Induction of muscle stem cell quiescence by the secreted niche factor Oncostatin M.
ABSTRACT: The balance between stem cell quiescence and proliferation in skeletal muscle is tightly controlled, but perturbed in a variety of disease states. Despite progress in identifying activators of stem cell proliferation, the niche factor(s) responsible for quiescence induction remain unclear. Here we report an in vivo imaging-based screen which identifies Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines, as a potent inducer of muscle stem cell (MuSC, satellite cell) quiescence. OSM is produced by muscle fibers, induces reversible MuSC cell cycle exit, and maintains stem cell regenerative capacity as judged by serial transplantation. Conditional OSM receptor deletion in satellite cells leads to stem cell depletion and impaired regeneration following injury. These results identify Oncostatin M as a secreted niche factor responsible for quiescence induction, and for the first time establish a direct connection between induction of quiescence, stemness, and transplantation potential in solid organ stem cells.
Project description:Regeneration of skeletal muscle is dependent on the function of tissue-resident muscle stem cells (MuSC), known as satellite cells. MuSC dysfunction is central to muscle pathophysiology, including in age-associated loss of muscle regenerative capacity and congenital disorders such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Despite the central role of satellite cells in muscle regeneration, the signals controlling the balance between muscle stem cell quiescence, proliferation, and differentiation remain incompletely understood. Knowledge of the signals that maintain a quiescent state is particularly lacking, yet such cues are crucial to maintaining a stem cell reservoir that can meet the needs of regeneration throughout life. Here we identify Oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines, as a potent and essential trans-acting regulator of satellite cell quiescence. Key to this discovery is the development of a novel in vivo imaging-based screening strategy allowing identification of proteins that do not induce in vitro proliferation, but instead maintain MuSCs in a non-mitotic state, poised for rapid robust expansion upon transplantation. We demonstrate that OSM induces reversible exit from the cell cycle and induction of a global transcriptional program significantly enriched within a newly established satellite cell “quiescence signature”. Genetic ablation of the OSM receptor in mice demonstrates that signaling via OSM/R is essential for maintenance of satellite cell quiescence, and for proper skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo. Given that aberrant activation and exhaustion of stem cells is seen in a variety of disorders, OSM constitutes an attractive therapeutic target in muscle disease states. Microarray profiling was used to directly test the hypothesis that OSMR signaling in muscle stem cells promotes their engraftment by inducing a global transcriptional state equivalent to that of quiescent, freshly isolated, non-activated MuSC. Overall design: Comparison of Oncostatin M-treated cultured muscle stem cells with either fresh or cultured but non-Oncostatin M-treated muscle stem cells
Project description:Skeletal muscle is a complex tissue containing tissue resident muscle stem cells (satellite cells) (MuSCs) important for postnatal muscle growth and regeneration. Quantitative analysis of the biological function of MuSCs and the molecular pathways responsible for a potential juxtavascular niche for MuSCs is currently lacking. We utilized fluorescent reporter mice and muscle tissue clearing to investigate the proximity of MuSCs to capillaries in 3 dimensions. We show that MuSCs express abundant VEGFA, which recruits endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro, whereas blocking VEGFA using both a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor and MuSC-specific VEGFA gene deletion reduces the proximity of MuSCs to capillaries. Importantly, this proximity to the blood vessels was associated with MuSC self-renewal in which the EC-derived Notch ligand Dll4 induces quiescence in MuSCs. We hypothesize that MuSCs recruit capillary ECs via VEGFA, and in return, ECs maintain MuSC quiescence though Dll4.
Project description:A promising therapeutic strategy for diverse genetic disorders involves transplantation of autologous stem cells that have been genetically corrected ex vivo. A major challenge in such approaches is a loss of stem cell potency during culture. Here we describe an artificial niche for maintaining muscle stem cells (MuSCs) in vitro in a potent, quiescent state. Using a machine learning method, we identified a molecular signature of quiescence and used it to screen for factors that could maintain mouse MuSC quiescence, thus defining a quiescence medium (QM). We also engineered muscle fibers that mimic the native myofiber of the MuSC niche. Mouse MuSCs maintained in QM on engineered fibers showed enhanced potential for engraftment, tissue regeneration and self-renewal after transplantation in mice. An artificial niche adapted to human cells similarly extended the quiescence of human MuSCs in vitro and enhanced their potency in vivo. Our approach for maintaining quiescence may be applicable to stem cells isolated from other tissues.
Project description:The niche is a conserved regulator of stem cell quiescence and function. During ageing, stem cell function declines. To what extent and by what means age-related changes within the niche contribute to this phenomenon are unknown. Here we demonstrate that the aged muscle stem cell niche, the muscle fibre, expresses Fgf2 under homeostatic conditions, driving a subset of satellite cells to break quiescence and lose their self-renewing capacity. We show in mice that relatively dormant aged satellite cells robustly express sprouty?1 (Spry1), an inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling. Increasing FGF signalling in aged satellite cells under homeostatic conditions by removing Spry1 results in the loss of quiescence, satellite cell depletion and diminished regenerative capacity. Conversely, reducing niche-derived FGF activity through inhibition of Fgfr1 signalling or overexpression of Spry1 in satellite cells prevents their depletion. These experiments identify an age-dependent change in the stem cell niche that directly influences stem cell quiescence and function.
Project description:Microenvironmental oxygen (O(2)) regulates stem cell activity, and a hypoxic niche with low oxygen levels has been reported in multiple stem cell types. Satellite cells are muscle-resident stem cells that maintain the homeostasis and mediate the regeneration of skeletal muscles. We demonstrate here that hypoxic culture conditions favor the quiescence of satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts by upregulating Pax7, a key regulator of satellite cell self-renewal, and downregulating MyoD and myogenin. During myoblast division, hypoxia promotes asymmetric self-renewal divisions and inhibits asymmetric differentiation divisions without affecting the overall rate of proliferation. Mechanistic studies reveal that hypoxia activates the Notch signaling pathway, which subsequently represses the expression of miR-1 and miR-206 through canonical Hes/Hey proteins, leading to increased levels of Pax7. More importantly, hypoxia conditioning enhances the efficiency of myoblast transplantation and the self-renewal of implanted cells. Given the robust effects of hypoxia on maintaining the quiescence and promoting the self-renewal of cultured myoblasts, we predict that oxygen levels in the satellite cell niche play a central role in precisely balancing quiescence versus activation, and self-renewal versus differentiation, in muscle stem cells in vivo.
Project description:Satellite cells are adult muscle stem cells residing in a specialized niche that regulates their homeostasis. How niche-generated signals integrate to regulate gene expression in satellite cell-derived myoblasts is poorly understood. We undertook an unbiased approach to study the effect of the satellite cell niche on satellite cell-derived myoblast transcriptional regulation and identified the tumor suppressor p53 as a key player in the regulation of myoblast quiescence. After activation and proliferation, a subpopulation of myoblasts cultured in the presence of the niche upregulates p53 and fails to differentiate. When satellite cell self-renewal is modeled ex vivo in a reserve cell assay, myoblasts treated with Nutlin-3, which increases p53 levels in the cell, fail to differentiate and instead become quiescent. Since both these Nutlin-3 effects are rescued by small interfering RNA-mediated p53 knockdown, we conclude that a tight control of p53 levels in myoblasts regulates the balance between differentiation and return to quiescence.
Project description:Many adult stem cells display prolonged quiescence, promoted by cues from their niche. Upon tissue damage, a coordinated transition to the activated state is required because non-physiological breaks in quiescence often lead to stem cell depletion and impaired regeneration. Here, we identify cadherin-mediated adhesion and signaling between muscle stem cells (satellite cells [SCs]) and their myofiber niche as a mechanism that orchestrates the quiescence-to-activation transition. Conditional removal of N-cadherin and M-cadherin in mice leads to a break in SC quiescence, with long-term expansion of a regeneration-proficient SC pool. These SCs have an incomplete disruption of the myofiber-SC adhesive junction and maintain niche residence and cell polarity, yet show properties of SCs in a state of transition from quiescence toward full activation. Among these is nuclear localization of ?-catenin, which is necessary for this phenotype. Injury-induced perturbation of niche adhesive junctions is therefore a likely first step in the quiescence-to-activation transition.
Project description:Control of stem cell fate to either enter terminal differentiation versus returning to quiescence (self-renewal) is crucial for tissue repair. Here, we showed that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the master metabolic regulator of the cell, controls muscle stem cell (MuSC) self-renewal. AMPK?1-/- MuSCs displayed a high self-renewal rate, which impairs muscle regeneration. AMPK?1-/- MuSCs showed a Warburg-like switch of their metabolism to higher glycolysis. We identified lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a new functional target of AMPK?1. LDH, which is a non-limiting enzyme of glycolysis in differentiated cells, was tightly regulated in stem cells. In functional experiments, LDH overexpression phenocopied AMPK?1-/- phenotype, that is shifted MuSC metabolism toward glycolysis triggering their return to quiescence, while inhibition of LDH activity rescued AMPK?1-/- MuSC self-renewal. Finally, providing specific nutrients (galactose/glucose) to MuSCs directly controlled their fate through the AMPK?1/LDH pathway, emphasizing the importance of metabolism in stem cell fate.
Project description:The cell microenvironment, which is critical for stem cell maintenance, contains both cellular and non-cellular components, including secreted growth factors and the extracellular matrix1-3. Although Notch and other signalling pathways have previously been reported to regulate quiescence of stem cells4-9, the composition and source of molecules that maintain the stem cell niche remain largely unknown. Here we show that adult muscle satellite (stem) cells in mice produce extracellular matrix collagens to maintain quiescence in a cell-autonomous manner. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing, we identified NOTCH1/RBPJ-bound regulatory elements adjacent to specific collagen genes, the expression of which is deregulated in Notch-mutant mice. Moreover, we show that Collagen V (COLV) produced by satellite cells is a critical component of the quiescent niche, as depletion of COLV by conditional deletion of the Col5a1 gene leads to anomalous cell cycle entry and gradual diminution of the stem cell pool. Notably, the interaction of COLV with satellite cells is mediated by the Calcitonin receptor, for which COLV acts as a surrogate local ligand. Systemic administration of a calcitonin derivative is sufficient to rescue the quiescence and self-renewal defects found in COLV-null satellite cells. This study reveals a Notch-COLV-Calcitonin receptor signalling cascade that maintains satellite cells in a quiescent state in a cell-autonomous fashion, and raises the possibility that similar reciprocal mechanisms act in diverse stem cell populations.
Project description:Satellite cells (SCs) reside in a dormant state during tissue homeostasis. The specific paracrine agents and niche cells that maintain SC quiescence remain unknown. We find that Wnt4 produced by the muscle fiber maintains SC quiescence through RhoA. Using cell-specific inducible genetics, we find that a Wnt4-Rho signaling axis constrains SC numbers and activation during tissue homeostasis in adult mice. Wnt4 activates Rho in quiescent SCs to maintain mechanical strain, restrict movement in the niche, and repress YAP. The induction of YAP upon disruption of RhoA is essential for SC activation under homeostasis. In the context of injury, the loss of Wnt4 from the niche accelerates SC activation and muscle repair, whereas overexpression of Wnt4 transitions SCs into a deeper state of quiescence and delays muscle repair. In conclusion, the SC pool undergoes dynamic transitions during early activation with changes in mechano-properties and cytoskeleton signaling preceding cell-cycle entry.