoms (PHQ-WS) compared with participants in the sleep-diary condition (d = 0.76). Large significant effects were also observed for insomnia severity (d = 2.36), most sleep diary parameters, daytime consequences of insomnia, anxiety, and perseverative thinking. Effects were maintained at 3 and 6 month follow-up. We did not find significant post-test effects on fatigue or total sleep time. CONCLUSIONS:Findings indicate that guided online CBT-I is not only effective for insomnia complaints but also for depressive symptoms. The effects are large and comparable with those of depression therapy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NTR6049 (Netherlands Trial Register).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>At least 40% of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience chronic insomnia. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is an effective treatment for insomnia symptoms in individuals with MS. Delivery of CBT-I using Web-based applications has been shown to be effective and may increase access to CBT-I for individuals with MS who have mobility difficulties, experience fatigue, or live in rural areas. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and treatment effect of CBT-I delivered using a Web-based application with or without biweekly telephone calls to improve sleep quality and fatigue in individuals with MS and symptoms of insomnia.<h4>Methods</h4>Forty-one individuals with MS and symptoms of insomnia were randomized into either a group that participated in a 6-week Web-based CBT-I program (wCBT-I) or a group that participated in a 6-week Web-based CBT-I program and received biweekly support telephone calls (wCBT-I + calls). Participants completed surveys online to assess insomnia severity, sleep quality, fatigue, sleep self-efficacy, depression, anxiety, and motivation to change their sleep behavior.<h4>Results</h4>The overall retention rate was 48.8%, and the adherence rate was 96.34%. Both groups had significant improvement in insomnia severity, sleep quality, sleep self-efficacy, and anxiety. Only the wCBT-I group had significant improvement in depression and fatigue.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Web-delivered CBT-I is feasible and effective in improving sleep outcomes and concomitant symptoms in individuals with MS. Web-based CBT-I may increase access to CBT-I treatment and provide a stepped-care approach to treating chronic insomnia in individuals with MS.
Project description:Many people with COPD report difficulties falling asleep or staying asleep, insufficient sleep duration, or nonrestorative sleep. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) has proved effective not only in people with primary insomnia but also in people with insomnia comorbid with psychiatric and medical illness (eg, depression, cancer, and chronic pain). However, CBT-I has rarely been tested in those with COPD who have disease-related features that interfere with sleep and may lessen the effectiveness of such therapies. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of applying a CBT-I intervention for people with COPD and to assess the impact of CBT-I on insomnia severity and sleep-related outcomes, fatigue, mood, and daytime functioning.The study had two phases. In Phase 1, a 6-weekly session CBT-I intervention protocol in participants with COPD was assessed to examine feasibility and acceptability. Phase 2 was a small trial utilizing a prospective two-group pre- and post-test design with random assignment to the six-session CBT-I or a six-session wellness education (WE) program to determine the effects of each intervention, with both interventions being provided by a nurse behavioral sleep medicine specialist.Fourteen participants (five in Phase 1 and nine in Phase 2) completed six sessions of CBT-I and nine participants completed six sessions of WE. Participants indicated that both interventions were acceptable. Significant positive treatment-related effects of the CBT-I intervention were noted for insomnia severity (P = 0.000), global sleep quality (P = 0.002), wake after sleep onset (P = 0.03), sleep efficiency (P = 0.02), fatigue (P = 0.005), and beliefs and attitudes about sleep (P = 0.000). Significant positive effects were noted for depressed mood after WE (P = 0.005).Results suggest that using CBT-I in COPD is feasible and the outcomes compare favorably with those obtained in older adults with insomnia in the context of other chronic illnesses.
Project description:To assess the short-term efficacy of a video-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) as compared to a professionally administered CBT-I and to a no-treatment group.Randomized controlled trial.Radio-oncology department of a public hospital affiliated with Université Laval (CHU de Québec).Two hundred forty-two women with breast cancer who had received radiation therapy in the past 18 mo and who had insomnia symptoms or were using hypnotic medications were randomized to: (1) professionally administered CBT-I (PCBT-I; n = 81); (2) video-based CBT-I (VCBT-I; n = 80); and (3) no treatment (CTL; n = 81).PCBT-I composed of six weekly, individual sessions of approximately 50 min; VCBT-I composed of a 60-min animated video + six booklets.Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) total score and sleep parameters derived from a daily sleep diary and actigraphy, collected at pretreatment and posttreatment. PCBT-I and VCBT-I were associated with significantly greater sleep improvements, assessed subjectively, as compared to CTL. However, relative to VCBT-I, PCBT-I was associated with significantly greater improvements of insomnia severity, early morning awakenings, depression, fatigue, and dysfunctional beliefs about sleep. The remission rates of insomnia (ISI < 8) were significantly greater in PCBT-I as compared to VCBT-I (71.3% versus 44.3%, P < 0.005).A self-administered cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) using a video format appears to be a valuable treatment option, but face-to-face sessions remain the optimal format for administering CBT-I efficaciously in patients with breast cancer. Self-help interventions for insomnia may constitute an appropriate entry level as part of a stepped care model.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00674830.Savard J, Ivers H, Savard MH, Morin CM. Is a video-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia as efficacious as a professionally administered treatment in breast cancer? Results of a randomized controlled trial.