Phylloporia lonicerae (Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota), a new species on Lonicera japonica from Japan and an identification key to worldwide species of Phylloporia.
ABSTRACT: Phylloporia, in the Hymenochaetaceae, is a polypore genus with a worldwide distribution. The new taxon Phylloporia lonicerae is introduced, which is the first Phylloporia species to originate from Japan. This species grows exclusively on living Lonicera japonica and is distinguished by annual, sessile basidiocarps that occur in clusters, pileal surface of narrow, concentrically sulcate zones, 6-8 pores per mm, duplex context separated by a black zone, dimitic hyphal system and broadly ellipsoid basidiospores, 3.2-4 × 2.3-3.1 µm. Phylogenetically, P. lonicerae is nested within the Phylloporia clade as a distinct terminal lineage with full statistical supports and sister to the clade of P. minutispora, P. cf. pulla and P. terrestris with weak supports. Besides Phylloporia bibulosa, P. chrysites and P. spathulata, P. lonicerae is the fourth species of Phylloporia recorded from Japan. An identification key to all accepted 48 species of Phylloporia is provided.
Project description:Two new wood-inhabiting fungi, <i>Mycorrhaphium subadustum</i> <b>sp. nov.</b> and <i>Trullella conifericola</i> <b>sp. nov.</b>, are proposed and described from Asia based on ITS, nrLSU and <i>tef1</i> molecular phylogeny and morphological characteristics. <i>Mycorrhaphium subadustum</i> is characterized by a stipitate basidiocarp, velutinate pileal surface concentrically zoned, hydnoid hymenophore, a dimitic hyphal system in spine trama and monomitic in context, absence of gloeocystidia, presence of cystidioles and the non-amyloid, cylindrical to ellipsoid basidiospores. <i>Trullella conifericola</i> is characterized by a laterally stipitate basidiocarp with flabelliform to semicircular pileus, hirtellous pileal surface with appressed coarse hair and concentrically zoned and sulcate, tiny pores (10-12 per mm), a dimitic hyphal system, absence of any type of cystidia, short clavate basidia and thin-walled, smooth, cylindrical to allantoid basidiospores. Phylogenetic analyses based on a three-marker dataset were performed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The two new species formed isolated lineages with full support in Steccherinaceae. The distinguishing characters of the two new species as well as allied species are discussed, and a key to species of <i>Mycorrhaphium</i> is provided.
Project description:The phylogeny and taxonomy of powdery mildews, belonging to the genus <i>Erysiphe</i>, on <i>Lonicera</i> species throughout the world are examined and discussed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that sequences retrieved from <i>Erysiphe lonicerae</i>, a widespread powdery mildew species distributed in the Northern Hemisphere on a wide range of <i>Lonicera</i> spp., constitutes a complex of two separate species, <i>viz</i>., <i>E. lonicerae</i> (<i>s. str</i>.) and <i>Erysiphe ehrenbergii comb. nov</i>. <i>Erysiphe lonicerae</i> occurs on <i>Lonicera</i> spp. belonging to <i>Lonicera</i> subgen. <i>Lonicera</i> (= subgen. <i>Caprifolium</i> and subgen. <i>Periclymenum</i>), as well as <i>L. japonica</i>. <i>Erysiphe ehrenbergii comb. nov</i>. occurs on <i>Lonicera</i> spp. of <i>Lonicera</i> subgen. <i>Chamaecerasus</i>. Phylogenetic and morphological analyses have also revealed that <i>Microsphaera caprifoliacearum</i> (≡ <i>Erysiphe caprifoliacearum</i>) should be reduced to synonymy with <i>E. lonicerae</i> (<i>s. str.</i>). Additionally, <i>Erysiphe lonicerina sp. nov</i>. on <i>Lonicera japonica</i> in Japan is described and the new name <i>Erysiphe flexibilis</i>, based on <i>Microsphaera lonicerae</i> var. <i>flexuosa</i>, is introduced. The phylogeny of <i>Erysiphe ehrenbergii</i> and <i>E. lonicerae</i> as well as other <i>Erysiphe</i> species on <i>honeysuckle</i> is discussed, and a survey of all species, including a key to the species concerned, is provided. Citation: Bradshaw M, Braun U, Götz M, Takamatsu S (2020). Taxonomy and phylogeny of the <i>Erysiphe lonicerae</i> complex (<i>Helotiales</i>, <i>Erysiphaceae</i>) on <i>Lonicera</i> spp. <i>Fungal Systematics and Evolution</i> <b>7:</b> 49-65. doi: 10.3114/fuse.2021.07.03.
Project description:Fuscoporia (Hymenochaetaceae) is characterized by annual to perennial, resupinate to pileate basidiocarps, a dimitic hyphal system, presence of hymenial setae, and hyaline, thin-walled, smooth basidiospores. Phylogenetic analyses based on the nLSU and a combined ITS, nLSU and RPB2 datasets of 18 species of Fuscoporia revealed two new lineages that are equated to two new species; Fuscoporia ramulicola sp. nov. grouped together with F. ferrea, F. punctatiformis, F. subferrea and F. yunnanensis with a strong support; Fuscoporia acutimarginata sp. nov. formed a strongly supported lineage distinct from other species. The individual morphological characters of the new species and their related species are discussed. A key to Chinese species of Fuscoporia is provided.
Project description:Two new wood-rotting fungi in the family Hymenochaetaceae, <i>Fulvifomes dracaenicola</i> <b>sp. nov.</b> and <i>Hymenochaete dracaenicola</i> <b>sp. nov.</b>, are described and illustrated from tropical China based on morphological characteristics and molecular data. It is worth to mention that both of them grow on <i>Dracaena cambodiana</i> which is a kind of angiosperm tree distributed in tropical regions. <i>F. dracaenicola</i> is characterised by perennial, pileate, triquetrous basidioma with yellowish brown fresh pores which becoming honey yellow with silk sheening upon drying, a dimitic hyphal system in trama and monomitic in context, and subglobose basidiospores measuring 4.8-5 × 4-4.1 μm. <i>H. dracaenicola</i> is characterised by annual, resupinate basidioma with a clay buff hymenophore, a dimitic hyphal system, absence of tomentum and cortex, presence of subulate setae, absence of cystidia, presence of cystidioles and simple hyphidia, and oblong ellipsoid basidiospores measuring 5.2-5.8 × 2.5-2.8 µm. The phylogenetic analyses based on ITS + nLSU rDNA sequences confirm the placement of two new species respectively in <i>Fulvifomes</i> and <i>Hymenochaete</i>. Phylogenetically closely related species to the two new species are discussed.
Project description:DNA barcoding is a novel molecular identification method that aids in identifying traditional Chinese materia medica using traditional identification techniques. However, further study is needed to assess the stability and accuracy of DNA barcoding. Flos Lonicerae Japonicae, a typical medicinal flower, is widely used in China, Korea, and other Southeast Asian countries. However, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and its closely related species have been misused and traded at varying for a wide range of prices. Therefore, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae must be accurately identified. In this study, the ITS2 and psbA-trnH regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequence assembly was performed using CodonCode Aligner V 3.5.4. The intra- versus inter-specific variations were assessed using six metrics and "barcoding gaps." Species identification was conducted using BLAST1 and neighbor-joining (NJ) trees. Results reveal that ITS2 and psbA-trnH exhibited an average intraspecific divergence of 0.001 and 0, respectively, as well as an average inter-specific divergence of 0.0331 and 0.0161. The identification efficiency of ITS2 and psbA-trnH evaluated using BLAST1 was 100%. Flos Lonicerae Japonicae was formed into one clade through the NJ trees. Therefore, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae can be stably and accurately identified through the ITS2 and psbA-trnH regions, respectively.
Project description:A new poroid wood-inhabiting fungal genus, Crassisporus gen. nov., is proposed on the basis of morphological characters and molecular evidence. The genus is characterized by an annual growth habit, effused-reflexed to pileate basidiocarps with pale yellowish brown to yellowish brown, concentrically zonate or sulcate, and velutinate pileal surface, a trimitic hyphal system with clamped generative hyphae, tissues turning to dark in KOH, oblong to broadly ellipsoid, hyaline, smooth, and slightly thick-walled basidiospores. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS+nLSU sequences indicate that Crassisporus belongs to the core polyporoid clade. The combined ITS+nLSU+mtSSU+EF1-?+RPB2 sequences dataset of representative taxa in the Polyporaceae demonstrate that Crassisporus is grouped with Haploporus but forms a monophyletic lineage. In addition, four new species of Crassisporus, C. imbricatus, C. leucoporus, C. macroporus, and C. microsporus are described.
Project description:The traditional Chinese medicines Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF, Jinyinhua in Chinese) and Lonicerae Flos (LF, Shanyinhua in Chinese) refer to the flower buds of five plants belonging to the Caprifoliaceae family. Until 2000, all of these were officially listed as a single item, LJF (Jinyinhua), in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. However, there have recently been many academic controversies concerning the separation and combination of LJF and LF in administrative regulation. Till now there has been little work completed evaluating the relationships between biological activity and chemical properties among these drugs. Microcalorimetry and UPLC were used along with principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to investigate the relationships between the chemical ingredients and the antibacterial effects of LJF and LF. Using multivariate statistical analysis, LJF and LF could be initially separated according to their chemical fingerprints, and the antibacterial effects of the two herbal drugs were divided into two clusters. This result supports the disaggregation of LJF and LF by the Pharmacopoeia Committee. However, the sample of Lonicera fulvotomentosa Hsu et S. C. Cheng turned out to be an intermediate species, with similar antibacterial efficacy as LJF. The results of CCA indicated that chlorogenic acid and 3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid were the major components generating antibacterial effects. Furthermore, 3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid could be used as a new marker ingredient for quality control of LJF and LF.
Project description:Species of the wood-decay genus Phylloporia (Hymenochaetaceae, Hymenochaetales, Basidiomycota) are widely distributed in the tropics. Phylloporia species are, however, morphologically and ecologically diverse, which makes morphology-based species identification challenging. In this study, we re-examined species of Phylloporia reported from Benin (West Africa). Using an integrative approach combining morphology, ecology, and phylogenetic analyses, we describe Phylloporia beninensis sp. nov. and report Phylloporia littoralis for the first time outside of its type locality. Phylloporia beninensis sp. nov. is characterized by its annual and imbricate basidiomata, duplex context with a black zone separating the upper context from the lower one, dimitic hyphal system, presence of cystidioles, basidia of 9-12 × 4-5 μm, and subglobose to ellipsoid basidiospores measuring 3-4.6 × 2.1-3.6 μm. Detailed descriptions with illustrations for the new species are provided. With the addition of the new species, 15 Phylloporia species are now known to occur in tropical Africa. Our discovery of a new Phylloporia species in Benin should stimulate further mycological investigations in tropical African ecosystems to discover other new polypore species. To facilitate further taxonomy studies on tropical African Phylloporia taxa, a key to the known tropical African species is provided.
Project description:The Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) is a key area for plant phylogeographical research, due to its very high species diversity and disjunct distributions of a large number of species and genera. At present, the root cause and temporal origin of the discontinuous distribution of many plants in the Sino-Japanese flora are still unclear. Diabelia (Caprifoliaceae; Linnaeoideae) is a genus endemic to Asia, mostly in Japan, but two recent discoveries in China raised questions over the role of the East China Sea (ECS) in these species' disjunctions. Chloroplast DNA sequence data were generated from 402 population samples for two regions (rpl32-trnL, and trnH-psbA) and 11 nuclear microsatellite loci were screened for 549 individuals. Haplotype, population-level structure, combined analyses of ecological niche modeling, and reconstruction of ancestral state in phylogenies were also performed. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) period after the Tertiary, Diabelia was potentially widely distributed in southeastern China, the continental shelf of the East China Sea and Japan (excluding Hokkaido). After LGM, all populations in China have disappeared except those in Zhejiang which may represent a Glacial refuge. Populations of Diabelia in Japan have not experienced significant bottleneck effects, and populations have maintained a relatively stable state. The observed discontinuous distribution of Diabelia species between China and Japan are interpreted as the result of relatively ancient divergence. The phylogenetic tree of chloroplast fragments shows the characteristics of multi-origin evolution (except for D. sanguinea). STRUCTURE analysis of nuclear Simple Sequence Repeat (nSSR) showed that the plants of the Diabelia were divided into five gene pools: D. serrata, D. spathulata, D. sanguinea, D. ionostachya (D. spathulata var. spathulata-Korea), and populations of D. ionostachya var. ionostachya in Yamagata prefecture, northern Japan. Molecular evidence provides new insights of Diabelia into biogeography, a potential glacial refuge, and population-level genetic structure within species. In the process of species differentiation, ECS acts as a corridor for two-way migration of animals and plants between China and Japan during glacial maxima, providing the possibility of secondary contact for discontinuously distributed species between China and Japan, or as a filter (creating isolation) during glacial minima. The influence of the ECS in speciation and biogeography of Diabelia in the Tertiary remains unresolved in this study. Understanding origins, evolutionary histories, and speciation will provide a framework for the conservation and cultivation of Diabelia.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF) and Lonicerae Flos (LF) belong to different genera of Caprifoliaceae. They have been historically utilised as herbal medicine to treat various diseases. However, the comprehensive assessment of them still remains a challenge.<h4>Objective</h4>To develop a comprehensive method of ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-QTRAP-MS/MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis for the quality evaluation and reveal differential components of LJF and LF.<h4>Methodology</h4>A validated UFLC-QTRAP-MS/MS method was established for simultaneous determination of 50 constituents, including 12 organic acids, 12 flavonoids, 6 iridoids, 3 saponins, 13 amino acids and 4 nucleosides. The obtained data were employed to multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component anlysis (PCA) and partial least squares determinant analysis (PLS-DA) were performed to classify and reveal differential components of samples; grey relational analysis (GRA) was introduced to assess the samples according to the contents of 50 constituents by calculating the relative correlation degree of each sample.<h4>Results</h4>Fifty constituents were simultaneously determined of LJF and LF. Based on obtained data, PCA and PLS-DA were easy to distinguish samples and the classification of the samples was related to 11 chemical constituents. GRA implied the quality of LJF was better, and that the flower buds were superior to the flowers. Moreover, organic acids are the main components of samples.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study not only established a method of simultaneous determination of multiple bioactive constituents in LJF and LF, but provided comprehensive information on the quality control of them. The developed method is conducive to distinguish orthologues or paralogues of them, and supply the support for "heterologous effects".