The somatostatin receptor 2 antagonist 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 outperforms 64Cu-DOTA-TATE in a mouse xenograft model.
ABSTRACT: Copper-64 is an attractive radionuclide for PET imaging and is frequently used in clinical applications. The aim of this study was to perform a side-by-side comparison of the in vitro and in vivo performance of 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 (NODAGA = 1,4,7-triazacyclononane,1-glutaric acid,4,7-acetic acid, JR11 = p-Cl-Phe-cyclo(D-Cys-Aph(Hor)-D-Aph(cbm)-Lys-Thr-Cys)D-Tyr-NH2), a somatostatin receptor 2 antagonist, with the clinically used sst2 agonist 64Cu-DOTA-TATE ((TATE = D-Phe-cyclo(Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys)Thr). In vitro studies demonstrated Kd values of 5.7±0.95 nM (Bmax = 4.1±0.18 nM) for the antagonist 64/natCu-NODAGA-JR11 and 20.1±4.4. nM (Bmax = 0.48±0.18 nM) for the agonist 64/natCu-DOTA-TATE. Cell uptake studies showed the expected differences between agonists and antagonists. Whereas 64Cu-DOTA-TATE (the agonist) showed very effective internalization in the cell culture assay (with 50% internalized at 4 hours post-peptide addition under the given experimental conditions), 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 (the antagonist) showed little internalization but strong receptor-mediated uptake at the cell membrane. Biodistribution studies of 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 showed rapid blood clearance and tumor uptake with increasing tumor-to-relevant organ ratios within the first 4 hours and in some cases, 24 hours, respectively. The tumor washout was slow or non-existent in the first 4 hours, whereas the kidney washout was very efficient, leading to high and increasing tumor-to-kidney ratios over time. Specificity of tumor uptake was proven by co-injection of high excess of non-radiolabeled peptide, which led to >80% tumor blocking. 64Cu-DOTA-TATE showed less favorable pharmacokinetics, with the exception of lower kidney uptake. Blood clearance was distinctly slower and persistent higher blood values were found at 24 hours. Uptake in the liver and lung was relatively high and also persistent. The tumor uptake was specific and similar to that of 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 at 1 h, but release from the tumor was very fast, particularly between 4 and 24 hours. Tumor-to-normal organ ratios were distinctly lower after 1 hour. This is indicative of insufficient in vivo stability. PET studies of 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 reflected the biodistribution data with nicely delineated tumor and low background. 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 shows promising pharmacokinetic properties for further translation into the clinic.
Project description:The development of improved breast cancer screening methods is hindered by a lack of cancer-specific imaging agents and effective small-animal models to test them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 64Cu-DOTA-alendronate as a mammary microcalcification-targeting PET imaging agent, using an ideal rat model. Our long-term goal is to develop 64Cu-DOTA-alendronate for the detection and noninvasive differentiation of malignant versus benign breast tumors with PET. Methods: DOTA-alendronate was synthesized, radiolabeled with 64Cu, and administered to normal or tumor-bearing aged, female, retired breeder Sprague-Dawley rats for PET imaging. Mammary tissues were subsequently labeled and imaged with light, confocal, and electron microscopy to verify microcalcification targeting specificity of DOTA-alendronate and elucidate the histologic and ultrastructural characteristics of the microcalcifications in different mammary tumor types. Tumor uptake, biodistribution, and dosimetry studies were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 64Cu-DOTA-alendronate. Results:64Cu-DOTA-alendronate was radiolabeled with a 98% yield. PET imaging using aged, female, retired breeder rats showed specific binding of 64Cu-DOTA-alendronate in mammary glands and mammary tumors. The highest uptake of 64Cu-DOTA-alendronate was in malignant tumors and the lowest uptake in benign tumors and normal mammary tissue. Confocal analysis with carboxyfluorescein-alendronate confirmed the microcalcification binding specificity of alendronate derivatives. Biodistribution studies revealed tissue alendronate concentrations peaking within the first hour, then decreasing over the next 48 h. Our dosimetric analysis demonstrated a 64Cu effective dose within the acceptable range for clinical PET imaging agents and the potential for translation into human patients. Conclusion:64Cu-DOTA-alendronate is a promising PET imaging agent for the sensitive and specific detection of mammary tumors as well as the differentiation of malignant versus benign tumors based on absolute labeling uptake.
Project description:Recently, the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) selective antagonist sst2-ANT was determined to have a high affinity for SSTR2. Additionally, 111In-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-sst2-ANT showed high uptake in an SSTR2-transfected, tumor-bearing mouse model and suggested that radiolabeled SSTR2 antagonists may be superior to agonists for imaging SSTR2-positive tumors. This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of 64Cu-CB-4,11-bis(carboxymethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazabicyclo[6.6.2]hexadecane-sst2-ANT (64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT) as a PET radiopharmaceutical for the in vivo imaging of SSTR2-positive tumors.Receptor-binding studies were performed to determine the dissociation constant of the radiopharmaceutical 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT using AR42J rat pancreatic tumor cell membranes. The internalization of 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT was compared with that of the 64Cu-labeled agonist 64Cu-CB-TE2A-tyrosine3-octreotate (64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE) in AR42J cells. Both radiopharmaceuticals were also compared in vivo through biodistribution studies using healthy rats bearing AR42J tumors, and small-animal PET/CT of 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT was performed.The dissociation constant value for the radiopharmaceutical was determined to be 26 +/- 2.4 nM, and the maximum number of binding sites was 23,000 fmol/mg. 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT showed significantly less internalization than did 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE at time points from 15 min to 4 h. Biodistribution studies revealed that the clearance of 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT from the blood was rapid, whereas the clearance of 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT from the liver and kidneys was more modest at all time points. Tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-muscle ratios were determined to be better for 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT than those for 64Cu-CB-TE2A-Y3-TATE at the later time points, although liver and kidney uptake was significantly higher. Small-animal imaging using 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT revealed excellent tumor-to-background contrast at 4 h after injection, and standardized uptake values remained high even after 24 h.The PET radiopharmaceutical 64Cu-CB-TE2A-sst2-ANT is an attractive agent, worthy of future study as a PET radiopharmaceutical for the imaging of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors.
Project description:The goal of this study was to characterize the relationship between tumor uptake of 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab as measured by PET/CT and standard, immunohistochemistry (IHC)-based, histopathologic classification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status in women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Methods: Women with biopsy-confirmed MBC and not given trastuzumab for 2 mo or more underwent complete staging, including 18F-FDG PET/CT. Patients were classified as HER2-positive (HER2+) or -negative (HER2-) based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-supplemented immunohistochemistry of biopsied tumor tissue. Eighteen patients underwent 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab injection, preceded in 16 cases by trastuzumab infusion (45 mg). PET/CT was performed 21-25 (day 1) and 47-49 (day 2) h after 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab injection. Radiolabel uptake in prominent lesions was measured as SUVmax Average intrapatient SUVmax (<SUVmax>pt) was compared between HER2+ and HER2- patients. Results: Eleven women were HER2+ (8 immunohistochemistry 3+; 3 immunohistochemistry 2+/FISH amplified), whereas 7 were HER2- (3 immunohistochemistry 2+/FISH nonamplified; 4 immunohistochemistry 1+). Median <SUVmax>pt for day 1 and day 2 was 6.6 and 6.8 g/mL for HER 2+ and 3.7 and 4.3 g/mL for HER2- patients (P < 0.005 either day). The distributions of <SUVmax>pt overlapped between the 2 groups, and interpatient variability was greater for HER2+ than HER2- disease (P < 0.005 and 0.001, respectively, on days 1 and 2). Conclusion: By 1 d after injection, uptake of 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab in MBC is strongly associated with patient HER2 status and is indicative of binding to HER2. The variability within and among HER2+ patients, as well as the overlap between the HER2+ and HER2- groups, suggests a role for 64Cu-DOTA-trastuzumab PET/CT in optimizing treatments that include trastuzumab.
Project description:Neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR-1) is expressed and activated in prostate cancer cells. In this study, we explore the NTR expression in normal mouse tissues and study the positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of NTR in prostate cancer models.Three 64Cu chelators (1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid [DOTA], 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N?-triacetic acid [NOTA], or AmBaSar) were conjugated to an NT analog. Neurotensin receptor binding affinity was evaluated using cell binding assay. The imaging profile of radiolabeled probes was compared in well-established NTR+ HT-29 tumor model. Stability of the probes was tested. The selected agents were further evaluated in human prostate cancer PC3 xenografts.All 3 NT conjugates retained the majority of NTR binding affinity. In HT-29 tumor, all agents demonstrated prominent tumor uptake. Although comparable stability was observed, 64Cu-NOTA-NT and 64Cu-AmBaSar-NT demonstrated improved tumor to background contrast compared with 64Cu-DOTA-NT. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging of the NTR expression in PC-3 xenografts showed high tumor uptake of the probes, correlating with the in vitro Western blot results. Blocking experiments further confirmed receptor specificity.Our results demonstrated that 64Cu-labeled neurotensin analogs are promising imaging agents for NTR-positive tumors. These agents may help us identify NTR-positive lesions and predict which patients and individual tumors are likely to respond to novel interventions targeting NTR-1.
Project description:Due to the high mortality of lung cancer, there is a critical need to develop diagnostic procedures enabling early detection of the disease while at a curable stage. Targeted molecular imaging builds on the positive attributes of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to allow for a noninvasive detection and characterization of smaller lung nodules, thus increasing the chances of positive treatment outcome. In this study, we investigate the ability to characterize lung tumors that spontaneously arise in a transgenic mouse model. The tumors are first identified with small animal CT followed by characterization with the use of small animal PET with a novel 64Cu-1,4,7,10-tetra-azacylododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-knottin peptide that targets integrins upregulated during angiogenesis on the tumor associated neovasculature. The imaging results obtained with the knottin peptide are compared with standard 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET small animal imaging. Lung nodules as small as 3 mm in diameter were successfully identified in the transgenic mice by small animal CT, and both 64Cu-DOTA-knottin 2.5F and FDG were able to differentiate lung nodules from the surrounding tissues. Uptake and retention of the 64Cu-DOTA-knottin 2.5F tracer in the lung tumors combined with a low background in the thorax resulted in a statistically higher tumor to background (normal lung) ratio compared with FDG (6.01±0.61 versus 4.36±0.68; P<0.05). Ex vivo biodistribution showed 64Cu-DOTA-knottin 2.5F to have a fast renal clearance combined with low nonspecific accumulation in the thorax. Collectively, these results show 64Cu-DOTA-knottin 2.5F to be a promising candidate for clinical translation for earlier detection and improved characterization of lung cancer.
Project description:We report the use of multifunctional folic acid (FA)-modified dendrimers as a platform to radiolabel with 64Cu for PET imaging of folate receptor (FR)-expressing tumors. In this study, amine-terminated generation 5 (G5) poly(amidoamine) dendrimers were sequentially modified with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FI), FA, and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA), followed by acetylation of the remaining dendrimer terminal amines. The as-formed multifunctional DOTA-FA-FI-G5·NHAc dendrimers were then radiolabeled with 64Cu via the DOTA chelation. We show that the FA modification renders the dendrimers with targeting specificity to cancer cells overexpressing FR in vitro. Importantly, the radiolabeled 64Cu-DOTA-FA-FI-G5·NHAc dendrimers can be used as a nanoprobe for specific targeting of FR-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro and targeted microPET imaging of the FR-expressing xenografted tumor model in vivo. The developed 64Cu-labeled multifunctional dendrimeric nanoprobe may hold great promise to be used for targeted PET imaging of different types of FR-expressing cancer.
Project description:We recently showed the high target specificity and favorable imaging properties of 64Cu and Al18F PET probes for noninvasive imaging of thrombosis. Here, our aim was to evaluate new derivatives labeled with either with 68Ga, 111In, or 99mTc as thrombus imaging agents for PET and SPECT. In this study, the feasibility and potential of these probes for thrombus imaging was assessed in detail in 2 animal models of arterial thrombosis. The specificity of the probes was further evaluated using a triple-isotope approach with multimodal SPECT/PET/CT imaging.Radiotracers were synthesized using a known fibrin-binding peptide conjugated to 1,4,7-triazacyclononane,1-glutaric acid-4,7-acetic acid (NODAGA), 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid monoamide (DOTA-MA), or a diethylenetriamine ligand (DETA-propanoic acid [PA]), followed by labeling with 68Ga (FBP14, 68Ga-NODAGA), 111In (FBP15, 111In-DOTA-MA), or 99mTc (FBP16, 99mTc(CO)3-DETA-PA), respectively. PET or SPECT imaging, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and metabolic stability were evaluated in rat models of mural and occlusive carotid artery thrombosis. In vivo target specificity was evaluated by comparing the distribution of the SPECT and PET probes with preformed 125I-labeled thrombi and with a nonbinding control probe using SPECT/PET/CT imaging.All 3 radiotracers showed affinity similar to soluble fibrin fragment DD(E) (inhibition constant=0.53-0.83 ?M). After the kidneys, the highest uptake of 68Ga-FBP14 and 111In-FBP15 was in the thrombus (1.0±0.2 percentage injected dose per gram), with low off-target accumulation. Both radiotracers underwent fast systemic elimination (half-life, 8-15 min) through the kidneys, which led to highly conspicuous thrombi on PET and SPECT images. 99mTc-FBP16 displayed low target uptake and distribution consistent with aggregation or degradation. Triple-isotope imaging experiments showed that both 68Ga-FBP14 and 111In-FBP15, but not the nonbinding derivative 64Cu-D-Cys-FBP8, detected the location of the 125I-labeled thrombus, confirming high target specificity.68Ga-FBP14 and 111In-FBP15 have high fibrin affinity and thrombus specificity and represent useful PET and SPECT probes for thrombus detection.
Project description:This purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of a 45-amino acid Gp2 domain, engineered to bind to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), as a positron emission tomography (PET) probe of EGFR in a xenograft mouse model. The EGFR-targeted Gp2 (Gp2-EGFR) and a nonbinding control were site-specifically labeled with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelator. Binding affinity was tested toward human EGFR and mouse EGFR. Biological activity on downstream EGFR signaling was examined in cell culture. DOTA-Gp2 molecules were labeled with 64Cu and intravenously injected (0.6-2.3 MBq) into mice bearing EGFRhigh (n = 7) and EGFRlow (n = 4) xenografted tumors. PET/computed tomography (CT) images were acquired at 45 min, 2 h, and 24 h. Dynamic PET (25 min) was also acquired. Tomography results were verified with gamma counting of resected tissues. Two-tailed t tests with unequal variances provided statistical comparison. DOTA-Gp2-EGFR bound strongly to human (KD = 7 ± 5 nM) and murine (KD = 29 ± 6 nM) EGFR, and nontargeted Gp2 had no detectable binding. Gp2-EGFR did not agonize EGFR nor antagonize EGF-EGFR. 64Cu-Gp2-EGFR tracer effectively localized to EGFRhigh tumors at 45 min (3.2 ± 0.5%ID/g). High specificity was observed with significantly lower uptake in EGFRlow tumors (0.9 ± 0.3%ID/g, p < 0.001), high tumor-to-background ratios (11 ± 6 tumor/muscle, p < 0.001). Nontargeted Gp2 tracer had low uptake in EGFRhigh tumors (0.5 ± 0.3%ID/g, p < 0.001). Similar data was observed at 2 h, and tumor signal was retained at 24 h (2.9 ± 0.3%ID/g). An engineered Gp2 PET imaging probe exhibited low background and target-specific EGFRhigh tumor uptake at 45 min, with tumor signal retained at 24 h postinjection, and compared favorably with published EGFR PET probes for alternative protein scaffolds. These beneficial in vivo characteristics, combined with thermal stability, efficient evolution, and small size of the Gp2 domain validate its use as a future class of molecular imaging agents.
Project description:Antibodies, and engineered antibody fragments, labeled with radioisotopes are being developed as radiotracers for the detection and phenotyping of diseases such as cancer. The development of antibody-based radiotracers requires extensive characterization of their in vitro and in vivo properties, including their ability to target tumors in an antigen-selective manner. In this study, we investigated the use of Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) as compared with PET as a modality for evaluating the in vivo behavior of antibody-based radiotracers.The anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) huJ591 antibody (IgG; 150 kDa) and its minibody (Mb; 80 kDa) format were functionalized with the chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1-glutaric acid-4,7-diacetic acid (NODAGA) and radiolabeled with the positron-emitting radionuclide 64Cu (half-life, 12.7 h). Immunoreactive preparations of the radiolabeled antibodies were injected into NCr nu/nu mice harboring PSMA-positive CWR22Rv1 and PSMA-negative PC-3 tumor xenografts. Tumor targeting was evaluated by both PET and CLI.64Cu-NODAGA-PSMA-IgG and 64Cu-NODAGA-PSMA-Mb retained the ability to bind cell surface PSMA, and both radiotracers exhibited selective uptake into PSMA-positive tumors. Under the experimental conditions used, PSMA-selective uptake of 64Cu-NODAGA-PSMA-IgG and 64Cu-NODAGA-PSMA-Mb was observed by CLI as early as 3 h after injection, with tumor-to-background ratios peaking at 24 (IgG) and 16 (Mb) h after injection. Targeting data generated by CLI correlated with that generated by PET and necropsy.CLI provided a rapid and simple assessment of the targeting specificity and pharmacokinetics of the antibody-based PET radiotracers that correlated well with the behavior observed by standard PET imaging. Moreover, CLI provided clear discrimination between uptake kinetics of an intact IgG and its small-molecular-weight derivative Mb. These data support the use of CLI for the evaluation of radiotracer performance.