Tricuspid stenosis: A rare and potential complication of ventricular septal occluder device.
ABSTRACT: Asymmetrical septal occluder device (ASOD) has made percutaneous closure of ventricular septal defect an easy and effective management option. Although there are reports of aortic and tricuspid valvular regurgitation after deployment of ASOD, only few cases of tricuspid stenosis (TS) has been reported so far in the literature. We report a case of malaligned ASOD that occurred after successful device closure resulting in TS along with mild tricuspid and aortic regurgitation requiring surgical retrieval. Transesophageal echocardiography played crucial role in detecting the cause of tricuspid valve dysfunction besides providing continuous monitoring during the procedure. We intend to emphasize the need of echocardiographic evaluation of the tricuspid valvular apparatus and aortic valve during and after the device deployment even after the successful device closure to prevent this rare complication.
Project description:We describe a 34-year-old man with an ostium secundum atrial septal defect, Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve with severe tricuspid regurgitation, congenital valvular pulmonary stenosis, rheumatic mitral stenosis and regurgitation with aortic regurgitation, who presented with decompensated heart failure after developing atrial fibrillation. The complex haemodynamic interplay of these lesions is also discussed.
Project description:Tricuspid valve (TV) injury following transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect (PMVSD) with Amplatzer ductal occluder I (ADO I), requiring surgical repair, is rare. We report two cases of TV tear involving the anterior and septal leaflets following PMVSD closure using ADO I. In both the patients, the subvalvular apparatus remained unaffected. The patients presented with severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) 6 weeks and 3 months following the device closure. They underwent surgical repair with patch augmentation of the TV leaflets. Postoperatively, both are asymptomatic with a mild residual TR.
Project description:Iatrogenic valvular regurgitation following cardiac surgery has been reported as a result of leaflet perforation or entrapment. Due to its central location, the aortic valve is one of the most vulnerable structures for iatrogenic injuries. Proper assessment of the aortic valve by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) should be done after a cardiac surgery in the periaortic area. We hereby report a case of iatrogenic aortic regurgitation which was developed after primary closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect. It was timely diagnosed by TEE after termination of cardiopulmonary bypass and helped in further management.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aortic valve regurgitation leading to coronary steal phenomenon can severely impair cardiac function in hypoplastic left heart syndrome, thus worsening long-term outcome. CASE PRESENTATION:A German infant with borderline aortic and mitral valve, hypoplastic left ventricle, ventricular septal defect, and hypoplastic aortic arch with critical coarctation initially underwent aortic arch reconstruction and aortic valve dilation with the aim of biventricular correction later on. Unfortunately, severe cardiac dysfunction necessitated a change in strategy entailing modified stage I Norwood palliation. Increasing aortic regurgitation with coronary steal was revealed postoperatively, which required redo surgery to oversew the valve. However, pronounced aortic regurgitation recurred, causing severe cardiac decompensation with repeated resuscitation. As a bailout strategy, we performed aortic valve closure via transfemoral retrograde implantation of an Amplatzer Duct Occluder II device. This led to the patient's rapid stabilization while circumventing highly risky renewed surgery in such a critically ill infant. CONCLUSIONS:Retrograde transcatheter aortic valve closure may be considered a feasible alternative in infants with a failing single ventricle due to aortic regurgitation, with critical device evaluation being crucial for successful device implantation in this young age group.
Project description:Ebstein anomaly is characterized by deformities of the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve and atrialization of the right ventricle. Patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation are recommended to have tricuspid valve surgery with concomitant atrial septal defect closure. A 73-year-old female with Ebstein anomaly presented with severe hypoxemia. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed severe tricuspid regurgitation and a patent foramen ovale with right-to-left shunting. Complete percutaneous patent foramen ovale closure led to acute decompensation; however, partial closure led to hemodynamic stability and improved oxygenation. In conclusion, similar patients with "patent foramen ovale dependency" from longstanding shunts may benefit from partial patent foramen ovale closure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects is one of the greatest challenges in interventional cardiology. Short- and midium-term follow-up data for large samples are limited. This report presents our experience with transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects using an occluder. METHODS:Two hundred fifty-three patients included in the database of the Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital from January 2011- December 2015 with transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects and discharged from follow-up. All patients were invited for clinical and transthoracic echocardiography, electrocardiogram, and thoracic radiography check-up. RESULTS:Device implantation was successful in 252 of 253 patients (99.6%). The median age was 42?months (range 27-216?months). The median follow-up duration was 36?months (range 6-60?months). The mean defect diameter was 3.5?±?1.4?mm and the mean size of the ventricular septal defect rim below the aortic valve was 3.7?±?1.8?mm. The mean diameter of the devices used was 4?mm. Thirty-seven patients developed arrhythmia after the procedure and recovered within 24?months; four patients had hemolysis and four had moderate tricuspid valve regurgitation. No other serious adverse event occurred during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION:Transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defects using an occluder is safe and effective in most patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatments for perimembranous ventricular septal defects (pmVSD) mainly include conventional surgical repair (CSR), transcatheter device closure (TDC), and perventricular device closure (PDC). We aimed to perform a network meta-analysis to compare the three approaches in patients with pmVSD. METHODS:We searched for comparative studies on device closure and conventional repair for pmVSD to April 2020. A network meta-analysis was performed under the frequentist frame with risk ratio and 95% confidence interval. The main outcome was the procedural success rate. Additional outcomes were postoperative complications, including residual shunt, intra-cardiac conduction block, valvular insufficiency, incision infection, and pericardial effusion. RESULTS:Twenty-four studies of 8113 patients were included in the comparisons. The pooled estimates of success rate favored the CSR compared with the PDC. No significant differences of success rate were found in the TDC versus CSR and the PDC versus TDC. The pooled estimates of incidences of the residual shunt, new tricuspid regurgitation, incision infection, and pericardial effusion favored the PDC compared with the CSR. There were no significant differences between the PDC and TDC approaches in all outcomes except new aortic regurgitation. CONCLUSION:The PDC technique not only reduces the risk of significant complications compared with the CSR, but also produces not inferior results compared with the TDC in selected pmVSD patients. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42019125257.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study sought to demonstrate transcatheter deployment of a circumferential device within the pericardial space to modify tricuspid annular dimensions interactively and to reduce functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in swine. BACKGROUND:Functional TR is common and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There are no reported transcatheter tricuspid valve repairs. We describe a transcatheter extracardiac tricuspid annuloplasty device positioned in the pericardial space and delivered by puncture through the right atrial appendage. We demonstrate acute and chronic feasibility in swine. METHODS:Transatrial intrapericardial tricuspid annuloplasty (TRAIPTA) was performed in 16 Yorkshire swine, including 4 with functional TR. Invasive hemodynamics and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed at baseline, immediately after annuloplasty and at follow-up. RESULTS:Pericardial access via a right atrial appendage puncture was uncomplicated. In 9 naïve animals, tricuspid septal-lateral and anteroposterior dimensions, the annular area and perimeter, were reduced by 49%, 31%, 59%, and 24% (p < 0.001), respectively. Tricuspid leaflet coaptation length was increased by 53% (p < 0.001). Tricuspid geometric changes were maintained after 9.7 days (range, 7 to 14 days). Small effusions (mean, 46 ml) were observed immediately post-procedure but resolved completely at follow-up. In 4 animals with functional TR, severity of regurgitation by intracardiac echocardiography was reduced. CONCLUSIONS:Transatrial intrapericardial tricuspid annuloplasty is a transcatheter extracardiac tricuspid valve repair performed by exiting the heart from within via a transatrial puncture. The geometry of the tricuspid annulus can interactively be modified to reduce severity of functional TR in an animal model.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), or Sanfilippo syndrome, is caused by a deficiency in one of the four enzymes involved in the lysosomal degradation of heparan sulfate. Cardiac abnormalities have been observed in patients with all types of MPS except MPS IX, however few studies have focused on cardiac alterations in patients with MPS III. METHODS:We reviewed medical records, echocardiograms, and electrocardiograms of 26 Taiwanese patients with MPS III (five with IIIA, 20 with IIIB, and one with IIIC; 14 males and 12 females; median age, 7.4 years; age range, 1.8-26.5 years). The relationships between age and each echocardiographic parameter were analyzed. RESULTS:Echocardiographic examinations (n = 26) revealed that 10 patients (38%) had valvular heart disease. Four (15%) and eight (31%) patients had valvular stenosis or regurgitation, respectively. The most prevalent cardiac valve abnormality was mitral regurgitation (31%), followed by aortic regurgitation (19%). However, most of the cases of valvular heart disease were mild. Three (12%), five (19%) and five (19%) patients had mitral valve prolapse, a thickened interventricular septum, and asymmetric septal hypertrophy, respectively. The severity of aortic regurgitation and the existence of valvular heart disease, aortic valve abnormalities and valvular stenosis were all positively correlated with increasing age (p < 0.05). Z scores > 2 were identified in 0, 38, 8, and 27% of left ventricular mass index, interventricular septal end-diastolic dimension, left ventricular posterior wall end-diastolic dimension, and aortic diameter, respectively. Electrocardiograms in 11 patients revealed the presence of sinus arrhythmia (n = 3), sinus bradycardia (n = 2), and sinus tachycardia (n = 1). Six patients with MPS IIIB had follow-up echocardiographic data at 1.9-18.1 years to compare with the baseline data, which showed some patients had increased thickness of the interventricular septum, as well as more patients had valvular abnormalities at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:Cardiac involvement in MPS III is less common and milder compared with other types of MPS. The existence of valvular heart disease, aortic valve abnormalities and valvular stenosis in the patients worsened with increasing age, reinforcing the concept of the progressive nature of this disease.