Effect of biogenic selenium nanoparticles on ERG11 and CDR1 gene expression in both fluconazole-resistant and -susceptible Candida albicans isolates.
ABSTRACT: Background and Purpose:Candida albicans is the most common Candida species (sp.) isolated from fungal infections. Azole resistance in Candida species has been considerably increased in the last decades. Given the toxicity of the antimicrobial drugs, resistance to antifungal agents, and drug interactions, the identification of new antifungal agents seems essential. In this study, we assessed the antifungal effects of biogenic selenium nanoparticles on C. albicans and determined the expression of ERG11 and CDR1 genes. Materials and Methods:Selenium nanoparticles were synthesized with Bacillus sp. MSH-1. The ultrastructure of selenium nanoparticles was evaluated with a transmission electron microscope. The antifungal susceptibility test was performed according to the modified Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 standard protocol. The expression levels of the CDR1 and ERG11 genes were analyzed using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Results:The azole-resistant C. albicans and wild type C. albicans strains were inhibited by 100 and 70 µg/mL of selenium nanoparticle concentrations, respectively. The expression of CDR1 and ERG11 genes was significantly down-regulated in these selenium nanoparticle concentrations. Conclusion:As the findings indicated, selenium nanoparticles had an appropriate antifungal activity against fluconazole-resistant and -susceptible C.albicans strains. Accordingly, these nanoparticles reduced the expression of CDR1 and ERG11 genes associated with azole resistance. Further studies are needed to investigate the synergistic effects of selenium nanoparticles using other antifungal drugs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Antifungal resistance rates are increasing. We investigated the mechanisms of azole resistance of Candida spp. bloodstream isolates obtained from a surveillance study conducted between 2012 and 2015. METHODS:Twenty-six azole non-susceptible Candida spp. clinical isolates were investigated. Antifungal susceptibilities were determined using the Sensititre YeastOne® YO10 panel. The ERG11 gene was amplified and sequenced to identify amino acid polymorphisms, while real-time PCR was utilised to investigate the expression levels of ERG11, CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1. RESULTS:Azole cross-resistance was detected in all except two isolates. Amino acid substitutions (A114S, Y257H, E266D, and V488I) were observed in all four C. albicans tested. Of the 17 C. tropicalis isolates, eight (47%) had ERG11 substitutions, of which concurrent observation of Y132F and S154F was the most common. A novel substitution (I166S) was detected in two of the five C. glabrata isolates. Expression levels of the various genes differed between the species but CDR1 and CDR2 overexpression appeared to be more prominent in C. glabrata. CONCLUSIONS:There was interplay of various different mechanisms, including mechanisms which were not studied here, responsible for azole resistance in Candida spp in our study.
Project description:Correlating antifungal Azole drug resistance and mis-sense mutations of ERG11 has been paradoxical in pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Amino acid substitutions (single or multiple) are frequent on ERG11, a membrane bound enzyme of Ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. Presence or absence of mutations can not sufficiently predict susceptibility. To analyze role of mis-sense mutations on Azole resistance energetically optimized, structurally validated homology model of wild C.albicans ERG11 using eukaryotic template was generated. A Composite Search Approach is proposed to identify vital residues for interaction at 3D active site. Structural analysis of catalytic groove, dynamics of substrate access channels and proximity of Heme prosthetic group characterized ERG11 active site. Several mis-sense mutations of ERG11 reported in C.albicans clinical isolates were selected through a stringent criterion and modeled. ERG11 mutants subsequently subjected to a four tier comparative biophysical analysis. This study indicates (i) critical interactions occur with residues at anterior part of 3D catalytic groove and substitution of these vital residues alters local geometry causing considerable change in catalytic pocket dimension. (ii) Substitutions of vital residues lead to confirmed resistance in clinical isolates that may be resultant to changed geometry of catalytic pocket. (iii)These substitutions also impart significant energetic changes on C.albicans ERG11 and (iv) include detectable dynamic fluctuations on the mutants. (v)Mis-sense mutations on the vital residues of the active site and at the vicinity of Heme prosthetic group are less frequent compared to rest of the enzyme. This large scale mutational study can aid to characterize the mutants in clinical isolates.
Project description:INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES:An increase in antifungal resistant Candida strains has been reported in recent years. The aim of this study was to detect mutations in resistance genes of azole-resistant, echinocandin-resistant or multi-resistant strains using next generation sequencing technology, which allows the analysis of multiple resistance mechanisms in a high throughput setting. METHODS:Forty clinical Candida isolates (16 C. albicans and 24 C. glabrata strains) with MICs for azoles and echinocandins above the clinical EUCAST breakpoint were examined. The genes ERG11, ERG3, TAC1 and GSC1 (FKS1) in C. albicans, as well as ERG11, CgPDR1, FKS1 and FKS2 in C. glabrata were sequenced. RESULTS:Fifty-four different missense mutations were identified, 13 of which have not been reported before. All nine echinocandin-resistant Candida isolates showed mutations in the hot spot (HS) regions of FKS1, FKS2 or GSC1. In ERG3 two homozygous premature stop codons were identified in two highly azole-resistant and moderately echinocandin-resistant C. albicans strains. Seven point mutations in ERG11 were determined in azole-resistant C. albicans whereas in azole-resistant C. glabrata, no ERG11 mutations were detected. In 10 out of 13 azole-resistant C. glabrata, 12 different potential gain-of-function mutations in the transcription factor CgPDR1 were verified, which are associated with an overexpression of the efflux pumps CDR1/2. CONCLUSION:This study showed that next generation sequencing allows the thorough investigation of a large number of isolates more cost efficient and faster than conventional Sanger sequencing. Targeting different resistance genes and a large sample size of highly resistant strains allows a better determination of the relevance of the different mutations, and to differentiate between causal mutations and polymorphisms.
Project description:Candida albicans, one of the most common fungal pathogens, is responsible for several yeast infections in human hosts, being resistant to classically used antifungal drugs, such as azole drugs. Multifactorial and multistep alterations are involved in the azole resistance in Candida albicans. In this study, a FCZ-resistant C. albicans strain was obtained by serial cultures of a FCZ-susceptible C. albicans strain in incrementally increasing concentrations of FCZ. We performed an integrated profile of different classes of molecules related to azole resistance in C. albicans by combining several mass-spectrometry based methodologies. The comparative metabolomic study was performed with the sensitive and resistant strains of C.albicans to identify metabolites altered during the development of resistance to fluconazole, while the intervention strains and non-intervention strains of C.albicans to identify metabolites altered involved in cross-resistant to azole drugs. Our analysis of the different metabolites identified molecules mainly involved in metabolic processes such as amino acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle and phospholipid metabolism. We also compared the phospholipid composition of each group, revealing that the relative content of phospholipids significantly changed during the development of resistance to azole drugs. According with these results, we hypothesized that the metabolism shift might contribute to azole drugs resistance in C.albicans from multifactorial alterations. Our result paves the way to understand processes underlying the resistance to azole drugs in C. albicans, providing the basis for developing new antifungal drugs.
Project description:Isavuconazole is a novel, broad-spectrum, antifungal azole. In order to evaluate its interactions with known azole resistance mechanisms, isavuconazole susceptibility among different yeast models and clinical isolates expressing characterized azole resistance mechanisms was tested and compared to those of fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the Candida albicans and C. glabrata ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters (CDR1, CDR2, and CgCDR1), major facilitator (MDR1), and lanosterol 14-?-sterol-demethylase (ERG11) alleles with mutations were used. In addition, pairs of C. albicans and C. glabrata strains from matched clinical isolates with known azole resistance mechanisms were investigated. The expression of ABC transporters increased all azole MICs, suggesting that all azoles tested were substrates of ABC transporters. The expression of MDR1 did not increase posaconazole, itraconazole, and isavuconazole MICs. Relative increases of azole MICs (from 4- to 32-fold) were observed for fluconazole, voriconazole, and isavuconazole when at least two mutations were present in the same ERG11 allele. Upon MIC testing of azoles with clinical C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates with known resistance mechanisms, the MIC90s of C. albicans for fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and isavuconazole were 128, 2, 1, 0.5, and 2 ?g/ml, respectively, while in C. glabrata they were 128, 2, 4, 4, and 16 ?g/ml, respectively. In conclusion, the effects of azole resistance mechanisms on isavuconazole did not differ significantly from those of other azoles. Resistance mechanisms in yeasts involving ABC transporters and ERG11 decreased the activity of isavuconazole, while MDR1 had limited effect.
Project description:The objective of this study was to characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms in consecutive clinical Candida albicans isolates from a single patient displaying stepwise-acquired multidrug resistance.Nine clinical isolates (P-1 to P-9) were susceptibility tested by EUCAST EDef 7.2 and Etest. P-4, P-5, P-7, P-8 and P-9 were available for further studies. Relatedness was evaluated by MLST. Additional genes were analysed by sequencing (including FKS1, ERG11, ERG2 and TAC1) and gene expression by quantitative PCR (CDR1, CDR2 and ERG11). UV-spectrophotometry and GC-MS were used for sterol analyses. In vivo virulence was determined in the insect model Galleria mellonella and evaluated by log-rank Mantel-Cox tests.P-1?+?P-2 were susceptible, P-3?+?P-4 fluconazole resistant, P-5 pan-azole resistant, P-6?+?P-7 pan-azole and echinocandin resistant and P-8?+?P-9 MDR. MLST supported genetic relatedness among clinical isolates. P-4 harboured four changes in Erg11 (E266D, G307S, G450E and V488I), increased expression of ERG11 and CDR2 and a change in Tac1 (R688Q). P-5, P-7, P-8 and P-9 had an additional change in Erg11 (A61E), increased expression of CDR1, CDR2 and ERG11 (except for P-7) and a different amino acid change in Tac1 (R673L). Echinocandin-resistant isolates harboured the Fks1 S645P alteration. Polyene-resistant P-8?+?P-9 lacked ergosterol and harboured a frameshift mutation in ERG2 (F105SfsX23). Virulence was attenuated (but equivalent) in the clinical isolates, but higher than in the azole- and echinocandin-resistant unrelated control strain.C. albicans demonstrates a diverse capacity to adapt to antifungal exposure. Potentially novel resistance-inducing mutations in TAC1, ERG11 and ERG2 require independent validation.
Project description:Azoles are widely used in antifungal therapy in medicine. Resistance to azoles can occur in Candida albicans principally by overexpression of multidrug transporter gene CDR1, CDR2, or MDR1 or by overexpression of ERG11, which encodes the azole target. The expression of these genes is controlled by the transcription factors (TFs) TAC1 (involved in the control of CDR1 and CDR2), MRR1 (involved in the control of MDR1), and UPC2 (involved in the control of ERG11). Several gain-of-function (GOF) mutations are present in hyperactive alleles of these TFs, resulting in the overexpression of target genes. While these mutations are beneficial to C. albicans survival in the presence of the antifungal drugs, their effects could potentially alter the fitness and virulence of C. albicans in the absence of the selective drug pressure. In this work, the effect of GOF mutations on C. albicans virulence was addressed in a systemic model of intravenous infection by mouse survival and kidney fungal burden assays. We engineered a set of strains with identical genetic backgrounds in which hyperactive alleles were reintroduced in one or two copies at their genomic loci. The results obtained showed that neither TAC1 nor MRR1 GOF mutations had a significant effect on C. albicans virulence. In contrast, the presence of two hyperactive UPC2 alleles in C. albicans resulted in a significant decrease in virulence, correlating with diminished kidney colonization compared to that by the wild type. In agreement with the effect on virulence, the decreased fitness of an isolate with UPC2 hyperactive alleles was observed in competition experiments with the wild type in vivo but not in vitro. Interestingly, UPC2 hyperactivity delayed filamentation of C. albicans after phagocytosis by murine macrophages, which may at least partially explain the virulence defects. Combining the UPC2 GOF mutation with another hyperactive TF did not compensate for the negative effect of UPC2 on virulence. In conclusion, among the major TFs involved in azole resistance, only UPC2 had a negative impact on virulence and fitness, which may therefore have consequences for the epidemiology of antifungal resistance.
Project description:Antifungal agents exert their activity through a variety of mechanisms, some of which are poorly understood. We examined changes in the gene expression profile of Candida albicans following exposure to representatives of the four currently available classes of antifungal agents used in the treatment of systemic fungal infections. Ketoconazole exposure increased expression of genes involved in lipid, fatty acid, and sterol metabolism, including NCP1, MCR1, CYB5, ERG2, ERG3, ERG10, ERG25, ERG251, and that encoding the azole target, ERG11. Ketoconazole also increased expression of several genes associated with azole resistance, including CDR1, CDR2, IFD4, DDR48, and RTA3. Amphotericin B produced changes in the expression of genes involved in small-molecule transport (ENA21), and in cell stress (YHB1, CTA1, AOX1, and SOD2). Also observed was decreased expression of genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis, including ERG3 and ERG11. Caspofungin produced changes in expression of genes encoding cell wall maintenance proteins, including the beta-1,3-glucan synthase subunit GSL22, as well as PHR1, ECM21, ECM33, and FEN12. Flucytosine increased the expression of proteins involved in purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis, including YNK1, FUR1, and that encoding its target, CDC21. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR was used to confirm microarray results. Genes responding similarly to two or more drugs were also identified. These data shed new light on the effects of these classes of antifungal agents on C. albicans.
Project description:TAC1 (for transcriptional activator of CDR genes) is critical for the upregulation of the ABC transporters CDR1 and CDR2, which mediate azole resistance in Candida albicans. While a wild-type TAC1 allele drives high expression of CDR1/2 in response to inducers, we showed previously that TAC1 can be hyperactive by a gain-of-function (GOF) point mutation responsible for constitutive high expression of CDR1/2. High azole resistance levels are achieved when C. albicans carries hyperactive alleles only as a consequence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the TAC1 locus on chromosome 5 (Chr 5), which is linked to the mating-type-like (MTL) locus. Both are located on the Chr 5 left arm along with ERG11 (target of azoles). In this work, five groups of related isolates containing azole-susceptible and -resistant strains were analyzed for the TAC1 and ERG11 alleles and for Chr 5 alterations. While recovered ERG11 alleles contained known mutations, 17 new TAC1 alleles were isolated, including 7 hyperactive alleles with five separate new GOF mutations. Single-nucleotide-polymorphism analysis of Chr 5 revealed that azole-resistant strains acquired TAC1 hyperactive alleles and, in most cases, ERG11 mutant alleles by LOH events not systematically including the MTL locus. TAC1 LOH resulted from mitotic recombination of the left arm of Chr 5, gene conversion within the TAC1 locus, or the loss and reduplication of the entire Chr 5. In one case, two independent TAC1 hyperactive alleles were acquired. Comparative genome hybridization and karyotype analysis revealed the presence of isochromosome 5L [i(5L)] in two azole-resistant strains. i(5L) leads to increased copy numbers of azole resistance genes present on the left arm of Chr 5, among them TAC1 and ERG11. Our work shows that azole resistance was due not only to the presence of specific mutations in azole resistance genes (at least ERG11 and TAC1) but also to their increase in copy number by LOH and to the addition of extra Chr 5 copies. With the combination of these different modifications, sophisticated genotypes were obtained. The development of azole resistance in C. albicans is therefore a powerful instrument for generating genetic diversity.
Project description:Candida glabrata has emerged as a common cause of fungal infection. This yeast has intrinsically low susceptibility to azole antifungals such as fluconazole, and mutation to frank azole resistance during treatment has been documented. Potential resistance mechanisms include changes in expression or sequence of ERG11 encoding the azole target. Alternatively, resistance could result from upregulated expression of multidrug transporter genes; in C. glabrata these include CDR1 and PDH1. By RNA hybridization, 10 of 12 azole-resistant clinical isolates showed 6- to 15-fold upregulation of CDR1 compared to susceptible strains. In 4 of these 10 isolates PDH1 was similarly upregulated, and in the remainder it was upregulated three- to fivefold, while ERG11 expression was minimally changed. Laboratory mutants were selected on fluconazole-containing medium with glycerol as carbon source (to eliminate mitochondrial mutants). Similar to the clinical isolates, six of seven laboratory mutants showed unchanged ERG11 expression but coordinate CDR1-PDH1 upregulation ranging from 2- to 20-fold. Effects of antifungal treatment on gene expression in susceptible C. glabrata strains were also studied: azole exposure induced CDR1-PDH1 expression 4- to 12-fold. These findings suggest that these transporter genes are regulated by a common mechanism. In support of this, a mutation associated with laboratory resistance was identified in the C. glabrata homolog of PDR1 which encodes a regulator of multidrug transporter genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutation falls within a putative activation domain and was associated with PDR1 autoupregulation. Additional regulatory factors remain to be identified, as indicated by the lack of PDR1 mutation in a clinical isolate with coordinately upregulated CDR1-PDH1.