The genus Parasola in Pakistan with the description of two new species.
ABSTRACT: Parasola is a genus of small, veil-less coprinoid mushrooms in the family Psathyrellaceae (Agaricales). The genus is not well documented in Asia, specifically in Pakistan. In this study we describe two new species Parasola glabra and P. pseudolactea from Pakistan, based on morphological and molecular data. Phylogeny based on three DNA regions: nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 along with the 5.8S rDNA (ITS), nuc 28S rDNA D1-D2 domains (28S) and translation elongation factor 1? gene (TEF1?) show that the new taxa are clustered in a clade formed by the members of section Parasola of genus Parasola. Parasola glabra with grayish pileus, slightly depressed pileal disc, lamellae separated from the stipe by pseudocollarium, basidiospores 14.5-16.5 × 9.5-11.5 × 8.0-10.5 µm, in front view broadly ovoid to oblong, some with rhomboidal outline, in side view ellipsoid, with eccentric germ-pore of 1.5 µm diameter. Parasola pseudolactea with yellowish brown to dull brown pileus, disc indistinctly umbonate, lamellae free, pseudocollarium absent, basidiospores 13.5-14.5 × 10.5-12.0 × 9.5-10.5 µm, in face view rounded triangular to heart shaped, rarely ovoid to subglobose, in side view ellipsoid to oblong, with eccentric germ-pore of 1.5 µm diam. In addition to these new species, P. auricoma and P. lilatincta were also studied. Morphological descriptions for the new species and comparison with known Parasola species are provided. Our observations highlight the diversity of Parasola in northern Pakistan and further document the need for additional systematic focus on the region's fungi.
Project description:The genus Hygrophorus is poorly studied from Asia. From Pakistan, only one species has been reported so far. Two new species in the genus have been collected from Himalayan oak forests of Pakistan. Hygrophorusalboflavescens (section Pudorini, subgenus Colorati) is characterised by its pure white, centrally depressed pileus, occurrence of white stipe with yellow patches at lower half and broader (4.98 ?m) basidiospores. Hygrophorusscabrellus (section Hygrophorus, subgenus Hygrophorus) is characterised by its yellowish-green stipe with white apex that has fine scales on the entire stipe, an off-white pileus with dark green and greyish fibrils, ovoid to ellipsoid basidiospores and clavate 4-spored basidia. Macro- and micromorphological descriptions have revealed that both these taxa are not yet described. Phylogenetic estimation based on DNA sequences from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and large subunit (LSU) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes, is congruent with the morphological characters that help to delimit these as new species of Hygrophorus. Allied taxa are also compared.
Project description:Blackening waxcaps (Hygrocybe subsect. Hygrocybe) are a group of colorful and attractive mushrooms. However, the species diversity of subsect. Hygrocybe in China is still poorly known due to the limited sampling. In this study, three new species of this group from Guangdong Province, China are described and illustrated based on their morphological characteristics and molecular analyses of the internal transcribed spacer and large subunit ribosomal DNA regions. <i>Hygrocybe debilipes</i> from grasslands of South China Sea islands is mainly characterized by its orange red to vivid red pileus, fragile stipe, and ellipsoid to oblong basidiospores; <i>H. griseonigricans</i> from woodlands is characterized by its whitish to dull yellow pileus, quick black discoloration and the globose, subglobose to broadly ovoid basidiospores; <i>H. rubroconica</i> from woodlands is characterized by the hemispheric to plano-convex pileus when mature, semitranslucent fibrose stipe, and globose to ellipsoid basidiospores.
Project description:Four species of Haploporus, H.angustisporus, H.crassus, H.gilbertsonii and H.microsporus are described as new and H.pirongia is proposed as a new combination, based on morphological characteristics and molecular phylogenetic analyses inferred from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (nLSU) sequences. Haploporusangustisporus, H.crassus and H.microsporus occur in China, H.gilbertsonii occurs in the USA, and the distribution of H.pirongia is extended from New Zealand to Australia. Haploporusangustisporus is characterized by the distinct narrow oblong basidiospores measuring 10.5-13.5 × 3.9-5 µm. Haploporuscrassus is characterized by the presence of ventricose cystidioles occasionally with a simple septum, dissepimental hyphae usually with a simple septum, unique thick-walled basidia and distinctly wide oblong basidiospores measuring 13.5-16.5 × 7.5-9.5 µm. Haploporusgilbertsonii is characterized by its large pores (2-3 per mm), a dimitic hyphal structure with non-dextrinoid skeletal hyphae and wide oblong basidiospores measuring 12-15 × 6-8 µm. Haploporusmicrosporus is characterized by distinctly small pores (7-9 per mm), the presence of dendrohyphidia, and distinctly small ellipsoid basidiospores measuring 5.3-6.7 × 3-4.1 µm. Haploporuspirongia is proposed as a new combination. Haploporusamarus is shown to be a synonym of H.odorus and Pachykytosporawasseri is considered a synonym of H.subtrameteus.
Project description:A new species, Descolea quercina, is described and illustrated from Northern parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It is characterized by medium to large basidiomata, squamose to squamose-granulose hygrophanous pileus, and limoniform, verrucose basidiospores with partly concrescent verrucae. Phylogenetic analyses of nuc rDNA region encompassing the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 along with 5.8S rDNA (ITS) and nuc 28S rDNA D1-D2 domains (28S) also confirmed it as a new species. A comparison with similar taxa is provided.
Project description:Stephanosporamayana is presented as a new species from the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. This species is distinguished by the yellowish pileus, basidiospores with a small corona (4-6 × 1-2.5 µm), and variable size (8.0-17.0 × 6.0-11.0), thin pileus (21-40 µm) and the ecological association to lowland forest with Haematoxylumcampechianum, Gymnopodiumfloribundum, Coccolobadiversifolia, Metopiumbrownei and Pinuscaribaea. It differs from the American species of Stephanospora, like S.michoacanensis and S.chilensis, by its larger basidiospores. Descriptions, photographs and discussions are presented.
Project description:Mushrooms with a thin-fleshed pileus that becomes plicate on opening, deliquescent lamellae and dark brown to blackish basidiospores are commonly called coprinoid mushrooms. The genus Coprinellus is one of the important lineages of coprinoid mushroom in the family Psathyrellaceae. Species-level taxonomy in Coprinellus is based mainly on the presence or absence and the structure of veil and cystidia on the pileus, of cystidia on the lamellae and on basidiospore morphology. In this study, four new species of Coprinellus (Co.campanulatus, Co.disseminatus-similis, Co.pakistanicus and Co.tenuis) are described from Pakistan. Species descriptions are based on morphological and molecular data. Phylogenetic analyses based on nuc rDNA ITS region show that the new species Co.campanulatus and Co.disseminatus-similis are clustered in a clade including members of section Micacei; Co.tenuis falls in a clade with members of section Domestici; and Co.pakistanicus recovered in a separate clade adjacent to other recently described clades of genus Coprinellus. Morpho-anatomical descriptions of the new species and comparison with closely allied taxa are provided. With this study, the number of known species of Coprinellus in Pakistan has reached eight.
Project description:Laetiporus is a cosmopolitan genus of brown rot fungi. In this study, L.medogensis and L.xinjiangensis are described as new species from western China, based on morphological and molecular evidence. L.medogensis has only been found on gymnosperms so far and is distinguished by pinkish-buff to clay-buff pileal surface and buff-yellow pore surface, azonate to faintly zonate pileus and ellipsoid to ovoid basidiospores (5-6.2 × 4.2-5.2 μm). L.xinjiangensis is found on angiosperms and is characterised by pale-buff to clay-pink pileal surface, cream to light yellow pore surface, azonate to faintly zonate pileus, large pores (2-3 per mm) and small basidiospores (4.5-5 × 3-4.2 μm). The phylogeny of Laetiporus is reconstructed with multi-gene sequences including the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS), the large subunit (nrLSU) and small subunit (nrSSU) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene, the small subunit of the mitochondrial rRNA gene (mtSSU), the translation elongation factor 1-α gene (EF-1α) and the second subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2). The results show that L.medogensis and L.xinjiangensis formed two distinct lineages belonging to Laetiporus. Illustrated descriptions of the two new species are presented. An identification key to species of L.sulphureus complex is provided.
Project description:Three new stipitate hydnoid fungi, Sarcodon coactus, S. grosselepidotus and S. lidongensis, are described and illustrated, based on morphological characteristics and nuc ITS rDNA + nuc LSU rDNA sequence analyses and a new record, S. leucopus, from China is reported. S. coactus is characterised by ellipsoid to round basidiocarps, reddish-brown to dark brown, felted pileal surface with white and incurved margins, simple-septate and partly short-celled generative hyphae and irregular subglobose, thin-walled, brown basidiospores with tuberculate ornamentation (tuberculi up to 1 ?m long). S. grosselepidotus is characterised by infundibuliform to round, occasionally deeply fissured pileus, pale orange to dark ruby pileal surface with ascending and coarse scales, simple-septate generative hyphae and irregular ellipsoid to globose, thin-walled, brown basidiospores with tuberculate ornamentation (tuberculi up to 0.7 ?m long). S. lidongensis is characterised by plano-convex to somewhat depressed and regular orbicular pileus, light brown to dark brown pileal surface with adhering squamose and purplish-brown, incurved and occasionally incised margin, cylindrical or broadened below stipe, simple-septate generative hyphae and irregular ellipsoid to subglobose, thin-walled basidiospores with tuberculate ornamentation (tuberculi up to 1 ?m long). The absence of the clamp connection is the common morphological characteristic of these three new species; however, S. leucopus, a new record from China, has frequently clamped generative hyphae. Molecular analyses confirm the phylogenetic positions of three new and the new record species. The discriminating characters of these three new species and closely related species are discussed and a key to the species of Sarcodon from China is provided.
Project description:A new species from coniferous forests in Pakistan, Amanitaahmadii, is described on the basis of morpho-anatomy and molecular data set analyses. This species is characterized by its medium-sized to large basidiomata, grayish brown to brown pileal surface and rimose pileus margin with gray to dark brown verrucose veil remnants, a cream stipe with bulbous base having grayish brown or brown longitudinal striations above the annulus, a scaly surface towards the base, globose to broadly ellipsoid and amyloid basidiospores, and the absence of clamped septa in all tissues. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on ITS and LSU sequences confirmed its identity as a new taxon nested within subgen. Amanitinasect.Validae.
Project description:Tylopilus himalayanus and T. pseudoballoui are described as new species from two Himalayan states (Sikkim and Uttarakhand) in India. Tylopilus himalayanus is characterised by a unique combination of features: reddish- or brownish-grey to purplish-grey then brown to reddish-brown or darker pileus, absence of olive or violet tinges on stipe surface, angular pores, stipe without reticulum or rarely with a faint reticulum restricted to the very apex, bitter taste of the context and positive macrochemical colour reaction of the stipe context with KOH (dark orange) and FeSO4 (dark green), medium sized (10.9-14.4 × 3.9-4.9 µm) basidiospores and occurrence under coniferous trees; T. pseudoballoui is distinguished by orange-yellow to brown-yellow sticky pileus, pale yellow pore surface with pinkish hues that turns pale to greyish-orange on bruising; angular pores, stipe concolorous to pileus with pruinose but never reticulate surface, ixocutis pattern of pileipellis and occurrence under broadleaf trees. Another species, T. neofelleus, which was reported earlier from China and Japan, was also collected from Sikkim and reported for the first time from India. All three species are described with morphological details and two-locus based (nrLSU and nrITS) phylogenetic data.