Cardiorespiratory health effects of gaseous ambient air pollution exposure in low and middle income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: Lack of research on the effects of gaseous pollutants (nitrogen oxides [NOx], sulfur dioxide [SO2], carbon monoxide [CO] and ozone [O3]) in the ambient environment on health outcomes from within low and middle income countries (LMICs) is leading to reliance on results from studies performed within high income countries (HICs). This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the cardiorespiratory health effects of gaseous pollutants in LMICs exclusively.Systematic searching was carried out and estimates pooled by pollutant, lag and outcome, and presented as excess relative risk per 10 ?g/m3 (NOx, SO2, O3) or 1 ppm (CO) increase pollutant. Sub-group analysis was performed examining estimates by specific outcomes, city and co-pollutant adjustment.Sixty studies met the inclusion criteria, most (44) from the East Asia and Pacific region. A 10 ?g/m3 increase in same day NOx was associated with 0.92% (95% CI: 0.44, 1.39), and 0.70% (0.01, 1.40) increases in cardiovascular and respiratory mortality respectively, same day NOx was not associated with morbidity. Same day sulfur dioxide was associated with 0.73% (0.04, 1.42) and 0.50% (0.01, 1.00) increases in respiratory morbidity and in cardiovascular mortality respectively.Acute exposure to gaseous ambient air pollution (AAP) is associated with increases in morbidity and mortality in LMICs, with greatest associations observed for cardiorespiratory mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pulmonary heart disease (PHD) has become a global burden, especially in low- and middle-income countries. However, very few studies have assessed the influence of air pollution on PHD. This is the first study to explore the association between gaseous pollutants and PHD-related mortality in the central Sichuan Basin of southwestern China. METHODS:Data on PHD-related mortality among elderly people (aged 60 and older) from 2013 to 2017 were collected from the Population Death Information Registration and Management System (PDIRMS). Data on air pollutants were collected from all 24 Municipal Environmental Monitoring Sites in Chengdu, and data on daily temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric pressure were collected from the Chengdu Municipal Meteorological Bureau. An epidemiological design of time-stratified case-crossover was conducted to assess the association between short-term exposure to ambient gaseous pollutants and PHD-related mortality among elderly people. RESULTS:About 54,920 PHD-related deaths among people aged 60 and older were reported. After controlling for daily temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric pressure, an IQR concentration increase in levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) (13 μg/m3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (17 μg/m3), and ozone (O3) (74 μg/m3) was associated with 7.8, 6.2, and 5.5% increases in PHD-related mortality in people aged 60 and older, respectively. People over age 70 might have even higher susceptibility to PHD-related mortality associated with SO2, NO2, and O3. Females and individuals with alternative marital statuses (widowed, divorced, or never married) had twice and more than twice the PHD-related mortality risk associated with SO2 and NO2 than males and married individuals, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Increased concentrations of ambient SO2, NO2, and O3 were significantly and positively associated with PHD-related mortality in Chengdu, China. Sociodemographic factors - including gender, age, and marital status - may modify the acute health effects of gaseous pollutants.
Project description:Background:Air pollution has become a major problem around the world and is increasingly an issue in Togo due to increased vehicular traffic. Gaseous pollutants are released by engines and are very harmful to human health and the environment. The fuels used on the major road in Togo, the N2, are adulterated with unknown contents and are of poor quality. Many of the vehicles come from neighboring countries, such as Benin, Ghana and Nigeria. Objectives:The present study aims to evaluate the pollution rate in Togo through the estimation of the concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particular matter (PM) on the international road, the National Road N2, in Lomé, compared to the World Health Organization's (WHO) standard limit. Methods:The simulations of pollutant concentration were performed using the Industrial Source Complex Short Term Version 3 model, which is included in the United States Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (USEPA) AERMOD View software. The meteorological averages data were obtained from the local station near the National Road N2 in Togo in 2018. Hourly averages were calculated according to the European Monitoring Evaluation Programme/European Environmental Agency air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016 and were processed using AERMET View and a terrain pre-processor, AERMAP. For the model, the sources of pollution were the vehicles traveling on the road segment. The source was a line volume with 20 m of width and 2 m of height. The estimation methodology covered exhaust emissions of NOx, SO2 and PM contained in the fuel. Results:The simulations provided average hourly, daily and annual concentrations of the different pollutants: 71.91 ?g/m3, 42.41 ?g/m3,11.23 ?g/m3 for SO2; 16.78 ?g/m3, 9.89 ?g/m3, 2.46 ?g/m3 for NOx and below the detection limit, 0.62 ?g/m3, 0.15 ?g/m3 for PM, respectively. These results indicate that on the National Road N2 in Togo, the concentrations of SO2 were high compared to those of NOx and PM. The daily average concentration of SO2 was twice the permissible limits set by the WHO. Conclusions:Emissions obtained from the AERMOD for NOx and PM were less than the permissible limits set by the WHO, while the rate of SO2 was twice the permissible limit. The fuels used on this road were very rich in sulfur. The sulfur level in fuels must be monitored by stakeholders in Togo. Competing Interests:The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Project description:Control strategies can be optimized to attain air quality standards at minimal cost through selecting optimal combinations of controls on various pollutants and regional sources. In this study, we developed a module for least-cost control strategy optimization based on a real-time prediction system of the responses of pollution concentrations to emissions changes and marginal cost curves of pollutant controls. Different from other method, in this study the relationship between pollution concentrations to and precursor emissions was derived from multiple air quality simulations in which the nonlinear interactions among different precursor emissions can be well addressed. Hypothetical control pathways were designed to attain certain air quality goals for particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region under the 2014 baseline emission level. Results suggest that reducing local primary PM emissions was the most cost-efficient method to attain the ambient PM2.5 standard, whereas for O3 attainment, reducing regional emission sources of gaseous pollutants (i.e., SO2, NOx, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) exhibited greater effectiveness. NH3 controls may be cost-efficient in achieving strengthened PM2.5 targets; however, they might not help in reducing O3. To achieve both PM2.5 (<35??g?m-3) and O3 (daily 1-h maxima concentration?<?100?ppb) targets in Beijing, the reduced rates in BTH regions of NOx, SO2, NH3, VOCs and primary PM are 75%, 75%, 5%, 55%, and 85%, respectively from the emission levels in the year of 2014. Local reduction is the most effective method of attaining moderate PM2.5 and O3 targets; however, to achieve more aggressive air quality goals, the same level of reductions must be conducted across the whole Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.
Project description:The increase in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) incidence in children is worrying and not yet fully explored. It is suggested that probably air pollution exposure could contribute to the development of T1DM. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the concentration of gaseous pollutants including, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM) in the air, and the number of new cases of T1DM in children. The number of new cases of T1DM was obtained from the Clinic of Paediatrics, Diabetology, and Endocrinology, Medical University of Gda?sk. The number of children of 0-18 years old in Pomeranian Voivodeship was acquired from the Statistical Yearbook. The concentrations of PM10 absorbance, NO2, NOx, SO2, and CO were measured at 41 measuring posts, between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016. It was detected that the average annual concentration of PM10 was higher than the value acceptable to the WHO. Furthermore, the average 24-hour concentration of PM10 was 92??g/m3 and was higher compared to the acceptable value of 50??g/m3 (acc. to EU and WHO). Moreover, the number of new cases of T1DM showed a correlation with the annual average concentration of PM10 (??=?2.396, p < 0.001), SO2 (??=?2.294, p < 0.001), and CO (??=?2.452, p < 0.001). High exposure to gaseous pollutants and particulate matter in ambient air may be one of the factors contributing to the risk of developing T1DM in children. Therefore, it is important to take action to decrease air pollutant emissions in Poland. It is crucial to gradually but consistently eliminate the use of solid fuels, such as coal and wood in households, in favour of natural gas and electricity. The development of new technologies to improve air quality, such as "best available techniques" (BAT) or renewable energy sources (water, wind, and solar generation) is of critical importance as well.
Project description:In this study, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to predict ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations during 2001 to 2010 in 15 hospital referral regions (HRRs) using a 36-km horizontal resolution domain. An inverse distance weighting based method was applied to produce exposure estimates based on observation-fused regional pollutant concentration fields using the differences between observations and predictions at grid cells where air quality monitors were located. Although the raw CMAQ model is capable of producing satisfying results for O3 and PM2.5 based on EPA guidelines, using the observation data fusing technique to correct CMAQ predictions leads to significant improvement of model performance for all gaseous and particulate pollutants. Regional average concentrations were calculated using five different methods: 1) inverse distance weighting of observation data alone, 2) raw CMAQ results, 3) observation-fused CMAQ results, 4) population-averaged raw CMAQ results and 5) population-averaged fused CMAQ results. It shows that while O3 (as well as NOx) monitoring networks in the HRRs are dense enough to provide consistent regional average exposure estimation based on monitoring data alone, PM2.5 observation sites (as well as monitors for CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 components) are usually sparse and the difference between the average concentrations estimated by the inverse distance interpolated observations, raw CMAQ and fused CMAQ results can be significantly different. Population-weighted average should be used to account for spatial variation in pollutant concentration and population density. Using raw CMAQ results or observations alone might lead to significant biases in health outcome analyses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Malaysia has the highest rate of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the Southeast Asian region, and has ongoing air pollution and periodic haze exposure. METHODS:Diabetes data were derived from the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Surveys conducted in 2006, 2011 and 2015. The air pollution data (NOx, NO2, SO2, O3 and PM10) were obtained from the Department of Environment Malaysia. Using multiple logistic and linear regression models, the association between long-term exposure to these pollutants and prevalence of diabetes among Malaysian adults was evaluated. RESULTS:The PM10 concentration decreased from 2006 to 2014, followed by an increase in 2015. Levels of NOx decreased while O3 increased annually. The air pollutant levels based on individual modelled air pollution exposure as measured by the nearest monitoring station were higher than the annual averages of the five pollutants present in the ambient air. The prevalence of overall diabetes increased from 11.4% in 2006 to 21.2% in 2015. The prevalence of known diabetes, underdiagnosed diabetes, overweight and obesity also increased over these years. There were significant positive effect estimates of known diabetes at 1.125 (95% CI, 1.042, 1.213) for PM10, 1.553 (95% CI, 1.328, 1.816) for O3, 1.271 (95% CI, 1.088, 1.486) for SO2, 1.124 (95% CI, 1.048, 1.207) for NO2, and 1.087 (95% CI, 1.024, 1.153) for NOx for NHMS 2006. The adjusted annual average levels of PM10 [1.187 (95% CI, 1.088, 1.294)], O3 [1.701 (95% CI, 1.387, 2.086)], NO2 [1.120 (95% CI, 1.026, 1.222)] and NOx [1.110 (95% CI, 1.028, 1.199)] increased significantly from NHMS 2006 to NHMS 2011 for overall diabetes. This was followed by a significant decreasing trend from NHMS 2011 to 2015 [0.911 for NO2, and 0.910 for NOx]. CONCLUSION:The findings of this study suggest that long-term exposure to O3 is an important associated factor of underdiagnosed DM risk in Malaysia. PM10, NO2 and NOx may have mixed effect estimates towards the risk of DM, and their roles should be further investigated with other interaction models. Policy and intervention measures should be taken to reduce air pollution in Malaysia.
Project description:Ozone (O3) has been associated with cardiorespiratory mortality although few studies have explored susceptible populations based on prior disease. We aimed to investigate the role of previous hospitalization on the association between short-term exposure to O3 and cardiovascular (CV) and respiratory mortality.We performed time series analyses using generalized additive models and case-crossover on 136,624 CV and 23,281 respiratory deaths in Stockholm County (1990-2010). Deaths were linked to hospital admissions data. We constructed 2-day and 7-day averages using daily 8-h maximum for O3 and hourly values for PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and NOx from a fixed monitor.We observed a 0.7% (95% CI: 0.1%, 1.3%) and 2.7% (95% CI: 0.8%, 4.6%) higher risk of CV and respiratory death per 10 ?g/m3 higher 2-day and 7-day average O3 respectively. Individuals previously hospitalized for myocardial infarction demonstrated 1.8% (95% CI: 0.4%, 3.4%) higher risk of CV death per 10 ?g/m3 higher 2-day average O3 and similar associations were observed in individuals with no previous hospitalization for any cause. Individuals with previous hospitalizations did not show susceptibility towards O3-related risk of respiratory mortality. We observed no associations for other pollutants.Short-term ozone exposure is associated with CV and respiratory mortality and our results may suggest higher susceptibility to CV mortality following O3 exposure in individuals previously hospitalized for myocardial infarction. Higher risks were also observed in individuals with cardiovascular death as their first presentation of disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest that exposure to outdoor air pollutants may increase the risk of allergic rhinitis. The results of these studies are inconsistent, but warrant further attention. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of relation between exposure to urban air pollution and the prevalence allergic rhinitis among school children. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study of 32,143 Taiwanese school children. We obtained routine air-pollution monitoring data for sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), and particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microm or less (PM10). A parent-administered questionnaire provided information on individual characteristics and indoor environments (response rate 92%). Municipal-level exposure was calculated using the mean of the 2000 monthly averages. The effect estimates were presented as odds ratios (ORs) per 10 ppb change for SO2, NOx, and O3, 100 ppb change for CO, and 10 microg/m3 change for PM10. RESULTS: In two-stage hierarchical model adjusting for confounding, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis was significantly associated with SO2 (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 1.64), CO (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.07), and NOx (aOR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.15). Contrary to our hypothesis, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis was weakly or not related to O3 (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.12) and PM10 (aOR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.02). CONCLUSION: Persistent exposure to NOx, CO, and SO2 may increase the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in children.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Arrhythmia is a common cardiovascular event that is associated with increased cardiovascular health risks. Previous studies that have explored the association between air pollution and arrhythmia have obtained inconsistent results, and the association between the two in China is unclear. METHODS:We collected daily data on air pollutants and meteorological factors from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2016, along with daily outpatient visits for arrhythmia in Hangzhou, China. We used a quasi-Poisson regression along with a distributed lag nonlinear model to study the association between air pollution and arrhythmia morbidity. RESULTS:The results of the single-pollutant model showed that each increase of 10??g/m3 of Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), Coarse particulate matter (PM10), Sulphur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and Ozone (O3) resulted in increases of 0.6% (-?0.9, 2.2%), 0.7% (-?0.4, 1.7%), 11.9% (4.5, 19.9%), 6.7% (3.6, 9.9%), and?-?0.9% (-?2.9, 1.2%), respectively, in outpatient visits for arrhythmia; each increase of 1?mg/m3 increase of carbon monoxide (CO) resulted in increase of 11.3% (-?5.9, 31.6%) in arrhythmia. The short-term effects of air pollution on arrhythmia lasted 3?days, and the most harmful effects were observed on the same day that the pollution occurred. Results of the subgroup analyses showed that SO2 and NO2 affected both men and women, but differences between the sexes were not statistically significant. The effect of SO2 on the middle-aged population was statistically significant. The effect of NO2 was significant in both the young and middle-aged population, and no significant difference was found between them. Significant effects of air pollution on arrhythmia were only detected in the cold season. The results of the two-pollutants model and the single-pollutant model were similar. CONCLUSIONS:SO2 and NO2 may induce arrhythmia, and the harmful effects are primarily observed in the cold season. There is no evidence of PM2.5, PM10, CO and O3 increasing arrhythmia risk. Special attention should be given to sensitive populations during the high-risk period.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Air pollution has been linked to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) but no studies have evaluated impact of preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures on GDM risk. METHODS:Electronic medical records provided data on 219,952 singleton deliveries to mothers with (n=11,334) and without GDM (n=208,618). Average maternal exposures to particulate matter (PM) ? 2.5?m (PM2.5) and PM2.5 constituents, PM ? 10?m (PM10), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) were estimated for the 3-month preconception window, first trimester, and gestational weeks 1-24 based on modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models for delivery hospital referral regions. Binary regression models with robust standard errors estimated relative risks (RR) for GDM per interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant concentrations adjusted for study site, maternal age and race/ethnicity. RESULTS:Preconception maternal exposure to NOX (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13) and SO2 (RR=1.05, 1.01, 1.09) were associated with increased risk of subsequent GDM and risk estimates remained elevated for first trimester exposure. Preconception O3 was associated with lower risk of subsequent GDM (RR=0.93, 0.90, 0.96) but risks increased later in pregnancy. CONCLUSION:Maternal exposures to NOx and SO2 preconception and during the first few weeks of pregnancy were associated with increased GDM risk. O3 appeared to increase GDM risk in association with mid-pregnancy exposure but not in earlier time windows. These common exposures merit further investigation.