ABSTRACT: A physical explanation for quantum bounds to nonlocality (Tsirelson's bound) is a fundamental problem in quantum theory, for it is known that no-signaling alone fails to reproduce this limit. Here, information indistinguishability is presented as the indistinguishability of qubits or more general bits, and it suggests an answer to the nonlocality conundrum, ultimately placing it as the origin to quantum limits. Indistinguishability is also connected to exclusivity principle, and it is shown that indistinguishability leads to quantum correlation bounds. This suggests indistinguishability be as fundamental as non-locality and relativistic causality for nonlocal realism.
Project description:Quantum theory has nonlocal correlations, which bothered Einstein, but found to satisfy relativistic causality. Correlation for a shared quantum state manifests itself, in the standard quantum framework, by joint probability distributions that can be obtained by applying state reduction and probability assignment that is called Born rule. Quantum correlations, which show nonlocality when the shared state has an entanglement, can be changed if we apply different probability assignment rule. As a result, the amount of nonlocality in quantum correlation will be changed. The issue is whether the change of the rule of quantum probability assignment breaks relativistic causality. We have shown that Born rule on quantum measurement is derived by requiring relativistic causality condition. This shows how the relativistic causality limits the upper bound of quantum nonlocality through quantum probability assignment.
Project description:Recently quantum nonlocality has been classified into three distinct types: quantum entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, and Bell's nonlocality. Among which, Bell's nonlocality is the strongest type. Bell's nonlocality for quantum states is usually detected by violation of some Bell's inequalities, such as Clause-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two qubits. Steering is a manifestation of nonlocality intermediate between entanglement and Bell's nonlocality. This peculiar feature has led to a curious quantum phenomenon, the one-way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering. The one-way steering was an important open question presented in 2007, and positively answered in 2014 by Bowles et al., who presented a simple class of one-way steerable states in a two-qubit system with at least thirteen projective measurements. The inspiring result for the first time theoretically confirms quantum nonlocality can be fundamentally asymmetric. Here, we propose another curious quantum phenomenon: Bell nonlocal states can be constructed from some steerable states. This novel finding not only offers a distinctive way to study Bell's nonlocality without Bell's inequality but with steering inequality, but also may avoid locality loophole in Bell's tests and make Bell's nonlocality easier for demonstration. Furthermore, a nine-setting steering inequality has also been presented for developing more efficient one-way steering and detecting some Bell nonlocal states.
Project description:Structured plasmonic metals are widely employed for achieving nonlinear functionalities at the nanoscale due to their ability to confine and enhance electromagnetic fields and strong, inherent nonlinearity. Optical nonlinearities in centrosymmetric metals are dominated by conduction electron dynamics, which at the nanoscale can be significantly affected by the nonlocal effects. Here we show that nonlocal corrections, being usually small in the linear optical response, define nonlinear properties of plasmonic nanostructures. Using a full non-perturbative time-domain hydrodynamic description of electron plasma under femtosecond excitation, we numerically investigate harmonic generation in metallic Archimedean nanospirals, revealing the interplay between geometric and nonlocal effects. The quantum pressure term in the nonlinear hydrodynamic model results in the emergence of fractional nonlinear harmonics leading to broadband coherent white-light generation. The described effects present a novel class of nonlinear phenomena in metallic nanostructures determined by nonlocality of the electron response.
Project description:Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young's double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is well known that loss of dynamical nonlocality can occur due to (partial) collapse of the wavefunction due to a measurement, such as which-path detection. However, alternative mechanisms affecting dynamical nonlocality have hardly been considered, although of crucial importance in many schemes for quantum information processing. Here, we present a fundamentally different pathway of losing dynamical nonlocality, demonstrating that the detailed geometry of the detection scheme is crucial to preserve nonlocality. By means of a solid-state quantum-interference experiment we quantify this effect in a diffusive system. We show that interference is not only affected by decoherence, but also by a loss of dynamical nonlocality based on a local reduction of the number of quantum conduction channels of the interferometer. With our measurements and theoretical model we demonstrate that this mechanism is an intrinsic property of quantum dynamics. Understanding the geometrical constraints protecting nonlocality is crucial when designing quantum networks for quantum information processing.
Project description:We study the local indistinguishability problem of quantum states. By introducing an easily calculated quantity, non-commutativity, we present an criterion which is both necessary and sufficient for the local indistinguishability of a complete set of pure orthogonal product states. A constructive distinguishing procedure to obtain the concrete local measurements and classical communications is given. The non-commutativity of ensembles can be also used to characterize the quantumness for classical-quantum or quantum-classical correlated states.
Project description:The possibility of Bell inequality violations in quantum theory had a profound impact on our understanding of the correlations that can be shared by distant parties. Generalizing the concept of Bell nonlocality to networks leads to novel forms of correlations, the characterization of which is, however, challenging. Here, we investigate constraints on correlations in networks under the natural assumptions of no-signaling and independence of the sources. We consider the triangle network with binary outputs, and derive strong constraints on correlations even though the parties receive no input, i.e., each party performs a fixed measurement. We show that some of these constraints are tight, by constructing explicit local models (i.e. where sources distribute classical variables) that can saturate them. However, we also observe that other constraints can apparently not be saturated by local models, which opens the possibility of having nonlocal (but non-signaling) correlations in the triangle network with binary outputs.
Project description:Calculated using classical electromagnetism, the van der Waals force increases without limit as two surfaces approach. In reality, the force saturates because the electrons cannot respond to fields of very short wavelength: polarization charges are always smeared out to some degree and in consequence the response is nonlocal. Nonlocality also plays an important role in the optical spectrum and distribution of the modes but introduces complexity into calculations, hindering an analytical solution for interactions at the nanometer scale. Here, taking as an example the case of two touching nanospheres, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that nonlocality in 3D plasmonic systems can be accurately analyzed using the transformation optics approach. The effects of nonlocality are found to dramatically weaken the field enhancement between the spheres and hence the van der Waals interaction and to modify the spectral shifts of plasmon modes.
Project description:We study the nonlocality of arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum states. By computing the maximal violation of a set of multi-setting Bell inequalities, an analytical and computable lower bound has been derived for general two-qubit states. This bound gives the necessary condition that a two-qubit state admits no local hidden variable models. The lower bound is shown to be better than that from the CHSH inequality in judging the nonlocality of some quantum states. The results are generalized to the case of high dimensional quantum states, and a sufficient condition for detecting the non-locality has been presented.
Project description:The key feature in correlations established by multi-party quantum entangled states is nonlocality. A quantity to measure the average nonlocality, distinguishing it from shared randomness and in a direct relation with no-signaling stochastic processes (which provide an operational interpretation of quantum correlations, without involving information transmission between the parties as to sustain causality), is proposed and resolved exhaustively for the quantum correlations established by a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt setup (or CHSH box). The amount of nonlocality that is available in a CHSH box is measured by its proximity to the nearest Popescu-Rohrlich set of causal stochastic processes (aka a PR box) in the no-signaling polytope, related by polyhedral duality to Bell's correlation function. The proposed amount of average nonlocality is an entanglement monotone with a simple relation to concurrence. We provide the optimal setup vectors of a maximally nonlocal CHSH box for any entangled pair. The strongest nonlocality is the fraction [Formula: see text] of a PR box, attained by maximally entangled qubit pairs. The most economical causal stochastic process reproducing any maximally nonlocal CHSH box is developed. Data produced by a computer implementation of the simulator agrees with the quantum mechanical formulas.
Project description:Photonic quantum technologies call for scalable quantum light sources that can be integrated, while providing the end user with single and entangled photons on demand. One promising candidate is strain free GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots obtained by aluminum droplet etching. Such quantum dots exhibit ultra low multi-photon probability and an unprecedented degree of photon pair entanglement. However, different to commonly studied InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots obtained by the Stranski-Krastanow mode, photons with a near-unity indistinguishability from these quantum emitters have proven to be elusive so far. Here, we show on-demand generation of near-unity indistinguishable photons from these quantum emitters by exploring pulsed resonance fluorescence. Given the short intrinsic lifetime of excitons and trions confined in the GaAs quantum dots, we show single photon indistinguishability with a raw visibility of [Formula: see text], without the need for Purcell enhancement. Our results represent a milestone in the advance of GaAs quantum dots by demonstrating the final missing property standing in the way of using these emitters as a key component in quantum communication applications, e.g., as quantum light sources for quantum repeater architectures.