Single-crystalline FeCo nanoparticle-filled carbon nanotubes: synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic properties.
ABSTRACT: In the present work, we demonstrate different synthesis procedures for filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with equimolar binary nanoparticles of the type Fe-Co. The CNTs act as templates for the encapsulation of magnetic nanoparticles and provide a protective shield against oxidation as well as prevent nanoparticle agglomeration. By variation of the reaction parameters, we were able to tailor the sample purity, degree of filling, the composition and size of the filling particles, and therefore, the magnetic properties. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The Fe-Co-filled CNTs show significant enhancement in the coercive field as compared to the corresponding bulk material, which make them excellent candidates for several applications such as magnetic storage devices.
Project description:In the present work, different synthesis procedures have been demonstrated to fill carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with Fe1-xNix alloy nanoparticles (x = 0.33, 0.5). CNTs act as templates for the encapsulation of magnetic nanoparticles, and provide a protective shield against oxidation as well as prevent nanoparticles agglomeration. By variation of the reaction parameters, the purity of the samples, degree of filling, the composition and size of filling nanoparticles have been tailored and therefore the magnetic properties. The samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Bright-field (BF) TEM tomography, X-ray powder diffraction, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The Fe1-xNix-filled CNTs show a huge enhancement in the coercive fields compared to the corresponding bulk materials, which make them excellent candidates for several applications such as magnetic storage devices.
Project description:Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) filled with iron sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared by inserting sulfur and ferrocene into the hollow core of CNTs followed by heat treatment. It is found that pyrrhotite-11T iron sulfide (Fe-S) NPs with an average size of ?15 nm are encapsulated in the tubular cavity of the CNTs (Fe-S@CNTs), and each particle is a single crystal. When used as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries, the Fe-S@CNT material exhibits excellent electrochemical lithium storage performance in terms of high reversible capacity, good cyclic stability, and desirable rate capability. In situ transmission electron microscopy studies show that the CNTs not only play an essential role in accommodating the volume expansion of the Fe-S NPs but also provide a fast transport path for Li ions. The results demonstrate that CNTs act as a unique nanocontainer and reactor that permit the loading and formation of electrochemically active materials with desirable electrochemical lithium storage performance. CNTs with their superior structural stability and Li-ion transfer kinetics are responsible for the improved rate capability and cycling performance of Fe-S NPs in CNTs.
Project description:A method developed based on the capillary effect and capillary condensation theory was used to synthesize an innovative Fe/C/Pd composite in this study. This composite (Fe@CNTs@Pd) consists of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) on the inner surface and palladium nanoparticles supported on the outer surface of CNTs. This structure successfully addresses the problems of high iron corrosion rate and lower utilization rate of hydrogen in the application of bimetal nanoparticles for trichloroethylene (TCE) removal. TCE degradation experiments and electrochemical tests were conducted to investigate the material properties and reaction mechanisms of the composite. It is found that the prepared composite material contribute a high level of TCE dechlorination rate and substantially reduced hydrogen production during iron corrosion in water compared with the conventional CNTs-supported bimetal materials (Fe/Pd@CNTs). Hydrogen spillover effect helps the reactivity of Fe@CNTs@Pd for TCE degradation and suppressed the galvanic cell effect, which results in a stronger resistance to corrosion. Although the Kobs of Fe@CNTs@Pd was 16.87% lower than that of Fe/Pd@CNTs, the hydrogen production rate of Fe@CNTs@Pd was 10 times slower than that of Fe/Pd@CNTs. Therefore, Fe@CNTs@Pd shows a significant reduction in the corrosion rate at a cost of slightly slower degradation of TCE. In sum, the prepared composites demonstrate important characteristics, including alleviating NZVI agglomeration, maintaining high TCE removal efficiency and reducing the corrosion of NZVI.
Project description:The synthesis and properties of an oxygen reduction catalyst based on a unique 3-dimensional (3D) nitrogen doped (N-doped) carbon composite are described. The composite material is synthesised via a two-step hydrothermal and pyrolysis method using bio-source low-cost materials of galactose and melamine. Firstly, the use of iron salts and galactose to hydrothermally produceiron oxide (Fe?O?) magnetic nanoparticle clusters embedded carbon spheres. Secondly, magnetic nanoparticles diffused out of the carbon sphere when pyrolysed in the presence of melamine as nitrogen precursor. Interestingly, many of these nanoparticles, as catalyst-grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs), resulted in the formation of N-doped CNTs and N-doped carbon spheres under the decomposition of carbon and a nitrogen environment. The composite material consists of integrated N-doped carbon microspheres and CNTs show high ORR activity through a predominantly four-electron pathway.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the phytotoxicity of thin-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings. Three different CNTs, including hollow multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), Fe-filled carbon nanotubes (Fe-CNTs), and Fe-Co-filled carbon nanotubes (FeCo-CNTs), were evaluated. The CNTs significantly inhibited rice growth by decreasing the concentrations of endogenous plant hormones. The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N ratio) significantly increased in rice roots after treatments with CNTs, and all three types of CNTs had the same effects on the C:N ratio. Interestingly, the increase in the C:N ratio in roots was largely because of decreased N content, indicating that the CNTs significantly decreased N assimilation. Analyses of the Fe and Co contents in plant tissues, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis proved that the CNTs could penetrate the cell wall and the cell membrane, and then enter the root cells. According to the author's knowledge, this is the first time to study the relationship between carbon nanotubes and carbon nitrogen ratio and plant hormones.
Project description:Nanocomposites of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) with ferromagnetic α-Fe₂O₃ nanoparticles have been prepared in-situ by thermal treatment. The structure and morphology of the hybrid material were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The results show a hybrid material highly modified with α-Fe₂O₃ nanoparticles distributed on the graphene surface. The adsorption kinetics show the presence of α-Fe₂O₃ nanoparticles on the RGO surface, and the amount of remaining functional groups dominated by ionization and dispersion. The adsorption kinetics of this adsorbent was characterized and found to fit the pseudo-second-order model. The α-Fe₂O₃ nanoparticles on RGO modify the electrostatic interaction of RGO layers and tetracycline, and adsorption properties decreased in the hybrid material. Adsorption isotherms fit with the Langmuir model very well, and the maximum capacity adsorption was 44.23 mg/g for RGO and 18.47 mg/g for the hybrid material. Magnetic characterization of the hybrid material shows ferromagnetic behavior due to the nanosize of α-Fe₂O₃ with a saturation magnetization, Ms = 7.15 Am²/kg, a remanence Mr = 2.29 Am²/kg, and a coercive field, Hc = 0.02 T.
Project description:We show a novel chemical vapour deposition (CVD) approach, in which the large-scale fabrication of ferromagnetically-filled cm-scale buckypapers is achieved through the deposition of a mesoporous supported catalyst (SBA-16) on a silicon substrate. We demonstrate that SBA-16 has the crucial role of promoting the growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on a horizontal plane with random orientation rather than in a vertical direction, therefore allowing a facile fabrication of cm-scale CNTs buckypapers free from the onion-crust by-product observed on the buckypaper-surface in previous reports. The morphology and composition of the obtained CNTs-buckypapers are analyzed in detail by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), while structural analysis is performed by Rietveld Refinement of XRD data. The room temperature magnetic properties of the produced buckypapers are also investigated and reveal the presence of a high coercivity of 650 Oe. Additionally, the electrochemical performances of these buckypapers are demonstrated and reveal a behavior that is compatible with that of a pseudo-capacitor (resistive-capacitor) with better performances than those presented in other previously studied layered-buckypapers of Fe-filled CNTs, obtained by pyrolysis of dichlorobenzene-ferrocene mixtures. These measurements indicate that these materials show promise for applications in energy storage systems as flexible electrodes.
Project description:In this study, surface modification of iron (II, III) oxide Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles by oleic acid (OA) coating is investigated for the microablation of fat in a microchannel. The nanoparticles are synthesized by the co-precipitation method and then dispersed in organic solvent prior to mixing with the OA. The magnetization, agglomeration, and particle size distribution properties of the OA-coated Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles are characterized. The surface modification of the Fe₃O₄ nanoparticles reveals that upon injection into a microchannel, the lipophilicity of the OA coating influences the movement of the nanoparticles across an oil-phase barrier. The motion of the nanoparticles is controlled using an AC magnetic field to induce magnetic torque and a static gradient field to control linear translation. The fat microablation process in a microchannel is demonstrated using an oscillating driving field of less than 1200 Am-1.
Project description:This work presents an approach for producing a high-coverage single monolayer of magnetic nanoparticles using "click chemistry" between complementarily-functionalized nanoparticles and a flat substrate. This method highlights essential aspects of the functionalization scheme for substrate surface and nanoparticles to produce exceptionally high surface coverage without sacrificing selectivity or control over the layer produced. The deposition of one single layer of magnetic particles without agglomeration, over a large area, with a nearly 100% coverage is confirmed by electron microscopy. Spectroscopic techniques, supplemented by computational predictions, are used to interrogate the chemistry of the attachment and to confirm covalent binding, rather than attachment through self-assembly or weak van der Waals bonding. Density functional theory calculations for the surface intermediate of this copper-catalyzed process provide mechanistic insight into the effects of the functionalization scheme on surface coverage. Based on this analysis, it appears that steric limitations of the intermediate structure affect nanoparticle coverage on a flat solid substrate; however, this can be overcome by designing a functionalization scheme in such a way that the copper-based intermediate is formed on the spherical nanoparticles instead. This observation can be carried over to other approaches for creating highly-controlled single- or multilayered nanostructures of a wide range of materials to result in high coverage and possibly, conformal filling.
Project description:Colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) with myriads of compositions and morphologies have been synthesized and characterized in recent years. For wüstite Fe x O, however, obtaining phase-pure NPs with homogeneous morphologies have remained challenging. Herein, we report the colloidal synthesis of phase-pure Fe x O (x ? 0.94) popcorn-shaped NPs by decomposition of a single-source precursor, [Fe3(?3-O)(CF3COO)(?-CF3COO)6(H2O)2]·CF3COOH. The popcorn shape and multigrain structure had been reconstructed using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron micrograph (HAADF-STEM) tomography. This morphology offers a large surface area and internal channels and prevents further agglomeration and thermal tumbling of the subparticles. [Fe3(?3-O)(CF3COO)(?-CF3COO)6(H2O)2]·CF3COOH behaves as an antiferromagnetic triangle whose magnetic frustration is mitigated by the low symmetry of the complex. The popcorn-shaped Fe x O NPs show the typical wüstite antiferromagnetic transition at approximately 200 K, but behave very differently to their bulk counterpart below 200 K. The magnetization curves show a clear, unsymmetrical hysteresis, which arises from a combined effect of the superparamagnetic behavior and exchange bias.