Pharmacological Modulation of Three Modalities of CA1 Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation in the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.
ABSTRACT: The Ts65Dn mouse is the most studied animal model of Down syndrome. Past research has shown a significant reduction in CA1 hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by theta-burst stimulation (TBS), but not in LTP induced by high-frequency stimulation (HFS), in slices from Ts65Dn mice compared with euploid mouse-derived slices. Additionally, therapeutically relevant doses of the drug memantine were shown to rescue learning and memory deficits in Ts65Dn mice. Here, we observed that 1??M memantine had no detectable effect on HFS-induced LTP in either Ts65Dn- or control-derived slices, but it rescued TBS-induced LTP in Ts65Dn-derived slices to control euploid levels. Then, we assessed LTP induced by four HFS (4xHFS) and found that this form of LTP was significantly depressed in Ts65Dn slices when compared with LTP in euploid control slices. Memantine, however, did not rescue this phenotype. Because 4xHFS-induced LTP had not yet been characterized in Ts65Dn mice, we also investigated the effects of picrotoxin, amyloid beta oligomers, and soluble recombinant human prion protein (rPrP) on this form of LTP. Whereas ?10??M picrotoxin increased LTP to control levels, it also caused seizure-like oscillations. Neither amyloid beta oligomers nor rPrP had any effect on 4xHFS-induced LTP in Ts65Dn-derived slices.
Project description:The Ts65Dn mouse is the best-studied animal model for Down syndrome. In the experiments described here, NMDA-mediated or mGluR-mediated LTD was induced in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from Ts65Dn and euploid control mice by bath application of 20 µM NMDA for 3 min and 50 µM DHPG for 5 min, respectively. We found that Ts65Dn mice display exaggerated NMDA-induced, but not mGluR-induced, LTD in the CA1 region of the hippocampus compared with euploid control animals. In addition, this abnormal level of LTD can be pharmacologically rescued by the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine.
Project description:Cognitive comorbidities are increasingly recognized as an equal (or even more disabling) aspect of epilepsy. In addition, the actions of some antiseizure drugs (ASDs) can impact learning and memory. Accordingly, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) epilepsy research benchmarks call for the implementation of standardized protocols for screening ASDs for their amelioration or exacerbation of cognitive comorbidities. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a widely used model for investigating synaptic plasticity and its relationship to learning and memory. Although the effects of some ASDs on LTP have been examined, none of these studies employed physiologically relevant induction stimuli such as theta-burst stimulation (TBS). To systematically evaluate the effects of multiple ASDs in the same preparation using physiologically relevant stimulation protocols, we examined the effects of a broad panel of existing ASDs on TBS-induced LTP in area CA1 of in vitro brain slices, prepared in either normal or sucrose-based artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), from C57BL/6 mice.Coronal brain slices containing the dorsal hippocampus were made using either standard or sucrose-based ACSF. Recordings were obtained from four slices at a time using the Scientifica Slicemaster high throughput recording system. Slices exposed to ASDs were paired with slices from the opposite hemisphere that served as controls. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded, and all ASDs were applied to slices by bath perfusion for 20 min prior to the induction stimulus. LTP was induced by TBS or by high-frequency stimulation (HFS). The following ASDs were examined: 100 ?M phenobarbital (PB), 80 ?M phenytoin (PHT), 50 ?M carbamazepine (CBZ), 600 ?M valproate (VPA), 60 ?M topiramate (TPM), 60 ?M lamotrigine (LTG), 100 ?M levetiracetam (LEV), 10 ?M ezogabine (EZG), and 30 ?M tiagabine (TGB).Among voltage-gated sodium channel inhibitors, CBZ significantly attenuated TBS-induced LTP, PHT attenuated both TBS-induced LTP and post-tetanic potentiation (PTP), and LTG failed to affect LTP but did attenuate PTP. ASDs that modulate ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synaptic transmission, such as PB and TGB, significantly attenuated LTP in brain slices prepared in sucrose-based ACSF but not standard ACSF. Third generation ASDs, such as LEV and TPM, did not affect LTP in ACSF- or sucrose-prepared brain slices. Although EZG failed to affect LTP, it did significantly attenuate PTP under both slicing conditions. VPA failed to affect LTP in area CA1, both in C57BL/6 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats, using TBS or HFS. However, VPA did attenuate TBS-induced LTP in the dentate gyrus (DG).The results of experiments describe herein provide a comprehensive summary of the effects of many commonly used ASDs on short- and long-term synaptic plasticity while, for the first time, using physiologically relevant LTP induction protocols and slice preparations from mice. Furthermore, methodologic variables, such as brain slice preparation protocols, were explored. These results provide comparative knowledge of ASD effects on synaptic plasticity in the mouse hippocampus and may ultimately contribute to an understanding of the differences in the cognitive side effect profiles of ASDs and the prediction of cognitive dysfunction associated with novel investigational ASDs.
Project description:Nuclear calcium is a key signal in the dialogue between synapse and nucleus that controls the genomic responses required for persistent adaptations, including memory and acquired neuroprotection. The amplitude and duration of nuclear calcium transients specify activity-induced transcriptional changes. However, the precise relationship between synaptic input and nuclear calcium output is unknown. Here, we used stereotaxic delivery to the rat brain of recombinant adeno-associated viruses encoding nuclear-targeted calcium sensors to assess nuclear calcium transients in CA1 pyramidal neurons after stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals. We show that in acute hippocampal slices, a burst of synaptic activity elicits a nuclear calcium signal with a regenerative component at above-threshold stimulation intensities. Using classical stimulation paradigms (i.e., high-frequency stimulation (HFS) and ? burst stimulation (TBS)) to induce early LTP (E-LTP) and transcription-dependent late LTP (L-LTP), we found that the magnitude of nuclear calcium signals and the number of action potentials activated by synaptic stimulation trains are greatly amplified by their repetition. Nuclear calcium signals and action potential generation were reduced by blockade of either NMDA receptors or L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, but not by procedures that lead to internal calcium store depletion or by blockade of metabotropic glutamate receptors. These findings identify a repetition-induced switch in nuclear calcium signaling that correlates with the transition from E-LTP to L-LTP, and may explain why the transcription-dependent phase of L-LTP is not induced by a single HFS or TBS but requires repeated trains of activity. Recombinant, nuclear-targeted indicators may prove useful for further analysis of nuclear calcium signaling in vivo.
Project description:Long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA1 synapses can be expressed by an increase either in the number (N) of AMPA (?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors or in their single channel conductance (?). Here, we have established how these distinct synaptic processes contribute to the expression of LTP in hippocampal slices obtained from young adult rodents. LTP induced by compressed theta burst stimulation (TBS), with a 10?s inter-episode interval, involves purely an increase in N (LTP<sub>N</sub>). In contrast, either a spaced TBS, with a 10?min inter-episode interval, or a single TBS, delivered when PKA is activated, results in LTP that is associated with a transient increase in ? (LTP<sub>?</sub>), caused by the insertion of calcium-permeable (CP)-AMPA receptors. Activation of CaMKII is necessary and sufficient for LTP<sub>N</sub> whilst PKA is additionally required for LTP<sub>?</sub>. Thus, two mechanistically distinct forms of LTP co-exist at these synapses.
Project description:Mild cognitive deficit in early Parkinson's disease (PD) has been widely studied. Here we have examined the effects of memantine in preventing memory deficit in experimental PD models and elucidated some of the underlying mechanisms.I.p. injection of 1-methyl-4- phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro pyridine (MPTP) in C57BL/6 mice was used to produce models of PD. We used behavioural tasks to test memory. In vitro, we used slices of hippocampus, with electrophysiological, Western blotting, real time PCR, elisa and immunochemical techniques.Following MPTP injection, long-term memory was impaired and these changes were prevented by pre-treatment with memantine. In hippocampal slices from MPTP treated mice, long-term potentiation (LTP) -induced by ? burst stimulation (10 bursts, 4 pulses) was decreased, while long-term depression (LTD) induced by low-frequency stimulation (1?Hz, 900 pulses) was enhanced, compared with control values. A single dose of memantine (i.p., 10?mg·kg(-1) ) reversed the decreased LTP and the increased LTD in this PD model. Activity-dependent changes in tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB), ERK and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression were decreased in slices from mice after MPTP treatment. These effects were reversed by pretreatment with memantine. Incubation of slices in vitro with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+) ) decreased depolarization-induced expression of BDNF. This effect was prevented by pretreatment of slices with memantine or with calpain inhibitor III, suggesting the involvement of an overactivated calcium signalling pathway.Memantine should be useful in preventing loss of memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in PD models.
Project description:All individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have a varying but significant degree of cognitive disability. Although hippocampal deficits clearly play an important role, behavioral studies also suggest that deficits within the neocortex contribute to somatosensory deficits and impaired cognition in DS. Using thalamocortical slices from the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS, we investigated the intrinsic and network properties of regular spiking neurons within layer 4 of the somatosensory cortex. In these neurons, the membrane capacitance was increased and specific membrane resistance decreased in slices from Ts65Dn mice. Examination of combined active and passive membrane properties suggests that trisomic layer 4 neurons are less excitable than those from euploid mice. The frequencies of excitatory and inhibitory spontaneous synaptic activities were also reduced in Ts65Dn neurons. With respect to network activity, spontaneous network oscillations (Up states) were shorter and less numerous in the neocortex from Ts65Dn mice when compared to euploid. Up states evoked by electrical stimulation of the ventrobasal nucleus (VBN) of the thalamus were similarly affected in Ts65Dn mice. Additionally, monosynaptic EPSCs and polysynaptic IPSCs evoked by VBN stimulation were significantly delayed in layer 4 regular spiking neurons from Ts65Dn mice. These results indicate that, in the Ts65Dn model of DS, the overall electrophysiological properties of neocortical neurons are altered leading to aberrant network activity within the neocortex. Similar changes in DS individuals may contribute to sensory and cognitive dysfunction and therefore may implicate new targets for cognitive therapies in this developmental disorder.
Project description:Hippocampal synaptic plasticity disruption by amyloid-? (A?) peptides + thought to be responsible for learning and memory impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD) early stage. Failures in neuronal excitability maintenance seems to be an underlying mechanism. G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GirK) channels control neural excitability by hyperpolarization in response to many G-protein-coupled receptors activation. Here, in early in vitro and in vivo amyloidosis mouse models, we study whether GirK channels take part of the hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments generated by A?1-42 . In vitro electrophysiological recordings from slices showed that A?1-42 alters synaptic plasticity by switching high-frequency stimulation (HFS) induced long-term potentiation (LTP) to long-term depression (LTD), which led to in vivo hippocampal-dependent memory deficits. Remarkably, selective pharmacological activation of GirK channels with ML297 rescued both HFS-induced LTP and habituation memory from A?1-42 action. Moreover, when GirK channels were specifically blocked by Tertiapin-Q, their activation with ML297 failed to rescue LTP from the HFS-dependent LTD induced by A?1-42 . On the other hand, the molecular analysis of the recorded slices by western blot showed that the expression of GIRK1/2 subunits, which form the prototypical GirK channel in the hippocampus, was not significantly regulated by A?1-42 . However, immunohistochemical examination of our in vivo amyloidosis model showed A?1-42 to down-regulate hippocampal GIRK1 subunit expression. Together, our results describe an A?-mediated deleterious synaptic mechanism that modifies the induction threshold for hippocampal LTP/LTD and underlies memory alterations observed in amyloidosis models. In this scenario, GirK activation assures memory formation by preventing the transformation of HFS-induced LTP into LTD.
Project description:Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) induces short-term potentiation (STP) plus two types of transcriptionally-independent forms of long-term potentiation (LTP), termed LTP1 and LTP2. We have compared the susceptibility of these three types of synaptic plasticity to depotentiation, induced by low frequency stimulation (LFS; 2 Hz for 10 min) at the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway in area CA1 of adult rat hippocampal slices. In interleaved experiments, STP and LTP were induced by three episodes of either compressed or spaced TBS (cTBS or sTBS). LFS had a more pronounced effect on the LTP induced by the cTBS. One traditional interpretation of these results is a difference in the time-dependent immunity against depotentiation. We suggest an alternative explanation: LFS rapidly reverses STP to reveal a slowly developing LTP. The cTBS protocol induces LTP1 that is moderately sensitive to depotentiation. The sTBS induces an additional component of LTP (LTP2) that is resistant to depotentiation.
Project description:Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a key element of synaptic plasticity. At the macroscopic level, similar effects can be induced in the human brain using repetitive stimulation with identical stimuli. High-frequency stimulation (HFS) can increase neuronal responses whereas low-frequency stimulation may produce the opposite effect. Optimal stimulation frequencies and characteristics for inducing stimulus-specific response modification (SRM) differ substantially from those applied to brain tissue slices but have been explored in recent studies. In contrast, the individual manifestation of this effect in terms of its spatial location and extent are unclear. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 18 subjects (mean age 25.3 years), we attempted to induce LTP-like effects by HFS with checkerboard flashes at 9 Hz for 120 s. As expected, flashes induced strong activation in primary and secondary visual cortices. Contrary to our expectations, we found clusters of decreased activations induced by pattern flashes after HFS in the primary and secondary visual cortices. On the level of the individual subject, some showed significantly increased activations in the post-HFS session while the majority showed significant decreases. The locations of areas showing altered activations before and after HFS were only partly overlapping. No association between location, extent and direction of the HFS-effect was observed. The findings are unexpected in the light of existing HFS-studies, but mirror the high inter-subject variability, concerning even the directionality of the induced effects shown for other indices of LTP-like plasticity in the human brain. As this variability is not observed in LTP at the cellular level, a better understanding of LTP-like mechanisms on the macroscopic level is essential for establishing tools to quantify individual synaptic plasticity in-vivo.
Project description:Recent evidence suggests that estrogen is synthesized in the spinal dorsal horn and plays a role in nociceptive processes. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Using electrophysiological, biochemical, and morphological techniques, we here demonstrate that 17?-estradiol (E2), a major form of estrogen, can directly modulate spinal cord synaptic transmission by 1) enhancing NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in dorsal horn neurons, 2) increasing glutamate release from primary afferent terminals, 3) increasing dendritic spine density in cultured spinal cord dorsal horn neurons, and 4) potentiating spinal cord long term potentiation (LTP) evoked by high frequency stimulation (HFS) of Lissauer's tract. Notably, E2-BSA, a ligand that acts only on membrane estrogen receptors, can mimic E2-induced facilitation of HFS-LTP, suggesting a nongenomic action of this neurosteroid. Consistently, cell surface biotinylation demonstrated that three types of ERs (ER?, ER?, and GPER1) are localized on the plasma membrane of dorsal horn neurons. Furthermore, the ER? and ER? antagonist ICI 182,780 completely abrogates the E2-induced facilitation of LTP. ER? (but not ER?) activation can recapitulate E2-induced persistent increases in synaptic transmission (NMDA-dependent) and dendritic spine density, indicating a critical role of ER? in spinal synaptic plasticity. E2 also increases the phosphorylation of ERK, PKA, and NR2B, and spinal HFS-LTP is prevented by blockade of PKA, ERK, or NR2B activation. Finally, HFS increases E2 release in spinal cord slices, which can be prevented by aromatase inhibitor androstatrienedione, suggesting activity-dependent local synthesis and release of endogenous E2.