Foot-and-mouth disease virus type O specific mutations determine RNA-dependent RNA polymerase fidelity and virus attenuation.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that the FMDV Asia1/YS/CHA/05 high-fidelity mutagen-resistant variants are attenuated (Zeng et al., 2014). Here, we introduced the same single or multiple-amino-acid substitutions responsible for increased 3Dpol fidelity of type Asia1 FMDV into the type O FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 infectious clone. The rescued viruses O-DA and O-DAMM are lower replication fidelity mutants and showed an attenuated phenotype. These results demonstrated that the same amino acid substitution of 3Dpol in different serotypes of FMDV strains had different effects on viral fidelity. In addition, nucleoside analogues were used to select high-fidelity mutagen-resistant type O FMDV variants. The rescued mutagen-resistant type O FMDV high-fidelity variants exhibited significantly attenuated fitness and a reduced virulence phenotype. These results have important implications for understanding the molecular mechanism of FMDV evolution and pathogenicity, especially in developing a safer modified live-attenuated vaccine against FMDV.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) exhibits a high degree of antigenic variability. Studies of the antigenic diversity and determination of amino acid changes involved in this diversity are important to the design of broadly protective new vaccines. Although extensive studies have been carried out to explore the molecular basis of the antigenic variation of serotype O and serotype A FMDV, there are few reports on Asia1 serotype FMDV.<h4>Methods</h4>Two serotype Asia1 viruses, Asia1/YS/CHA/05 and Asia1/1/YZ/CHA/06, which show differential reactivity to the neutralizing monoclonal antibody (nMAb) 1B4, were subjected to sequence comparison. Then a reverse genetics system was used to generate mutant versions of Asia1/YS/CHA/05 followed by comparative analysis of the antigenicity, growth property and pathogenicity in the suckling mice.<h4>Results</h4>Three amino acid differences were observed when the structural protein coding sequences of Asia1/1/YZ/CHA/06 were compared to that of Asia1/YS/CHA/05. Site-directed mutagenesis and Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the amino acid substitution in the B-C loop of the VP2 protein at position 72 is responsible for the antigenic difference between the two Asia1 FMDV strains. Furthermore, alignment of the amino acid sequences of VP2 proteins from serotype Asia1 FMDV strains deposited in GenBank revealed that most of the serotype Asia1 FMDV strains contain an Asn residue at position 72 of VP2. Therefore, we constructed a mutant virus carrying an Asp-to-Asn substitution at position 72 and named it rD72N. Our analysis shows that the Asp-to-Asn substitution inhibited the ability of the rD72N virus to react with the MAb 1B4 in immunofluorescence and neutralization assays. In addition, this substitution decreased the growth rate of the virus in BHK-21 cells and decreased the virulence of the virus in suckling mice compared with the Asia1/YS/CHA/05 parental strain.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results suggest that variations in domains other than the hyper variable VP1 G-H loop (amino acid 140 to 160) are relevant to the antigenic diversity of FMDV. In addition, amino acid substitutions in the VP2 influenced replicative ability and virulence of the virus. Thus, special consideration should be given to the VP2 protein in research on structure-function relationships and in the development of an FMDV vaccine.
Project description:Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) (3Dpol) catalyzes viral RNA synthesis. Its characteristic low fidelity and absence of proofreading activity allow FMDV to rapidly mutate and adapt to dynamic environments. In this study, we used the structure of FMDV 3Dpol in combination with previously reported results from similar picornaviral polymerases to design point mutations that would alter replication fidelity. In particular, we targeted Trp237 within conserved polymerase motif A because of the low reversion potential inherent in the single UGG codon. Using biochemical and genetic tools, we show that the replacement of tryptophan 237 with phenylalanine imparts higher fidelity, but replacements with isoleucine and leucine resulted in lower-fidelity phenotypes. Viruses containing these W237 substitutions show in vitro growth kinetics and plaque morphologies similar to those of the wild-type (WT) A24 Cruzeiro strain in BHK cells, and both high- and low-fidelity variants retained fitness during coinfection with the wild-type virus. The higher-fidelity W237F (W237FHF) mutant virus was more resistant to the mutagenic nucleoside analogs ribavirin and 5-fluorouracil than the WT virus, whereas the lower-fidelity W237I (W237ILF) and W237LLF mutant viruses exhibited lower ribavirin resistance. Interestingly, the variant viruses showed heterogeneous and slightly delayed growth kinetics in primary porcine kidney cells, and they were significantly attenuated in mouse infection experiments. These data demonstrate, for a single virus, that either increased or decreased RdRp fidelity attenuates virus growth in animals, which is a desirable feature for the development of safer and genetically more stable vaccine candidates.IMPORTANCE Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most devastating disease affecting livestock worldwide. Here, using structural and biochemical analyses, we have identified FMDV 3Dpol mutations that affect polymerase fidelity. Recombinant FMDVs containing substitutions at 3Dpol tryptophan residue 237 were genetically stable and displayed plaque phenotypes and growth kinetics similar to those of the wild-type virus in cell culture. We further demonstrate that viruses harboring either a W237FHF substitution or W237ILF and W237LLF mutations were highly attenuated in animals. Our study shows that obtaining 3Dpol fidelity variants by protein engineering based on polymerase structure and function could be exploited for the development of attenuated FMDV vaccine candidates that are safer and more stable than strains obtained by selective pressure via mutagenic nucleotides or adaptation approaches.
Project description:Foot and mouth disease induced by foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is severe threat to cloven-hoofed domestic animals. The gene 3Dpol in FMDV genome encodes the viral RNA polymerase, a vital element for FMDV replication. In this study, a conserved 3D-7414shRNA targeting FMDV-3Dpol gene was designed and injected into pronuclear embryos to produce the transgenic goats. Sixty-one goats were produced, of which, seven goats positively integrated 3D-7414shRNA. Loss of function assay demonstrated that siRNA effectively knockdown 3Dpol gene in skin epithelium cells of transgenic goats. Subsequently, the tongue epithelium cells from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were infected with FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 strain. A significant decrease of virus titres and virus copy number was observed in cells of transgenic goats compared with that of non-transgenic goats, which indicated that 3D-7414siRNA inhibited FMDV replication by interfering FMDV-3Dpol gene. Furthermore, we found that expression of TLR7, RIG-I and TRAF6 was lower in FMDV infected cells from transgenic goats compared to that from non-transgenic goats, which might result from lower virus copy number in transgenic goats' cells. In conclusion, we successfully produced transgenic goats highly expressing 3D-7414siRNA targeting 3Dpol gene, and the tongue epithelium cells from the transgenic goats showed effective resistance to FMDV.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia1 generally infects cattle and sheep, while its infection of pigs is rarely reported. In 2005-2007, FMD outbreaks caused by Asia1 type occurred in many regions of China, as well as some parts of East Asia countries. During the outbreaks, there was not any report that pigs were found to be clinically infected. RESULTS: In this study, a strain of FMDV that isolated from pigs was identified as serotype Asia1, and designated as "Asia1/WHN/CHA/06". To investigate the genomic feature of the strain, complete genome of Asia1/WHN/CHA/06 was sequenced and compared with sequences of other FMDVs by phylogenetic and recombination analysis. The complete genome of Asia1/WHN/CHA/06 was 8161 nucleotides (nt) in length, and was closer to JS/CHA/05 than to all other strains. Potential recombination events associated with Asia1/WHN/CHA/06 were found between JS/CHA/05 and HNK/CHA/05 strains with partial 3B and 3C fragments. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the isolation and identification of a strain of FMDV type Asia1 from naturally infected pigs. The Asia1/WHN/CHA/06 strain may evolve from the recombination of JS/CHA/05 and HNK/CHA/05 strains.
Project description:Mutagenic nucleoside analogues can be used to isolate RNA virus high-fidelity RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) variants, the majority of which are attenuated in vivo. However, attenuated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) high-fidelity RdRp variants have not been isolated, and the correlations between RdRp fidelity and virulence remain unclear. Here, the mutagen ribavirin was used to select a ribavirin-resistant population of FMDV, and 4 amino acid substitutions (D5N, A38V, M194I, and M296V) were identified in the RdRp-coding region of the population. Through single or combined mutagenesis using a reverse genetics system, we generated direct experimental evidence that the rescued D5N, A38V, and DAMM mutants but not the M194I and M296V mutants are high-fidelity RdRp variants. Mutagen resistance assays revealed that the higher replication fidelity was associated with higher-level resistance to ribavirin. In addition, significantly attenuated fitness and virulence phenotypes were observed for the D5N, A38V, and DAMM mutants. Based on a systematic quantitative analysis of fidelity and virulence, we concluded that higher replication fidelity is associated with a more attenuated virus. These data suggest that the resulting restricted quasispecies diversity compromises the adaptability and virulence of an RNA virus population. The modulation of replication fidelity to attenuate virulence may represent a general strategy for the rational design of new types of live, attenuated vaccine strains.The ribavirin-isolated poliovirus (PV) RdRp G64S variant, the polymerases of which were of high replication fidelity, was attenuated in vivo. It has been proposed (M. Vignuzzi, E. Wendt, and R. Andino, Nat. Med. 14:154-161, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm1726) that modulation of replication fidelity is a promising approach for engineering attenuated virus vaccines. The subsequently mutagen-isolated RdRp variants also expressed the high-fidelity polymerase, but not all of them were attenuated. Few studies have shown the exact correlation between fidelity and virulence. The present study investigates the effect of restricted quasispecies diversity on viral virulence via several attenuated FMDV high-fidelity RdRp variants. Our findings may aid in the rational design of a new type of vaccine strain.
Project description:The molecular basis of attenuation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia1 ZB strain remains unknown. To understand the genetic changes of attenuation, we compared the entire genomes of three different rabbit-passaged attenuated ZB strains (ZB/CHA/58(att), ZBRF168, and ZBRF188) and their virulent parental strains (ZBCF22 and YNBS/58). The results showed that attenuation may be brought about by 28 common amino acid substitutions in the coding region, with one nucleotide point mutation in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and another one in the 3'-UTR. In addition, a total of 21 nucleotides silent mutations had been found after attenuation. These substitutions, alone or in combination, may be responsible for the attenuated phenotype of the ZB strain in cattle. This will contribute to elucidation of attenuating molecular basis of the FMDV ZB strain.
Project description:Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) uses a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) triplet for attachment to host cells and this motif is believed to be essential for virus viability. Previous sequence analyses of the 1D-encoding region of an FMDV field isolate (Asia1/JS/CHA/05) and its two derivatives indicated that two viruses, which contained an Arg-Asp-Asp (RDD) or an Arg-Ser-Asp (RSD) triplet instead of the RGD integrin recognition motif, were generated serendipitously upon short-term evolution of field isolate in different biological environments. To examine the influence of single amino acid substitutions in the receptor binding site of the RDD-containing FMD viral genome on virus viability and the ability of non-RGD FMDVs to cause disease in susceptible animals, we constructed an RDD-containing FMDV full-length cDNA clone and derived mutant molecules with RGD or RSD receptor recognition motifs. Following transfection of BSR cells with the full-length genome plasmids, the genetically engineered viruses were examined for their infectious potential in cell culture and susceptible animals.Amino acid sequence analysis of the 1D-coding region of different derivatives derived from the Asia1/JS/CHA/05 field isolate revealed that the RDD mutants became dominant or achieved population equilibrium with coexistence of the RGD and RSD subpopulations at an early phase of type Asia1 FMDV quasispecies evolution. Furthermore, the RDD and RSD sequences remained genetically stable for at least 20 passages. Using reverse genetics, the RDD-, RSD-, and RGD-containing FMD viruses were rescued from full-length cDNA clones, and single amino acid substitution in RDD-containing FMD viral genome did not affect virus viability. The genetically engineered viruses replicated stably in BHK-21 cells and had similar growth properties to the parental virus. The RDD parental virus and two non-RGD recombinant viruses were virulent to pigs and bovines that developed typical clinical disease and viremia.FMDV quasispecies evolving in a different biological environment gained the capability of selecting different receptor recognition site. The RDD-containing FMD viral genome can accommodate substitutions in the receptor binding site without additional changes in the capsid. The viruses expressing non-RGD receptor binding sites can replicate stably in vitro and produce typical FMD clinical disease in susceptible animals.
Project description:Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes O, A and Asia1 are responsible for a significant number of disease outbreaks in Iraq. The current study can be considered as the first molecular characterization of serotype Asia1 in Iraq. The present investigation reports the detection of serotype FMDV Asia1 from local farms in Sulaimani districts in 2012 and 2014 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete VP1 gene has shown that FMDV Asia1 field isolates were under genetic novel variant Sindh-08 (group VII) including PAK/iso/11 and TUR/13 strains. The VP1 protein sequence of circulatory FMDV Asia1 genotype showed heterogeneity of nine amino acid substitutions within the G-H loop with the vaccine strain As1/Shamir/89 (JF739177) that is currently used in vaccination program in Iraq. Our result indicated that differences in VP1 protein at G-H loop of the locally circulated FMDV serotype Asia1 strain may be a reason for current vaccination failure.
Project description:Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), with its seven serotypes, is a highly contagious virus infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. The serotype Asia1 occurs mainly in Asian regions. An in-silico approach was taken to reveal the antigenic heterogeneities within the capsid protein VP1 of Asia1. A total of 47 VP1 sequences of Asia1 isolates from different countries of South Asian regions were selected, retrieved from database, and were aligned. The structure of VP1 protein was modeled using a homology modeling approach. Several antigenic sites were identified and mapped onto the three-dimensional protein structure. Variations at these antigenic sites were analyzed by calculating the protein variability index and finding mutation combinations. The data suggested that vaccine escape mutants have derived from only few mutations at several antigenic sites. Five antigenic peptides have been identified as the least variable epitopes, with just fewer amino acid substitutions. Only a limited number of serotype Asia1 antigenic variants were found to be circulated within the South Asian region. This emphasizes a possibility of formulating synthetic vaccines for controlling foot-and-mouth disease by Asia1 serotypes.
Project description:Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious diseases of cloven-hoofed animals. Disinfectants are used to inactivate FMD virus (FMDV) in Japan. Reports that heat-denatured lysozyme inactivates bacteria as well as viruses, such as norovirus and hepatitis A virus, led us to determine its effects on FMDV. We show here that heat-denatured lysozyme partially inhibited the infectivity of FMDV O/JPN/2010-1/14C but of FMDVs A/TAI/46-1/2015 and Asia1/Shamir (ISR/3/89). Further, heat-denatured lysozyme variably reduced RNA loads of FMDVs O/JPN/2010-1/14C, O/MOG/2/Ca/BU/2017, O/Taiwan/1997, Asia1/Shamir (ISR/3/89), Asia1/TUR/49/2011, SAT1/KEN/117/2009, SAT2/SAU/6/2000 and SAT3/ZIM/3/83 but could not those of O/JPN/2000, A/TAI/46-1/2015, A<sub>22</sub>/IRQ/24/64, A<sub>15</sub>/TAI/1/60 and C/PHI/7/84. These findings indicate that heat-denatured lysozyme may serve as a new disinfectant against FMDV.