Diaphragm function and weaning from mechanical ventilation: an ultrasound and phrenic nerve stimulation clinical study.
ABSTRACT: Diaphragm dysfunction is defined by a value of twitch tracheal pressure in response to magnetic phrenic stimulation (twitch pressure) amounting to less than 11 cmH2O. This study assessed whether this threshold or a lower one would predict accurately weaning failure from mechanical ventilation. Twitch pressure was compared to ultrasound measurement of diaphragm function.In patients undergoing a first spontaneous breathing trial, diaphragm function was evaluated by twitch pressure and by diaphragm ultrasound (thickening fraction). Receiver operating characteristics curves were computed to determine the best thresholds predicting failure of spontaneous breathing trial.Seventy-six patients were evaluated, 48 (63%) succeeded and 28 (37%) failed the spontaneous breathing trial. The optimal thresholds of twitch pressure and thickening fraction to predict failure of the spontaneous breathing trial were, respectively, 7.2 cmH2O and 25.8%, respectively. The receiver operating characteristics curves were 0.80 (95% CI 0.70-0.89) for twitch pressure and 0.82 (95% CI 0.73-0.93) for thickening fraction. Both receiver operating characteristics curves were similar (p?=?0.83). A twitch pressure value lower than 11 cmH2O (the traditional cutoff for diaphragm dysfunction) predicted failure of the spontaneous breathing trial with a sensitivity of 89% (95% CI 72-98%) and a specificity of 45% (95% CI 30-60%).Failure of spontaneous breathing trial can be predicted with a lower value of twitch pressure than the value defining diaphragm dysfunction. Twitch pressure and thickening fraction had similar strong performance in the prediction of failure of the spontaneous breathing trial.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diaphragm paresis is common after cardiac surgery and may delay the weaning from the ventilator. Our objective was to evaluate diaphragm thickening during weaning and secondly the muscle thickness as a marker of myotrauma. METHODS:Patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were prospectively included. Ultrasonic index of right hemidiaphragm thickening fraction (TF) was measured as a surrogate criterion of work of breathing. A TF?<?20% was defined as a low diaphragm thickening. Measurements of TF were performed during three periods to study diaphragm thickening evolution defined by the difference between two consecutive time line point: preoperative (D?-?1), during a spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) in the intensive care unit and postoperative (D?+?1). We studied three patterns of diaphragm thickness at end expiration evolution from D?-?1 to D?+?1:?>?10% decrease, stability and?>?10% increase. Demographical data, length of surgery, type of surgery, ICU length of stay (LOS) and extubation failure were collected. RESULTS:Of the 100 consecutively included patients, 75 patients had a low diaphragm thickening during SBT. Compared to TF values at D?-?1 (36%?±?18), TF was reduced during SBT (17%?±?14) and D?+?1 (12%?±?11) (P?<?0.0001). Thickness and TF did not change according to the type of surgery or cooling method. TF at SBT was correlated to the length of surgery (both r?=?-?0.4; P?<?0.0001). Diaphragm thickness as continuous variable did not change over time. Twenty-eight patients (42%) had a?>?10% decrease thickness, 19 patients (29%) stability and 19 patients (28%) in?>?10% increase, and this thickness evolution pattern was associated with: a longer LOS 3 days [2-5] versus 2 days [2-4] and 2 days , respectively (ANOVA P?=?0.046), and diaphragm thickening evolution (ANOVA P?=?0.02). Two patients experience extubation failure. CONCLUSION:These findings indicate that diaphragm thickening is frequently decreased after elective cardiac surgery without impact on respiratory outcome, whereas an altered thickness pattern was associated with a longer length of stay in the ICU. Contractile activity influenced thickness evolution. Trial registry number ClinicalTrial.gov ID NCT02208479.
Project description:Based on the hypothesis that failure of weaning from mechanical ventilation is caused by respiratory demand exceeding the capacity of the respiratory muscles, we evaluated whether extubation failure could be characterized by increased respiratory drive and impaired efficiency to generate inspiratory pressure and ventilation.Airway pressure, flow, volume, breathing frequency, and diaphragm electrical activity were measured in a heterogeneous group of patients deemed ready for a spontaneous breathing trial. Efficiency to convert neuromuscular activity into inspiratory pressure was calculated as the ratio of negative airway pressure and diaphragm electrical activity during an inspiratory occlusion. Efficiency to convert neuromuscular activity into volume was calculated as the ratio of the tidal volume to diaphragm electrical activity. All variables were obtained during a 30-minute spontaneous breathing trial on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of 5 cm H?O and compared between patients for whom extubation succeeded with those for whom either the spontaneous breathing trial failed or for those who passed, but then the extubation failed.Of 52 patients enrolled in the study, 35 (67.3%) were successfully extubated, and 17 (32.7%) were not. Patients for whom it failed had higher diaphragm electrical activity (48%; P < 0.001) and a lower efficiency to convert neuromuscular activity into inspiratory pressure and tidal volume (40% (P < 0.001) and 53% (P < 0.001)), respectively. Neuroventilatory efficiency demonstrated the greatest predictability for weaning success.This study shows that a mixed group of critically ill patients for whom weaning fails have increased neural respiratory drive and impaired ability to convert neuromuscular activity into tidal ventilation, in part because of diaphragm weakness.Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01065428.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Prolonged controlled mechanical ventilation depresses diaphragmatic efficiency. Assisted modes of ventilation should improve it. We assessed the impact of pressure support ventilation versus neurally adjusted ventilator assist on diaphragmatic efficiency.<h4>Method</h4>Patients previously ventilated with controlled mechanical ventilation for 72 hours or more were randomized to be ventilated for 48 hours with pressure support ventilation (n =12) or neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (n = 13). Neuro-ventilatory efficiency (tidal volume/diaphragmatic electrical activity) and neuro-mechanical efficiency (pressure generated against the occluded airways/diaphragmatic electrical activity) were measured during three spontaneous breathing trials (0, 24 and 48 hours). Breathing pattern, diaphragmatic electrical activity and pressure time product of the diaphragm were assessed every 4 hours.<h4>Results</h4>In patients randomized to neurally adjusted ventilator assist, neuro-ventilatory efficiency increased from 27 ± 19 ml/?V at baseline to 62 ± 30 ml/?V at 48 hours (p <0.0001) and neuro-mechanical efficiency increased from 1 ± 0.6 to 2.6 ± 1.1 cmH2O/?V (p = 0.033). In patients randomized to pressure support ventilation, these did not change. Electrical activity of the diaphragm, neural inspiratory time, pressure time product of the diaphragm and variability of the breathing pattern were significantly higher in patients ventilated with neurally adjusted ventilatory assist. The asynchrony index was 9.48 [6.38- 21.73] in patients ventilated with pressure support ventilation and 5.39 [3.78- 8.36] in patients ventilated with neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (p = 0.04).<h4>Conclusion</h4>After prolonged controlled mechanical ventilation, neurally adjusted ventilator assist improves diaphragm efficiency whereas pressure support ventilation does not.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov study registration: NCT02473172, 06/11/2015.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diaphragm atrophy and dysfunction are consequences of mechanical ventilation and are determinants of clinical outcomes. We hypothesize that partial preservation of diaphragm function, such as during assisted modes of ventilation, will restore diaphragm thickness. We also aim to correlate the changes in diaphragm thickness and function to outcomes and clinical factors. METHODS:This is a prospective, multicentre, observational study. Patients mechanically ventilated for more than 48?h in controlled mode and eventually switched to assisted ventilation were enrolled. Diaphragm ultrasound and clinical data collection were performed every 48?h until discharge or death. A threshold of 10% was used to define thinning during controlled and recovery of thickness during assisted ventilation. Patients were also classified based on the level of diaphragm activity during assisted ventilation. We evaluated the association between changes in diaphragm thickness and activity and clinical outcomes and data, such as ventilation parameters. RESULTS:Sixty-two patients ventilated in controlled mode and then switched to the assisted mode of ventilation were enrolled. Diaphragm thickness significantly decreased during controlled ventilation (1.84?±?0.44 to 1.49?±?0.37?mm, p?<?0.001) and was partially restored during assisted ventilation (1.49?±?0.37 to 1.75?±?0.43?mm, p?<?0.001). A diaphragm thinning of more than 10% was associated with longer duration of controlled ventilation (10 [5, 15] versus 5 [4, 8.5] days, p?=?0.004) and higher PEEP levels (12.6?±?4 versus 10.4?±?4 cmH2O, p?=?0.034). An increase in diaphragm thickness of more than 10% during assisted ventilation was not associated with any clinical outcome but with lower respiratory rate (16.7?±?3.2 versus 19.2?±?4?bpm, p?=?0.019) and Rapid Shallow Breathing Index (37?±?11 versus 44?±?13, p?=?0.029) and with higher Pressure Muscle Index (2 [0.5, 3] versus 0.4 [0, 1.9], p?=?0.024). Change in diaphragm thickness was not related to diaphragm function expressed as diaphragm thickening fraction. CONCLUSION:Mode of ventilation affects diaphragm thickness, and preservation of diaphragmatic contraction, as during assisted modes, can partially reverse the muscle atrophy process. Avoiding a strenuous inspiratory work, as measured by Rapid Shallow Breathing Index and Pressure Muscle Index, may help diaphragm thickness restoration.
Project description:Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA) is a proportional ventilatory mode that uses the electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) to offer ventilatory assistance in proportion to patient effort. NAVA has been increasingly used for critically ill patients, but it has not been evaluated during spontaneous breathing trials (SBT). We designed a pilot trial to assess the feasibility of using NAVA during SBTs, and to compare the breathing pattern and patient-ventilator asynchrony of NAVA with Pressure Support (PSV) during SBTs.We conducted a crossover trial in the ICU of a university hospital in Brazil and included mechanically ventilated patients considered ready to undergo an SBT on the day of the study. Patients underwent two SBTs in randomized order: 30 min in PSV of 5 cmH2O or NAVA titrated to generate equivalent peak airway pressure (Paw), with a positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O. The ICU team, blinded to ventilatory mode, evaluated whether patients passed each SBT. We captured flow, Paw and electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) from the ventilator and used it to calculate respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume (VT), and EAdi. Detection of asynchrony events used waveform analysis and we calculated the asynchrony index as the number of asynchrony events divided by the number of neural cycles.We included 20 patients in the study. All patients passed the SBT in PSV, and three failed the SBT in NAVA. Five patients were reintubated and the extubation failure rate was 25% (95% CI 9-49%). Respiratory parameters were similar in the two modes: VT = 6.1 (5.5-6.5) mL/Kg in NAVA vs. 5.5 (4.8-6.1) mL/Kg in PSV (p = 0.076) and RR = 27 (17-30) rpm in NAVA vs. 26 (20-30) rpm in PSV, p = 0.55. NAVA reduced AI, with a median of 11.5% (4.2-19.7) compared to 24.3% (6.3-34.3) in PSV (p = 0.033).NAVA reduces patient-ventilator asynchrony index and generates a respiratory pattern similar to PSV during SBTs. Patients considered ready for mechanical ventilation liberation may be submitted to an SBT in NAVA using the same objective criteria used for SBTs in PSV.ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT01337271 ), registered April 12, 2011.
Project description:Weaning is the process of successfully liberating the patient from mechanical ventilation. The majority of patients will separate from the ventilator after a successful spontaneous breathing trial (SBT).1 In a minority of patients, weaning can be challenging and prolonged. Finding the cause of weaning difficulty is crucial to minimize the rates of extubation failure and prolonged ventilation. Diaphragm dysfunction (DD) has been described as a separate entity responsible for weaning failure with an incidence of 23–80%. It has also been associated with difficult weaning, prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mechanical ventilation, and increased ICU and hospital mortality.2 Sepsis, shock, and ventilator induced diaphragm dysfunction are important risk factors of DD. Diaphragm dysfunction has several mechanisms. Disuse atrophy and microstructural changes of the diaphragm have been described as the two cardinal pathophysiologic features. Establishing the diagnosis of DD can be complex in critically ill patients. Bilateral anterior magnetic phrenic stimulation is widely considered as the gold standard but is only available in large research centers with limited availability. Ultrasonography of the diaphragm is a promising tool given its wide availability, affordability, and non-invasive nature. Ultrasound is operator dependent, however and it does not provide continuous monitoring capabilities. The diaphragm thickening fraction (DTF) can be calculated from measuring the end-expiratory and end-inspiratory diaphragm thickness at the bedside. It correlates well with transdiaphragmatic pressure.3 Electromyography of the diaphragm may overcome the limitation of ultrasound by offering a continuous assessment of the diaphragmatic electrical activity, but it requires the placement of a specialized nasogastric tube. Management of DD is better approached by implementing a preventive and a curative strategy. From animal studies, allowing for spontaneous breathing on mechanical ventilation may prevent the problem. The degree of the recommended patient effort and ventilator assistance to achieve optimal balance between diaphragmatic loading and unloading are yet to be defined. Monitoring DTF while finding the optimal ventilator support level can be useful in this context. Another modality to prevent DD is diaphragm pacing applied through a transvenous phrenic nerve pacing system. Animal studies in pigs showed that this modality resulted in less diaphragm atrophy when pacing was synchronized with ventilation.4 There is an ongoing study to assess the role of diaphragm pacing to recondition and strengthen the diaphragm in difficult to wean mechanically ventilated patients (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03107949). Once diaphragm dysfunction is established, no specific treatments exist at this time. Other causes of weaning failure like cardiac dysfunction have to be excluded and treated. Improving respiratory load and respiratory muscle weakness imbalance is also crucial. While it appears to improve inspiratory muscle strength parameters, inspiratory muscle training has not consistently shown improvements in weaning success.5 Levosemindan showed some benefit in improving diaphragm contractility and efficiency in healthy volunteers but was later found to increase likelihood of weaning failure in septic patients. Anabolic steroids were not found to be effective in treating diaphragm dysfunction in several studies. More evidence is needed before recommending non-invasive ventilation post-extubation in all DD patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:During spontaneous breathing trial, low-pressure support is thought to compensate for endotracheal tube resistance, but it actually should provide overassistance. Automatic tube compensation is an option available in the ventilator to compensate for flow-resistance of endotracheal tube. Its effects on patient effort have been poorly investigated. We aimed to compare the effects of low-pressure support and automatic tube compensation during spontaneous breathing trial on breathing power and lung ventilation distribution. RESULTS:We performed a randomized crossover study in 20 patients ready to wean. Each patient received both methods for 30 min separated by baseline ventilation: pressure support 0 cmH2O and automatic tube compensation 100% in one period and pressure support 7 cmH2O without automatic tube compensation in the other period, a 4 cmH2O positive end-expiratory pressure being applied in each. Same ventilator brand (Evita XL, Draeger, Germany) was used. Breathing power was assessed from Campbell diagram with esophageal pressure, airway pressure, flow and volume recorded by a data logger. Lung ventilation distribution was assessed by using electrical impedance tomography (Pulmovista, Draeger, Germany). During the last 2 min of low-pressure support and automatic compensation period breathing power and lung ventilation distribution were measured on each breath. Breathing power generated by the patient's respiratory muscles was 7.2 (4.4-9.6) and 9.7 (5.7-21.9) J/min in low-pressure support and automatic tube compensation periods, respectively (P?=?0.011). Lung ventilation distribution was not different between the two methods. CONCLUSIONS:We found that ATC was associated with higher breathing power than low PS during SBT without altering the distribution of lung ventilation.
Project description:Background:Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a major treatment strategy for severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially with respiratory failure. However, it remains inconclusive whether CPAP affects respiratory mechanics and neural drive in stable COPD patients without respiratory failure. Methods:Twenty-two COPD patients without respiratory failure received CPAP starting from 4 to 10 cmH2O in 1 cmH2O increments. Respiratory pattern, end expiatory lung volume (EELV), dynamic PEEPi (PEEPidyn), airway resistance (Raw), pressure-time product of diaphragmatic pressure (PTPdi) and esophageal pressure (PTPeso), root mean square (RMS) of diaphragm electromyogram (EMGdi) and ratio of ventilation (Ve) to EMGdi (i.e., Ve/RMS) were measured before and at each level of continue positive airway pressure (CPAP). A subgroup analysis was performed between patients with and without inspiratory muscle weakness. Results:Nineteen patients completed the treatment. The respiratory pattern improved significantly after CPAP. Raw, PTPdi, and Pdi decreased significantly. ?EELV decreased at 4 cmH2O (P<0.05), but increased significantly at >8 cmH2O. PEEPidyn decreased from 2.18±0.98 to 1.37±0.55 cmH2O. RMS increased while Ve/RMS improved significantly after CPAP (P<0.05). Besides, CPAP could significantly improve respiratory mechanics in patients with inspiratory muscle weakness. Conclusions:CPAP improves respiratory pattern, PEEPi, Raw, work of breathing and efficiency of neural drive in COPD patients without respiratory failure, but easily increases dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation. These effects on respiratory mechanics are significant in patients with inspiratory muscle weakness.
Project description:Background:Although non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) is the gold standard treatment for patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) developing respiratory acidosis, failure rates still range from 5% to 40%. Recent studies have shown that the onset of severe diaphragmatic dysfunction (DD) during AECOPD increases risk of NIV failure and mortality in this subset of patients. Although the imbalance between the load and the contractile capacity of inspiratory muscles seems the main cause of AECOPD-induced hypercapnic respiratory failure, data regarding the influence of mechanical derangement on DD in this acute phase are lacking. With this study, we investigate the impact of respiratory mechanics on diaphragm function in AECOPD patients experiencing NIV failure. Methods:Twelve AECOPD patients with respiratory acidosis admitted to the Respiratory ICU of the University Hospital of Modena from 2017 to 2018 undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) due to NIV failure were enrolled. Static respiratory mechanics and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) were measured after 30 mins of volume control mode MV. Subsequently, transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) was calculated by means of a sniff maneuver (Pdisniff) after 30 mins of spontaneous breathing trial. Linear regression analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient served to assess associations. Results:Average Pdisniff was 23.3 cmH2O (standard deviation 29 cmH2O) with 3 patients presenting bilateral diaphragm palsy. Pdisniff was directly correlated with static lung elastance (r=0.69, p=0.001) while inverse correlation was found with dynamic intrinsic PEEP (r=-0.73, p=0.007). No significant correlation was found with static intrinsic PEEP (r=-0.55, p=0.06), EELV (r=-0.4, p=0.3), airway resistance (r=-0.2, p=0.54), chest wall, and total elastance (r=-0-01, p=0.96 and r=0.3, p=0.36, respectively). Significant linear inverse correlation was found between Pdisniff and the ratio between Pdi assessed at tidal volume and Pdi sniff (r=-0.82, p=0.02). Conclusion:The causes of extreme DD in AECOPD patients who experienced NIV failure might be predominantly mechanical, driven by a severe dynamic hyperinflation that overlaps on an elastic lung substrate favoring volume overload.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Studies indicate that mechanically ventilated patients develop significant diaphragm muscle weakness, but the etiology of weakness and its clinical impact remain incompletely understood. We assessed diaphragm strength in mechanically ventilated medical ICU patients, correlated the development of diaphragm weakness with multiple clinical parameters, and examined the relationship between the level of diaphragm weakness and patient outcomes.<h4>Methods</h4>Transdiaphragmatic twitch pressure (PdiTw) in response to bilateral magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerves was measured. Diaphragm weakness was correlated with the presence of infection, blood urea nitrogen, albumin, and glucose levels. The relationship of diaphragm strength to patient outcomes, including mortality and the duration of mechanical ventilation for successfully weaned patients, was also assessed.<h4>Results</h4>We found that infection is a major risk factor for diaphragm weakness in mechanically ventilated medical ICU patients. Outcomes for patients with severe diaphragm weakness (PdiTw<10 cmH2O) were poor, with a markedly increased mortality (49%) compared to patients with PdiTw?10 cmH2O (7% mortality, P=0.022). In addition, survivors with PdiTw<10 cmH2O required a significantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation (12.3±1.7 days) than those with PdiTw?10 cmH2O (5.5±2.0 days, P=0.016).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Infection is a major cause of severe diaphragm weakness in mechanically ventilated patients. Moreover, diaphragm weakness is an important determinant of poor outcomes in this patient population.