Bifunctional CO oxidation over Mn-mullite anchored Pt sub-nanoclusters via atomic layer deposition.
ABSTRACT: CO oxidation is a widely used model system for understanding fundamental aspects of heterogeneous catalysis. While platinum (Pt) continues to be a reference material for CO oxidation catalysis, poisoning of Pt catalysts presents a critical issue that blocks reaction sites and impedes subsequent reaction steps. Fabrication of CO poison-free Pt catalysts remains a great challenge due to its CO-philic nature. Herein, we report a Pt based catalyst to effectively tackle CO poisoning by tightly anchoring Pt sub-nanoclusters onto Mn-mullite oxide (SmMn2O5) via atomic layer deposition. Superior CO oxidation activity has been observed with a significantly lowered light-off temperature and apparent activation energy. In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy analysis, oxygen isotope experiments and density functional theory calculations confirm that the low-temperature activity originates from active oxygen atom sources at the bifunctional interface structure.
Project description:Since trace amounts of CO in H<sub>2</sub> gas produced by steam reforming of methane causes severe poisoning of Pt-based catalysts in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), research has been mainly devoted to exploring CO-tolerant catalysts. To test the electrochemical property of CO-tolerant catalysts, chronoamperometry is widely used under a CO/H<sub>2</sub> mixture gas atmosphere as an essential method. However, in most cases of catalysts with high CO tolerance, the conventional chronoamperometry has difficulty in showing the apparent performance difference. In this study, we propose a facile and precise test protocol to evaluate the CO tolerance via a combination of short-term chronoamperometry and a hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) test. The degree of CO poisoning is systematically controlled by changing the CO adsorption time. The HOR polarization curve is then measured and compared with that measured without CO adsorption. When the electrochemical properties of PtRu alloy catalysts with different atomic ratios of Pt to Ru are investigated, contrary to conventional chronoamperometry, these catalysts exhibit significant differences in their CO tolerance at certain CO adsorption times. The present work will facilitate the development of catalysts with extremely high CO tolerance and provide insights into the improvement of electrochemical methods.
Project description:Understanding of the "structure-activity" relations for catalysts at an atomic level has been regarded as one of the most important objectives in catalysis studies. Bimetallic nanoclusters (NCs) in its many types, such as core/shell, random alloy, cluster-in-cluster, bi-hemisphere, and crown jewel (one kind of atom locating at the top position of another kind of NC), attract significant attention owing to their excellent optical, electronic, and catalytic properties. PVP-protected crown jewel-structured Pt/Au (CJ-Pt/Au) bimetallic nanoclusters (BNCs) with Au atoms located at active top sites were synthesized via a replacement reaction using 1.4-nm Pt NCs as mother clusters even considering the fact that the replacement reaction between Pt and Au(3+) ions is difficult to be occurred. The prepared CJ-Pt/Au colloidal catalysts characterized by UV-Vis, TEM, HR-TEM and HAADF-STEM-EELS showed a high catalytic activity for aerobic glucose oxidation, and the top Au atoms decorating the Pt NCs were about 15 times more active than the Au atoms of Au NCs with similar particle size.
Project description:Achieving CO oxidation at room temperature is significant for gas purification but still challenging nowadays. Pt promoted by 3d transition metals (TMs) is a promising candidate for this reaction, but TMs are prone to be deeply oxidized in an oxygen-rich atmosphere, leading to low activity. Herein we report a unique structure design of graphene-isolated Pt from CoNi nanoparticles (PtǀCoNi) for efficiently catalytic CO oxidation in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. CoNi alloy is protected by ultrathin graphene shell from oxidation and therefore modulates the electronic property of Pt-graphene interface via electron penetration effect. This catalyst can achieve near 100% CO conversion at room temperature, while there are limited conversions over Pt/C and Pt/CoNiO<sub>x</sub> catalysts. Experiments and theoretical calculations indicate that CO will saturate Pt sites, but O<sub>2</sub> can adsorb at the Pt-graphene interface without competing with CO, which facilitate the O<sub>2</sub> activation and the subsequent surface reaction. This graphene-isolated system is distinct from the classical metal-metal oxide interface for catalysis, and it provides a new thought for the design of heterogeneous catalysts.
Project description:Sub-nanometer noble metal catalysts, especially single atom (SA), are a new class of catalytic materials for boosting catalysis and possess unique catalytic properties and high atomic utilization efficiency. Exploring the interaction between two neighboring atom monomers has great potential to further improve the performance of SA catalysts and deepen the understanding on the catalytic mechanism of heterogeneous catalysis at the atomic level. Herein, we demonstrate that the synergetic effect between neighboring Pt and Ru monomers supported on N vacancy-rich g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub> promotes the catalytic CO oxidation. The experimental observation and theoretical simulation reveal that the N vacancy in the g-C<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub> structure builds an optimized triangular sub-nanometer cavity for stabilizing the neighboring Pt-Ru monomers by forming Pt-C and Ru-N bonds. The mechanistic studies based on the <i>in situ</i> IR spectrum and theoretical simulation confirm that the neighboring Pt-Ru monomers possess a higher performance for optimizing O<sub>2</sub> activation than Ru-Ru/Pt-Pt monomers or isolated Ru/Pt atoms by balancing the energy evolution of reaction steps in the catalytic CO oxidation. The discovery of the synergetic effect between neighboring monomers may create a new path for manipulating the catalytic properties of SA catalysts.
Project description:Taming interfacial electronic effects on Pt nanoparticles modulated by their concomitants has emerged as an intriguing approach to optimize Pt catalytic performance. Here, we report Pt nanoparticles assembled on vacancy-abundant hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets and their use as a model catalyst to embrace an interfacial electronic effect on Pt induced by the nanosheets with N-vacancies and B-vacancies for superior CO oxidation catalysis. Experimental results indicate that strong interaction exists between Pt and the vacancies. Bader charge analysis shows that with Pt on B-vacancies, the nanosheets serve as a Lewis acid to accept electrons from Pt, and on the contrary, when Pt sits on N-vacancies, the nanosheets act as a Lewis base for donating electrons to Pt. The overall-electronic effect demonstrates an electron-rich feature of Pt after assembling on hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets. Such an interfacial electronic effect makes Pt favour the adsorption of O<sub>2</sub>, alleviating CO poisoning and promoting the catalysis.
Project description:Direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) has been considered as a promising energy conversion device for stationary and mobile applications. Advanced platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts for formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR) are critical for DFAFC. However, the oxidation of formic acid on Pt catalysts often occurs via a dual pathway mechanism, which hinders the catalytic activity owing to the CO poisoning. Herein, we directly exfoliate bulk antimony to 2D antimonene (Sb) and in situ load Pt nanoparticles onto antimonene sheets with the assistance of ethylenediamine. According to the Bader charge analysis, the charge transfer from antimonene to Pt occurs, confirming the electronic interaction between Pt and Sb. Interestingly, antimonene, as a cocatalyst, alters the oxidation pathway for FAOR over Pt catalyst and makes FAOR follow the more efficient dehydrogenation pathway. The density functional theory (DFT) calculation demonstrates that antimonene can activate Pt to be a lower oxidative state and facilitate the oxidation of HCOOH into CO2 via a direct pathway, resulting in a weakened intermediate binding strength and better CO tolerance for FAOR. The specific activity of FAOR on Pt/Sb is 4.5 times, and the mass activity is 2.6 times higher than the conventional Pt/C.
Project description:Single-atom catalysts have been widely investigated for several electrocatalytic reactions except electrochemical alcohol oxidation. Herein, we synthesize atomically dispersed platinum on ruthenium oxide (Pt<sub>1</sub>/RuO<sub>2</sub>) using a simple impregnation-adsorption method. We find that Pt<sub>1</sub>/RuO<sub>2</sub> has good electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation in an alkaline media with a mass activity that is 15.3-times higher than that of commercial Pt/C (6766 vs. 441 mA mg<sup>‒1</sup><sub>Pt</sub>). In contrast, single atom Pt on carbon black is inert. Further, the mass activity of Pt<sub>1</sub>/RuO<sub>2</sub> is superior to that of most Pt-based catalysts previously developed. Moreover, Pt<sub>1</sub>/RuO<sub>2</sub> has a high tolerance towards CO poisoning, resulting in excellent catalytic stability. Ab initio simulations and experiments reveal that the presence of Pt‒O<sub>3f</sub> (3-fold coordinatively bonded O)‒Ru<sub>cus</sub> (coordinatively unsaturated Ru) bonds with the undercoordinated bridging O in Pt<sub>1</sub>/RuO<sub>2</sub> favors the electrochemical dehydrogenation of methanol with lower energy barriers and onset potential than those encountered for Pt‒C and Pt‒Ru.
Project description:In direct methanol fuel cell technology, highly stable electrochemical catalysts are critically important for their practical utilization at the commercial scale. In this study, sub ~10?nm hollow Pt-Ni (1:1 at. ratio) nanoboxes supported on functionalized Vulcan carbon (Pt-Ni/C-R2) were synthesized through a facile method for the efficient electrooxidation of methanol. Two reaction procedures, namely, a simultaneous reduction and a modified sequential reduction method using a reverse microemulsion (RME) method, were adopted to synthesize solid Pt-Ni NPs and hollow nanoboxes, respectively. To correlate the alloy composition and surface structure with the enhanced catalytic activity, the results were compared with the nanocatalyst synthesized using a conventional NaBH<sub>4</sub> reduction method. The calculated electroactive surface area for the Pt-Ni/C-R2 nanoboxes was 190.8?m<sup>2</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup>, which is significantly higher compared to that of the Pt-Ni nanocatalyst (96.4?m<sup>2</sup>.g<sup>-1</sup>) synthesized by a conventional reduction method. Hollow nanoboxes showed 34% and 44% increases in mass activity and rate of methanol oxidation reaction, respectively, compared to solid NPs. These results support the nanoreactor confinement effect of the hollow nanoboxes. The experimental results were supported by Density Functional Theory (DFT) studies, which revealed that the lowest CO poisoning of the Pt<sub>1</sub>Ni<sub>1</sub> catalyst among all Pt<sub>m</sub>-Ni<sub>n</sub> mixing ratios may account for the enhanced methanol oxidation. The synthesized hollow Pt-Ni/C (R2) nanoboxes may prove to be a valuable and highly efficient catalysts for the electrochemical oxidation of methanol due to their low cost, numerous catalytically active sites, low carbon monoxide poisoning, large electroactive surface area and long-term stability.
Project description:Dispersing metal nanoclusters on the oxide supports is attracting close attention in heterogeneous catalysis, but great challenges still lie in controlling the size and dispersion of nanoclusters due to the inevitable agglomeration. Here, we propose a sequential photochemical deposition strategy named "first store, and then release" to uniformly fabricate the size-controlling noble metal nanoclusters on semiconductor oxides. Using the typical semiconductor TiO<sub>2</sub>, the photoexcited electrons can be first stored as reduced species (e.g. Ti<sup>3+</sup>) under irradiation and the Ti<sup>3+</sup> species can optimize both the nucleation and growth processes in dark reaction, resulting in a uniform dispersing of various noble metals (Au, Pt, Ag etc.) with size diameters of ∼1 nm. The nanoclusters catalysts exhibited superior performance in catalytic oxidation of HCHO compared with that of nanoparticles. This work brings a new and useful strategy to construct size-controlling noble metals on the oxide supports for heterogeneous catalysis and the related fields.
Project description:The catalytic subnanometric metal clusters with a few atoms can be regarded as an intermediate state between single atoms and metal nanoparticles (>1 nm). Their molecule-like electronic structures and flexible geometric structures bring rich chemistry and also a different catalytic behavior, in comparison with the single-atom or nanoparticulate counterparts. In this work, by combination of operando IR spectroscopy techniques and electronic structure calculations, we will show a comparative study on Pt catalysts for CO + NO reaction at a very low temperature range (140-200 K). It has been found that single Pt atoms immobilized on MCM-22 zeolite are not stable under reaction conditions and agglomerate into Pt nanoclusters and particles, which are the working active sites for CO + NO reaction. In the case of the catalyst containing Pt nanoparticles (?2 nm), the oxidation of CO to CO2 occurs in a much lower extension, and Pt nanoparticles become poisoned under reaction conditions because of a strong interaction with CO and NO. Therefore, only subnanometric Pt clusters allow NO dissociation at a low temperature and CO oxidation to occur well on the surface, while CO interaction is weak enough to avoid catalyst poisoning, resulting in a good balance to achieve enhanced catalytic performance.