Draft Genome Sequence of a Shewanella halifaxensis Strain Isolated from the Intestine of Marine Red Seabream (Pagrus major), Which Includes an Integrative Conjugative Element with Macrolide Resistance Genes.
ABSTRACT: Shewanella halifaxensis strain 6JANF4-E-4 was isolated from the intestine of a red seabream (Pagrus major). Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this bacterium, which includes an integrative conjugative element of the SXT/R391 family, where the macrolide resistance determinants mef(C) and mph(G) exist.
Project description:The toxic effects of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Our previous study identified AHR1 and AHR2 genes from the red seabream (Pagrus major). Moreover, we found that AHR2 mRNA levels were notably elevated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure in the early life stage of red seabream embryos, while AHR1 mRNA level was not altered. In this study, to investigate the regulatory mechanism of these AHR transcripts, we cloned and characterized 5'-flanking regions of AHR1 and AHR2 genes. Both of the 5'-flanking regions in these AHR genes contained three potential xenobiotic-responsive elements (XREs). To assess whether the 5'-flanking region is transactivated by rsAHR1 and rsAHR2 proteins, we measured the transactivation potency of the luciferase reporter plasmids containing the 5'-flanking regions by AHR1 and AHR2 proteins that were transiently co-expressed in COS-7. Only reporter plasmid (pGL4-rsAHR2-3XREs) that contained three putative XRE sites in the 5'-flanking region of AHR2 gene showed a clear TCDD dose-dependent transactivation by AHR1 and AHR2 proteins. TCDD-EC50 values for the rsAHR2-derived XRE transactivation were 1.3 and 1.4 nM for AHR1 and AHR2, respectively. These results suggest that the putative XREs of AHR2 gene have a function for AHR1- and AHR2-mediated transactivation, supporting our in ovo observation of an induction of AHR2 mRNA levels by TCDD exposure. Mutations in XREs of AHR2 gene led to a decrease in luciferase induction. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that XRE1, the closest XRE from the start codon in AHR2 gene, is mainly responsible for the binding with TCDD-activated AHR. This suggests that TCDD-activated AHR1 and AHR2 up-regulate the AHR2 mRNA levels and this auto-induced AHR2 may amplify the signal transduction of its downstream targets including CYP1A in the red seabream.
Project description:The genus Shewanella consists of facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, which are regarded as potential agents of food contamination and opportunistic human pathogens. Information about the distribution and genetic characteristics of SXT/R391 integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) in Shewanella species is limited. Here, 91 Shewanella strains collected from diverse samples in China were studied for the presence of SXT/R391 ICEs. Three positive strains, classified as Shewanella upenei, were obtained from patients and water from a local mill. In light of their close clonal relationships and high sequence similarity, a representative ICE was selected and designated ICESupCHN110003. The BLASTn searches against GenBank showed that ICEVchBan5 was most closely related to ICESupCHN110003, with the coverage of 76% and identity of 99%. The phylogenetic tree of concatenated core genes demonstrated that ICESupCHN110003 formed a distinct branch outside the cluster comprising ICEValA056-1, ICEPmiCHN2410, and ICEPmiChn1. Comparison of the genetic structures revealed that ICESupCHN110003 encoded uncommon genes in hotspots, such as specific type III restriction-modification system, conferring adaptive functions to the host. Based on the low coverage in the sequence analysis, independent clade in the phylogenetic tree, and unique inserted fragments in hotspots, ICESupCHN110003 represented a novel SXT/R391 element, which widened the list of ICEs. Furthermore, the antibiotic resistance genes floR, strA, strB, and sul2 in ICESupCHN110003 and resistance to multiple drugs of the positive isolates were detected. A cross-species transfer capability of the SXT/R391 ICEs was also discovered. In summary, it is necessary to reinforce continuous surveillance of SXT/R391 ICEs in the genus Shewanella.
Project description:Integrating conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transmissible, mobile elements that are widespread among bacteria. Following their excision from the chromosome, ICEs transfer by conjugation, a process initiated by a single-stranded DNA break at a specific locus called the origin of transfer (oriT). The SXT/R391 family of ICEs includes SXT(MO10), R391, and more than 25 related ICEs found in gammaproteobacteria. A previous study mapped the oriT locus of SXT(MO10) to a 550-bp intergenic region between traD and s043. We suspected that this was not the correct oriT locus, because the identical traD-s043 region in R391 and other SXT/R391 family ICEs was annotated as a gene of an unknown function. Here, we investigated the location and structure of the oriT locus in the ICEs of the SXT/R391 family and demonstrated that oriT(SXT) corresponds to a 299-bp sequence that contains multiple imperfect direct and inverted repeats and is located in the intergenic region between s003 and rumB'. The oriT(SXT) locus is well conserved among SXT/R391 ICEs, like R391, R997, and pMERPH, and cross-recognition of oriT(SXT) and oriT(R391) by R391 and SXT(MO10) was demonstrated. Furthermore, we identified a previously unannotated gene, mobI, located immediately downstream from oriT(SXT), which proved to be essential for SXT(MO10) transfer and SXT(MO10)-mediated chromosomal DNA mobilization. Deletion of mobI did not impair the SXT(MO10)-dependent transfer of the mobilizable plasmid CloDF13, suggesting that mobI has no role in the assembly of the SXT(MO10) mating pair apparatus. Instead, mobI appears to be involved in the recognition of oriT(SXT).
Project description:SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transmissible mobile genetic elements that are found in most members of Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we determined fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs carried by Proteus isolates from food (4.2%) and diarrhoea patients (17.3%). BLASTn searches against GenBank showed that the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were closely related to that from different Enterobacteriaceae species, including Proteus mirabilis. Using core gene phylogenetic analysis, the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were grouped into six distinct clusters, including a dominant cluster and three clusters that have not been previously reported in Proteus isolates. The SXT/R391 ICEs shared a common structure with a set of conserved genes, five hotspots and two variable regions, which contained more foreign genes, including drug-resistance genes. Notably, a class A ?-lactamase gene was identified in nine SXT/R391 ICEs. Collectively, the ICE-carrying isolates carried resistance genes for 20 tested drugs. Six isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline, which are drug resistances commonly encoded by ICEs. Our results demonstrate abundant genetic diversity and multidrug resistance of the SXT/R391 ICEs carried by Proteus isolates, which may have significance for public health. It is therefore necessary to continuously monitor the antimicrobial resistance and related mobile elements among Proteus isolates.
Project description:Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family are key drivers of the spread of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio cholerae, the infectious agent of cholera, and other pathogenic bacteria. The SXT/R391 family of ICEs was defined based on the conservation of a core set of 52 genes and site-specific integration into the 5' end of the chromosomal gene prfC Hence, the integrase gene int has been intensively used as a marker to detect SXT/R391 ICEs in clinical isolates. ICEs sharing most core genes but differing by their integration site and integrase gene have been recently reported and excluded from the SXT/R391 family. Here we explored the prevalence and diversity of atypical ICEs in GenBank databases and their relationship with typical SXT/R391 ICEs. We found atypical ICEs in V. cholerae isolates that predate the emergence and expansion of typical SXT/R391 ICEs in the mid-1980s in seventh-pandemic toxigenic V. cholerae strains O1 and O139. Our analyses revealed that while atypical ICEs are not associated with antibiotic resistance genes, they often carry cation efflux pumps, suggesting heavy metal resistance. Atypical ICEs constitute a polyphyletic group likely because of occasional recombination events with typical ICEs. Furthermore, we show that the alternative integration and excision genes of atypical ICEs remain under the control of SetCD, the main activator of the conjugative functions of SXT/R391 ICEs. Together, these observations indicate that substitution of the integration/excision module and change of specificity of integration do not preclude atypical ICEs from inclusion into the SXT/R391 family.IMPORTANCEVibrio cholerae is the causative agent of cholera, an acute intestinal infection that remains to this day a world public health threat. Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family have played a major role in spreading antimicrobial resistance in seventh-pandemic V. cholerae but also in several species of Enterobacteriaceae Most epidemiological surveys use the integrase gene as a marker to screen for SXT/R391 ICEs in clinical or environmental strains. With the recent reports of closely related elements that carry an alternative integrase gene, it became urgent to investigate whether ICEs that have been left out of the family are a liability for the accuracy of such screenings. In this study, based on comparative genomics, we broaden the SXT/R391 family of ICEs to include atypical ICEs that are often associated with heavy metal resistance.
Project description:Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family have been recognized as key drivers of antibiotic resistance dissemination in the seventh-pandemic lineage of Vibrio cholerae. SXT/R391 ICEs propagate by conjugation and integrate site-specifically into the chromosome of a wide range of environmental and clinical Gammaproteobacteria. SXT/R391 ICEs bear setC and setD, two conserved genes coding for a transcriptional activator complex that is essential for activation of conjugative transfer. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with exonuclease digestion (ChIP-exo) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to characterize the SetCD regulon of three representative members of the SXT/R391 family. We also identified the DNA sequences bound by SetCD in MGIVflInd1, a mobilizable genomic island phylogenetically unrelated to SXT/R391 ICEs that hijacks the conjugative machinery of these ICEs to drive its own transfer. SetCD was found to bind a 19-bp sequence that is consistently located near the promoter -35 element of SetCD-activated genes, a position typical of class II transcriptional activators. Furthermore, we refined our understanding of the regulation of excision from and integration into the chromosome for SXT/R391 ICEs and demonstrated that de novo expression of SetCD is crucial to allow integration of the incoming ICE DNA into a naive host following conjugative transfer.
Project description:Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family disseminate multidrug resistance among pathogenic Gammaproteobacteria such as Vibrio cholerae. SXT/R391 ICEs are mobile genetic elements that reside in the chromosome of their host and eventually self-transfer to other bacteria by conjugation. Conjugative transfer of SXT/R391 ICEs involves a transient extrachromosomal circular plasmid-like form that is thought to be the substrate for single-stranded DNA translocation to the recipient cell through the mating pore. This plasmid-like form is thought to be non-replicative and is consequently expected to be highly unstable. We report here that the ICE R391 of Providencia rettgeri is impervious to loss upon cell division. We have investigated the genetic determinants contributing to R391 stability. First, we found that a hipAB-like toxin/antitoxin system improves R391 stability as its deletion resulted in a tenfold increase of R391 loss. Because hipAB is not a conserved feature of SXT/R391 ICEs, we sought for alternative and conserved stabilization mechanisms. We found that conjugation itself does not stabilize R391 as deletion of traG, which abolishes conjugative transfer, did not influence the frequency of loss. However, deletion of either the relaxase-encoding gene traI or the origin of transfer (oriT) led to a dramatic increase of R391 loss correlated with a copy number decrease of its plasmid-like form. This observation suggests that replication initiated at oriT by TraI is essential not only for conjugative transfer but also for stabilization of SXT/R391 ICEs. Finally, we uncovered srpMRC, a conserved locus coding for two proteins distantly related to the type II (actin-type ATPase) parMRC partitioning system of plasmid R1. R391 and plasmid stabilization assays demonstrate that srpMRC is active and contributes to reducing R391 loss. While partitioning systems usually stabilizes low-copy plasmids, srpMRC is the first to be reported that stabilizes a family of ICEs.
Project description:The genus Marinomonas comprises Gram negative bacteria which are widespread in the marine environment and there is no report on the genomic analysis of SXT/R391 ICEs derived from this group of bacteria. This study describes the genomic features of three new SXT/R391 integrating conjugating elements (ICEs) identified in the genome of Marinomonas fungiae JCM 18476T (ICEMfuInd1a and ICEMfuInd1b) and in Marinomonas profundimaris strain D104 (ICEMprChn1). Structural organizations of the three ICEs were similar to the typical SXT/R391 family of ICEs and showed high degree of conservation in the core genes. Sequence analysis revealed ICEMfuInd1b and ICEMprChn1 were inserted into the genome at 5'-end of an typical host prfC gene, while ICEMfuInd1a was inserted at 5'-end of an atypical hipA-like gene. Despite their coexistence, the ICEMfuInd1a and ICEMfuInd1b were not present in a tandem fashion in the genome of M. fungiae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the three ICEs either evolved independently or high degrees of recombination events had masked their evolution from a common SXT ancestor. Further, we found that the typical entry exclusion mechanism mediated by the TraG/EeX protein pair was likely defective in preventing the conjugative transfer of a second copy of the same S (SXT) group ICE into the M. fungiae genome due to mutations. Our analysis showed the presence of 16, 25, and 27 variable genes in the hotspots of ICEMfuInd1a, ICEMfuInd1b, and ICEMprChn1, respectively, many of which were not reported earlier for SXT/R391 ICEs. Sequence analysis predicted these hotspot regions were shaped by acquisition of genes through homologous recombination between the SXT and R391 related ICEs or mobile genetic elements present in disparate marine bacteria. Multidrug resistance genes which are hallmark feature of SXT/R391 ICEs were not present in either of the two ICEs from M. fungiae but were present within a transposon cassette in the HS-1 of the ICEMprChn1 from M. profundimaris. Finally, our data provided information on the genetic diversity and predicted functions encoded by variable genes present in the hotspot regions of these new ICEs.
Project description:The SXT element, a conjugative, self-transmissible, integrating element (a constin) originally derived from a Vibrio cholerae O139 isolate from India, and IncJ element R391, originally derived from a South African Providencia rettgeri isolate, were found to be genetically and functionally related. Both of these constins integrate site specifically into the Escherichia coli chromosome at an identical attachment site within the 5' end of prfC. They encode nearly identical integrases, which are required for chromosomal integration, excision, and extrachromosomal circularization of these elements, and they have similar tra genes. Therefore, these closely related constins have virtually identical mechanisms for chromosomal integration and dissemination. The presence of either element in a recipient cell did not significantly reduce its ability to acquire the other element, indicating that R391 and SXT do not encode surface exclusion determinants. In cells harboring both elements, SXT and R391 were integrated in tandem fashion on the chromosome, and homologous recombination appeared to play little or no role in the formation of these arrays. Interference between R391 and SXT was detected by measuring the frequency of loss of an unselected resident element upon introduction of a second selected element. In these assays, R391 was found to have a stronger effect on SXT stability than vice versa. The level of expression and/or activity of the donor and recipient integrases may play a role in the interference between these two related constins.
Project description:Integrating conjugative elements (ICEs) are mobile genetic elements that can transfer from the chromosome of a host to the chromosome of a new host through the process of excision, conjugation, and integration. Although SXT/R391-related ICEs, originally demonstrated in Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates, have become prevalent among V. cholerae isolates in Asia, the prevalence of the ICEs among gram-negative bacteria other than Vibrio spp. remains unknown. In addition, SXT/R391-related ICEs carrying genes conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins have never been described. Here we carried out a genetic analysis of a cefoxitin-resistant Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate, TUM4660, which revealed the presence of a novel SXT/R391-related ICE, ICEPmiJpn1. ICEPmiJpn1 had a core genetic structure showing high similarity to that of R391 and carried xis and int genes completely identical to those of R391, while an IS10-mediated composite transposon carrying bla(CMY-2) was integrated into the ICE. A nucleotide sequence identical to the 3' part of ISEcp1 was located upstream of the bla(CMY-2) gene, and other genes observed around bla(CMY-2) in earlier studies were also present. Furthermore, the nucleotide sequences of hot spot 2 and hot spot 4 in ICEPmiJpn1 showed high similarity to that of hot spot 2 in SXT(MO10) and with a part of the nucleotide sequence found in P. mirabilis ATCC 29906, respectively. ICEPmiJpn1 was successfully transferred to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Citrobacter koseri in conjugation experiments. These observations suggest that ICEs may contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes among clinically relevant Enterobacteriaceae, which warrants careful observation of the prevalence of ICEs, including SXT/R391-related ICEs.