Limited radiographic progression and sustained reductions in MRI inflammation in patients with axial spondyloarthritis: 4-year imaging outcomes from the RAPID-axSpA phase III randomised trial.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To report 4-year imaging outcomes in the RAPID-axSpA (NCT01087762) study of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA), treated with certolizumab pegol (CZP). METHODS:This phase III, randomised trial was placebo-controlled and double-blind to week 24, dose-blind to week 48 and open-label to week 204. Patients fulfilling the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) axSpA criteria with active disease were stratified (AS/nr-axSpA) according to the modified New York (mNY) criteria at randomisation. Spinal radiographs were assessed using the modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score (mSASSS). MRI inflammation used the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) score for sacroiliac joints (SIJ) and the Berlin spinal score (remission defined as SPARCC <2?and Berlin ?2, respectively). RESULTS:MRI improvements from baseline (BL) to week 12 were maintained to week 204 (SPARCC BL: AS=8.5, nr-axSpA=7.5; SPARCC week 204: AS=1.3, nr-axSpA=2.4; Berlin BL: AS=7.4, nr-axSpA=4.4; Berlin week 204: AS=2.6, nr-axSpA=1.9). 66.7% of patients with AS and 69.6% of patients with nr-axSpA with BL SPARCC scores ?2, and 65.4% of patients with AS and 57.3% of patients with nr-axSpA with BL Berlin score >2, achieved remission at week 204. Mean mSASSS change in AS from BL to week 204 was 0.98 (95% CI 0.34, 1.63); 0.67 (95% CI 0.21,1.13) from BL to week 96; and 0.31 (95% CI 0.02,0.60) from week 96 to week 204. Corresponding nr-axSpA changes were 0.06 (95% CI -0.17,0.28), -0.01 (95% CI -0.19,0.17) and 0.07 (95% CI -0.07,0.20). 4.5% of patients with nr-axSpA fulfilled the mNY criteria at week 204, while 4.3% of patients with AS no longer did so. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with CZP-treated axSpA, rapid decreases in spinal and SIJ MRI inflammation were maintained to week 204. Overall, 4-year spinal progression was low, with less progression during years 2-4 than 0-2. Radiographic SIJ grading changes demonstrated limited progression. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT01087762; Post-results.
Project description:To report MRI outcomes and explore the relationship between clinical remission and MRI inflammation in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) from the RAPID-axSpA trial, including radiographic (r-)axSpA and non-radiographic (nr-)axSpA.RAPID-axSpA (NCT01087762) was double-blind and placebo-controlled to week 24, dose-blind to week 48 and open-label to week 204. Patients were randomised to certolizumab pegol (CZP) or placebo. Placebo patients entering dose-blind were rerandomised to CZP. MRIs performed at baseline, weeks 12, 48 and 96 were scored by 2 reviewers independently: Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) for sacroiliac (SI) joints; Berlin modification of the Ankylosing Spondylitis spine MRI scoring system for disease activity (Berlin) for spine. Inflammation thresholds: SPARCC?2; Berlin>2. Remission thresholds: SPARCC<2 (SI joints); Berlin?2 (spine); Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) inactive disease (<1.3, clinical).Across 163 patients in the MRI set (109 CZP; 54 placebo), week 12 mean changes from baseline in MRI scores were greater for CZP versus placebo: SPARCC: -4.8 (SD 8.6) vs -1.6 (7.8; p<0.001); Berlin: -2.9 (4.2) vs 0.2 (4.8; p<0.001). Improvements were maintained to week 96. Week 12 MRI remission was achieved by 52.6% of patients with baseline MRI inflammation in SI joints, 62.0% in the spine and 37.9% of patients with both. MRI remission rates were sustained to week 96, with similar trends in r-axSpA and nr-axSpA. At week 96, 57.5% vs 65.9% of patients achieving versus not achieving clinical remission had MRI remission.CZP reduced inflammation in the spine and SI joints in patients with r-axSpA and nr-axSpA, with improvements maintained over 96?weeks. Substantial proportions of patients achieved MRI remission. Concordance between clinical remission and current definitions of absence of MRI inflammation was limited.NCT01087762; Post-results.
Project description:To evaluate the impact on structural lesions observed on MRI in the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) at 12 weeks in patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) receiving etanercept or placebo in EMBARK (Effect of Etanercept on Symptoms and Objective Inflammation in nr-axSpA, a 104 week study).Patients were randomised to double-blind etanercept 50?mg/week or placebo for 12 weeks. Structural lesions at baseline and 12 weeks were scored by two independent readers using the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) SIJ structural score (SSS) on T1-weighted MRI. Change in SPARCC SSS and correlation with improvement in clinical outcomes was evaluated.MRI scans from 185 patients (etanercept, n=88; placebo, n=97) were reviewed. At baseline, there were no significant differences in mean SPARCC SSS between etanercept and placebo. From baseline to 12 weeks, change in mean SPARCC SSS was significantly greater for etanercept than placebo for erosion (-0.57 vs -0.08, respectively, adjusted p value=0.017) and backfill (0.36 vs 0.06, adjusted p value=0.022). A treatment difference was also present for the subgroup of patients with SIJ inflammation on MRI (SPARCC bone marrow oedema ?2): erosion: -0.81 versus -0.13 for etanercept versus placebo, respectively, p=0.007; backfill: 0.48 versus 0.08, respectively, p=0.032. Decrease in erosion and increase in backfill correlated with improvement in more clinical outcomes for etanercept than placebo.Treatment with etanercept was associated with significantly greater reduction in erosions and increase in backfill at 12 weeks compared with placebo, consistent with a very early reparative response to antitumour necrosis factor therapy. The impact on disease progression in spondyloarthritis should be studied further.NCT01258738; Post-results.
Project description:Studies have shown that structural lesions may be present in patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA). However, the relevance of structural lesions in these patients is unclear, particularly without signs of inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We assessed the presence of structural lesions at baseline on MRI in the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) of patients with nr-axSpA with and without SIJ inflammation on MRI.Bone marrow edema (BME) was assessed on short tau inversion recovery (STIR) scans from 185 patients with nr-axSpA, by two independent readers at baseline using the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) score. Structural lesions were evaluated on T1 weighted spin echo scans, with readers blinded to STIR scans, using the SPARCC MRI SIJ structural score. Disease characteristics and structural lesions were compared in patients with SIJ BME (score ≥2) and without SIJ BME (score <2).Both SIJ BME and structural lesions scores were available for 183 patients; 128/183 (69.9%) patients had SIJ BME scores ≥2 and 55/183 (30.1%) had scores <2. Frequencies of MRI structural lesions in patients with vs without SIJ BME were: erosions (45.3% vs 10.9%, P < 0.001), backfill (20.3% vs 0%, P < 0.001), fat metaplasia (10.9% vs 1.8%, P = 0.04), and ankylosis (2.3% vs 1.8%, P = ns). Significantly more patients with both SIJ BME and structural lesions were male and/or HLA-B27 positive than patients with only SIJ BME. Mean (SD) spinal scores (23 discovertebral units) were significantly higher in patients with SIJ structural lesions than without: 6.5 (11.5) vs 3.3 (5.1), respectively, P = 0.01.In patients with nr-axSpA, SIJ structural lesions, particularly erosions, may be present on MRI when radiographs are normal or inconclusive, even in patients negative for MRI SIJ inflammation. They may reflect more severe disease with greater spinal inflammation.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01258738 . Registered on 9 December 2010.
Project description:The aim was to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of certolizumab pegol over 4 years of continuous treatment in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), including both AS and non-radiographic (nr-) axSpA.RAPID-axSpA was a phase 3 randomized trial, double blind and placebo controlled to week 24, dose blind to week 48 and open label to week 204. Patients had a clinical diagnosis of axSpA, meeting Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria, and had active disease. The assessed outcomes included ASAS20, ASAS40, AS DAS (ASDAS), BASDAI, BASFI and BASMI scores, along with selected measures of remission. Further patient-reported outcomes, peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, uveitis and quality-of-life measures are also reported.Two hundred and eighteen of 325 patients randomized (AS: 121; nr-axSpA: 97) received certolizumab pegol from week 0. Of these, 65% remained in the study at week 204 (AS: 67%; nr-axSpA: 63%). Across all outcomes, for AS and nr-axSpA, sustained improvements were observed to week 204 [week 204 overall axSpA: ASAS20: 54.1% (non-responder imputation); 83.7% (observed case, OC); ASAS40: 44.0% (non-responder imputation); 68.1% (OC); ASDAS inactive disease: 32.1% (last observation carried forward); 31.4% (OC)]. In the safety set (n = 315), there were 292.8 adverse events and 10.4 serious adverse events per 100 patient-years. No deaths were reported.In the first study to evaluate the efficacy of an anti-TNF across both axSpA subpopulations, improvements in clinical and patient-reported outcomes at 24 and 96 weeks were sustained through 4 years of treatment, with no new safety signals.ClinicalTrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01087762.
Project description:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adalimumab in patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA).Patients fulfilled Assessment of Spondyloarthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria for axial spondyloarthritis, had a Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) score of ??4, total back pain score of ??4 (10 cm visual analogue scale) and inadequate response, intolerance or contraindication to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); patients fulfilling modified New York criteria for ankylosing spondylitis were excluded. Patients were randomised to adalimumab (N=91) or placebo (N=94). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients achieving ASAS40 at week 12. Efficacy assessments included BASDAI and Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS). MRI was performed at baseline and week 12 and scored using the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) index.Significantly more patients in the adalimumab group achieved ASAS40 at week 12 compared with patients in the placebo group (36% vs 15%, p<0.001). Significant clinical improvements based on other ASAS responses, ASDAS and BASDAI were also detected at week 12 with adalimumab treatment, as were improvements in quality of life measures. Inflammation in the spine and sacroiliac joints on MRI significantly decreased after 12 weeks of adalimumab treatment. Shorter disease duration, younger age, elevated baseline C-reactive protein or higher SPARCC MRI sacroiliac joint scores were associated with better week 12 responses to adalimumab. The safety profile was consistent with what is known for adalimumab in ankylosing spondylitis and other diseases.In patients with nr-axSpA, adalimumab treatment resulted in effective control of disease activity, decreased inflammation and improved quality of life compared with placebo. Results from ABILITY-1 suggest that adalimumab has a positive benefit-risk profile in active nr-axSpA patients with inadequate response to NSAIDs.
Project description:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of etanercept (ETN) after 48?weeks in patients with early active non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA).Patients meeting Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) classification criteria for axSpA, but not modified New York radiographic criteria, received double-blind ETN 50?mg/week or placebo (PBO) for 12?weeks, then open-label ETN (ETN/ETN or PBO/ETN). Clinical, health, productivity, MRI and safety outcomes were assessed and the 48-week data are presented here.208/225 patients (92%) entered the open-label phase at week 12 (ETN, n=102; PBO, n=106). The percentage of patients achieving ASAS40 increased from 33% to 52% between weeks 12 and 48 for ETN/ETN and from 15% to 53% for PBO/ETN (within-group p value <0.001 for both). For ETN/ETN and PBO/ETN, the EuroQol 5 Dimensions utility score improved by 0.14 and 0.08, respectively, between baseline and week 12 and by 0.23 and 0.22 between baseline and week 48. Between weeks 12 and 48, MRI Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada sacroiliac joint (SIJ) scores decreased by -1.1 for ETN/ETN and by -3.0 for PBO/ETN, p<0.001 for both. Decreases in MRI SIJ inflammation and C-reactive protein correlated with several clinical outcomes at weeks 12 and 48.Patients with early active nr-axSpA demonstrated improvement from week 12 in clinical, health, productivity and MRI outcomes that was sustained to 48?weeks.NCT01258738.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of certolizumab pegol (CZP) after 24 weeks in RAPID-axSpA (NCT01087762), an ongoing Phase 3 trial in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), including patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic axSpA (nr-axSpA). METHODS:Patients with active axSpA were randomised 1:1:1 to placebo, CZP 200 mg every 2 weeks (Q2W) or CZP 400 mg every 4 weeks (Q4W). In total 325 patients were randomised. Primary endpoint was ASAS20 (Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society 20) response at week 12. Secondary outcomes included change from baseline in Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) linear. RESULTS:Baseline disease activity was similar between AS and nr-axSpA. At week 12, ASAS20 response rates were significantly higher in CZP 200 mg Q2W and CZP 400 mg Q4W arms versus placebo (57.7 and 63.6 vs 38.3, p?0.004). At week 24, combined CZP arms showed significant (p<0.001) differences in change from baseline versus placebo in BASFI (-2.28 vs -0.40), BASDAI (-3.05 vs -1.05), and BASMI (-0.52 vs -0.07). Improvements were observed as early as week 1. Similar improvements were reported with CZP versus placebo in both AS and nr-axSpA subpopulations. Adverse events were reported in 70.4% vs 62.6%, and serious adverse events in 4.7% vs 4.7% of All CZP versus placebo groups. No deaths or malignancies were reported. CONCLUSIONS:CZP rapidly reduced the signs and symptoms of axSpA, with no new safety signals observed compared to the safety profile of CZP in RA. Similar improvements were observed across CZP dosing regimens, and in AS and nr-axSpA patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adalimumab was effective in treating patients with nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) in the 12-week ABILITY-1 trial. We present long-term efficacy and safety results of adalimumab from the open-label ABILITY-1 extension, including the relationship between clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remission and impact of sustained clinical remission on physical function. METHODS:Patients received adalimumab 40 mg every other week or placebo for 12 weeks, then open-label adalimumab for up to 144 weeks. Clinical and safety data were collected through 3 years, and MRI data were collected until 2 years. Analyses were performed in the total population and subpopulation with positive MRI and/or elevated C-reactive protein (MRI/CRP-positive) at baseline. Clinical and MRI remission definitions included Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score inactive disease (ASDAS ID; score < 1.3) and Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) MRI score < 2 for sacroiliac joints (SIJs), spine, or both. Physical function was assessed using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index. RESULTS:Overall, 185 patients were included in the total population and 142 in the MRI/CRP-positive subpopulation; 65% and 68%, respectively, completed 3 years. Clinical, functional, and MRI improvements were similar and equally sustainable in both populations. At year 3, the percentages of patients in ASDAS ID in the MRI/CRP-positive subpopulation were 30%/33% (nonresponder imputation) and 46%/49% (observed) for those initially receiving adalimumab/placebo. At years 1 and 2, patients in ASDAS ID vs not had significantly greater improvements in SPARCC SIJ scores from baseline (P < 0.001). Among patients with baseline MRI scores ≥ 2 who achieved ASDAS ID at year 2, 44-68% also had MRI remission. Significantly more patients with sustained ASDAS ID through year 2 or 3 vs without achieved normal physical function (100% vs 48%; 100% vs 44%; both P < 0.001). No new safety concerns were observed. CONCLUSIONS:In the ABILITY-1 study of nr-axSpA, adalimumab therapy provided sustained clinical and functional improvements through 3 years, as well as suppression of MRI axial inflammation, which was greater in patients who achieved clinical remission. Sustained clinical remission was associated with increased attainment of normal physical function. The safety profile of adalimumab was consistent with prior studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT00939003 ; registered on July 10, 2009.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To be eligible to receive treatment with an anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF), non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) patients require either elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) (CRP > upper limit of normal (ULN)) or magnetic resonance imaging assessment showing inflammation of the sacroiliac joints, in addition to meeting criteria for high disease activity. Many axSpA patients are classified as 'CRP-negative', or CRP normal, despite having levels close to the ULN, and are therefore formally ineligible for treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the likelihood of a CRP test indicating elevated levels in axSpA patients that have previously tested CRP normal. METHODS:RAPID-axSpA (NCT01087762) enrolled patients who were either magnetic resonance imaging positive or had elevated CRP (> ULN: 7.9 mg/L). CRP data from the double-blind period for placebo-randomised patients until re-randomisation to certolizumab pegol (week 16 for ASAS20 non-responders/week 24 for ASAS20 responders) were analysed. CRP was assessed at screening, baseline, and nine time points to week 24. Linear mixed models were used to investigate time trends, variability, and correlations of CRP data. RESULTS:Of 106 placebo-randomised patients with baseline CRP assessments, 26 (25%) tested CRP normal at baseline, of whom 13 (50%) had ≥ 1 test indicating elevated CRP to week 16. Of 80/106 (75%) patients with elevated baseline CRP, 25 (31%) had ≥ 1 normal CRP test to week 16. Linear mixed models did not reveal changes in mean CRP across placebo patients from baseline to week 24. CONCLUSIONS:In axSpA patients with CRP < ULN the CRP test should be repeated after ≥ 4 weeks as there is a substantial chance of finding a positive result for elevated CRP at subsequent testing, thereby allowing the patient access to treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01087762 . Registered on 16 March 2010.
Project description:To study the relationship between inflammatory and structural lesions in the sacroiliac joints (SIJs) on MRI and spinal progression observed on conventional radiographs in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA).One hundred and ten patients who fulfilled the ASAS axSpA criteria were enrolled. All underwent SIJ MRI at baseline and lumbar spine radiographs at baseline and after 2 years. Inflammatory and structural lesions on SIJ MRI were scored using the SPondyloArthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) method. Spinal radiographs were scored using the Stoke AS Spinal Score (SASSS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of spinal progression.Among the 110 patients, 25 (23%) showed significant radiographic progression (change of SASSS?2) over 2 years. There was no change in the SASSS over 2 years according to the type of inflammatory lesion. Patients with fat metaplasia or ankyloses on baseline MRI showed a significantly higher SASSS at 2 years than those without (p<0.001). According to univariate logistic regression analysis, age at diagnosis, HLA-B27 positivity, the presence of fat metaplasia, erosion, and ankyloses on SIJ MRI, increased baseline CRP levels, and the presence of syndesmophytes at baseline were associated with spinal progression over 2 years. Multivariate analysis identified syndesmophytes and severe fat metaplasia on baseline SIJ MRI as predictive of spinal radiographic progression (OR, 14.74 and 5.66, respectively).Inflammatory lesions in the SIJs on baseline MRI were not associated with spinal radiographic progression. However, fat metaplasia at baseline was significantly associated with spinal progression after 2 years.