A TRPV2 interactome-based signature for prognosis in glioblastoma patients.
ABSTRACT: Proteomics aids to the discovery and expansion of protein-protein interaction networks, which are key to understand molecular mechanisms in physiology and physiopathology, but also to infer protein function in a guilt-by-association fashion. In this study we use a systematic protein-protein interaction membrane yeast two-hybrid method to expand the interactome of TRPV2, a cation channel related to nervous system development. After validation of the interactome in silico, we define a TRPV2-interactome signature combining proteomics with the available physio-pathological data in Disgenet to find interactome-disease associations, highlighting nervous system disorders and neoplasms. The TRPV2-interactome signature against available experimental data is capable of discriminating overall risk in glioblastoma multiforme prognosis, progression, recurrence, and chemotherapy resistance. Beyond the impact on glioblastoma physiopathology, this study shows that combining systematic proteomics with in silico methods and available experimental data is key to open new perspectives to define novel biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics in disease.
Project description:Calcium-permeable cation channel TRPV2 is expressed in pancreatic beta-cells. We investigated regulation and function of TRPV2 in beta-cells.Translocation of TRPV2 was assessed in MIN6 cells and cultured mouse beta-cells by transfecting TRPV2 fused to green fluorescent protein or TRPV2 containing c-Myc tag in the extracellular domain. Calcium entry was assessed by monitoring fura-2 fluorescence.In MIN6 cells, TRPV2 was observed mainly in cytoplasm in an unstimulated condition. Addition of exogenous insulin induced translocation and insertion of TRPV2 to the plasma membrane. Consistent with these observations, insulin increased calcium entry, which was inhibited by tranilast, an inhibitor of TRPV2, or by knockdown of TRPV2 using shRNA. A high concentration of glucose also induced translocation of TRPV2, which was blocked by nefedipine, diazoxide, and somatostatin, agents blocking glucose-induced insulin secretion. Knockdown of the insulin receptor attenuated insulin-induced translocation of TRPV2. Similarly, the effect of insulin on TRPV2 translocation was not observed in a beta-cell line derived from islets obtained from a beta-cell-specific insulin receptor knockout mouse. Knockdown of TRPV2 or addition of tranilast significantly inhibited insulin secretion induced by a high concentration of glucose. Likewise, cell growth induced by serum and glucose was inhibited by tranilast or by knockdown of TRPV2. Finally, insulin-induced translocation of TRPV2 was observed in cultured mouse beta-cells, and knockdown of TRPV2 reduced insulin secretion induced by glucose.TRPV2 is regulated by insulin and is involved in the autocrine action of this hormone on beta-cells.
Project description:Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) plays a critical role in neuronal development, cardiac function, immunity, and cancer. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-psychotropic therapeutically active ingredient of Cannabis sativa, is an activator of TRPV2 and also modulates other transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Here, we determined structures of the full-length rat TRPV2 channel in apo and CBD-bound states in nanodiscs by cryo-electron microscopy. We show that CBD interacts with TRPV2 through a hydrophobic pocket located between S5 and S6 helices of adjacent subunits, which differs from known ligand and lipid binding sites in other TRP channels. CBD-bound TRPV2 structures revealed that the S4-S5 linker plays a critical role in channel gating upon CBD binding. Additionally, nanodiscs permitted us to visualize two distinct TRPV2 apo states in a lipid environment. Together these results provide a foundation to further understand TRPV channel gating, their divergent physiological functions, and to accelerate structure-based drug design.
Project description:Transient receptor potential vanilloid type-2 (TRPV2) is an ion channel that is triggered by agonists like cannabidiol (CBD). Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive disease with limited therapeutic options. Chemotherapy is still the first line for the treatment of TNBC patients; however, TNBC usually gains rapid resistance and unresponsiveness to chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we found that TRPV2 protein is highly up-regulated in TNBC tissues compared to normal breast tissues. We also observed that TNBC and estrogen receptor alpha negative (ER?-) patients with higher TRPV2 expression have significantly higher recurrence free survival compared to patients with lower TRPV2 expression especially those who were treated with chemotherapy. In addition, we showed that TRPV2 overexpression or activation by CBD significantly increased doxorubicin (DOX) uptake and apoptosis in TNBC cells. The induction of DOX uptake was abrogated by TRPV2 blocking or downregulation. In vivo mouse model studies showed that the TNBC tumors derived from CBD+DOX treated mice have significantly reduced weight and increased apoptosis compared to those treated with CBD or DOX alone. Overall, our studies for the first time revealed that TRPV2 might be a good prognostic marker for TNBC and ER?- breast cancer patient especially for those who are treated with chemotherapy. In addition, TRPV2 activation could be a novel therapeutic strategy to enhance the uptake and efficacy of chemotherapy in TNBC patients.
Project description:Transient receptor potential cation channels are emerging as important physiological and therapeutic targets. Within the vanilloid subfamily, transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) and 4 (TRPV4) are osmo- and mechanosensors becoming critical determinants in cell structure and activity. However, knowledge is scarce regarding how TRPV2 and TRPV4 are trafficked to the plasma membrane or specific organelles to undergo quality controls through processes such as biosynthesis, anterograde/retrograde trafficking, and recycling. This review lists and reviews a subset of protein-protein interactions from the TRPV2 and TRPV4 interactomes, which is related to trafficking processes such as lipid metabolism, phosphoinositide signaling, vesicle-mediated transport, and synaptic-related exocytosis. Identifying the protein and lipid players involved in trafficking will improve the knowledge on how these stretch-related channels reach specific cellular compartments.
Project description:Whereas many phagocytosis steps involve ionic fluxes, the underlying ion channels remain poorly defined. As reported in mice, the calcium conducting TRPV2 channel impacts the phagocytic process. Macrophage phagocytosis is critical for defense against pathogens. In cystic fibrosis (CF), macrophages have lost their capacity to act as suppressor cells and thus play a significant role in the initiating stages leading to chronic inflammation/infection. In a previous study, we demonstrated that impaired function of CF macrophages is due to a deficient phagocytosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate TRPV2 role in the phagocytosis capacity of healthy primary human macrophage by studying its activity, its membrane localization and its recruitment in lipid rafts. In primary human macrophages, we showed that P. aeruginosa recruits TRPV2 channels at the cell surface and induced a calcium influx required for bacterial phagocytosis. We presently demonstrate that to be functional and play a role in phagocytosis, TRPV2 might require a preferential localization in lipid rafts. Furthermore, CF macrophage displays a perturbed calcium homeostasis due to a defect in TRPV2. In this context, deregulated TRPV2-signaling in CF macrophages could explain their defective phagocytosis capacity that contribute to the maintenance of chronic infection.
Project description:The mammalian circadian clock is composed of single-cell oscillators. Neurochemical and electrical signaling among these oscillators is important for the normal expression of circadian rhythms. Prokineticin 2 (PK2), encoding a cysteine-rich secreted protein, has been shown to be a critical signaling molecule for the regulation of circadian rhythms. PK2 expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is highly rhythmic, peaking during the day and being essentially absent during the night. Mice with disrupted PK2 gene or its receptor PKR2 display greatly reduced rhythmicity of broad circadian parameters such as locomotor activity, body temperature and sleep/wake patterns. PK2 has been shown to increase the firing rate of SCN neurons, with unknown molecular mechanisms. Here we report that TRPV2, an ion channel belonging to the family of TRP, is co-expressed with PKR2 in the SCN neurons. Further, TRPV2 protein, but not TRPV2 mRNA, was shown to oscillate in the SCN in a PK2-dependent manner. Functional studies revealed that TRPV2 enhanced signaling of PKR2 in calcium mobilization or ion current conductance, likely via the increased trafficking of TRPV2 to the cell surface. Taken together, these results indicate that TRPV2 is likely part of the downstream signaling of PK2 in the regulation of the circadian rhythms.
Project description:Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) cation channels are polymodal sensors involved in a variety of physiological processes. TRPV2, a member of the TRPV family, is regulated by temperature, by ligands, such as probenecid and cannabinoids, and by lipids. TRPV2 has been implicated in many biological functions, including somatosensation, osmosensation and innate immunity. Here we present the atomic model of rabbit TRPV2 in its putative desensitized state, as determined by cryo-EM at a nominal resolution of ?4 Å. In the TRPV2 structure, the transmembrane segment 6 (S6), which is involved in gate opening, adopts a conformation different from the one observed in TRPV1. Structural comparisons of TRPV1 and TRPV2 indicate that a rotation of the ankyrin-repeat domain is coupled to pore opening via the TRP domain, and this pore opening can be modulated by rearrangements in the secondary structure of S6.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) was recently shown to be involved in migrant potentials. The present study aimed to investigate its role in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS:Knockdown experiments were conducted using TRPV2 siRNA in human ESCC cell lines, and anti-tumor effects were analyzed. The gene expression profiles of cells were analyzed using a microarray method. An immunohistochemical staining was performed on 62 primary tumor samples. RESULTS:TRPV2 overexpression was observed in TE15 and KYSE170 cells. TRPV2 depletion suppressed proliferation, cell cycle progression, and invasion/migration ability, and induced apoptosis. A pathway analysis of microarray data showed that TRPV2 depletion down-regulated WNT/?-catenin signaling-related genes and basal cell carcinoma signaling-related genes. The suppression of tumor functions, such as proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis, was predicted in the ontology analysis. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a correlation between strong TRPV2 expression and a poor prognosis in ESCC patients. CONCLUSION:The present results suggest that TRPV2 regulates cancer progression by affecting WNT/?-catenin or basal cell carcinoma signaling, and that TRPV2 strong expression is associated with a worse prognosis in ESCC patients. These results provide an insight into the role of TRPV2 as a novel therapeutic target or biomarker for ESCC.
Project description:Transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins form a superfamily Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels regulated by a range of chemical and physical stimuli. Structural analysis of a 'minimal' TRP vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) elucidated a mechanism of channel activation by agonists through changes in its outer pore region. Though homologous to TRPV1, other TRPV channels (TRPV2-6) are insensitive to TRPV1 activators including heat and vanilloids. To further understand the structural basis of TRPV channel function, we determined the structure of full-length TRPV2 at ?5 Å resolution by cryo-electron microscopy. Like TRPV1, TRPV2 contains two constrictions, one each in the pore-forming upper and lower gates. The agonist-free full-length TRPV2 has wider upper and lower gates compared with closed and agonist-activated TRPV1. We propose these newly revealed TRPV2 structural features contribute to diversity of TRPV channels.
Project description:The cellular physiology and biology of human cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells has not been extensively characterized and remains an area of active research. This study investigates the functional expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) and possible roles for this ion channel in regulating proliferation and migration of human cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells. We found that genes coding for TRPV2 and TRPV4 channels and their proteins are significantly expressed in human c-kit(+) cardiac stem cells. Probenecid, an activator of TRPV2, induced an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+) i ), an effect that may be attenuated or abolished by the TRPV2 blocker ruthenium red. The TRPV4 channel activator 4?-phorbol 12-13-dicaprinate induced Ca(2+) i oscillations, which can be inhibited by the TRPV4 blocker RN-1734. The alteration of Ca(2+) i by probenecid or 4?-phorbol 12-13-dicprinate was dramatically inhibited in cells infected with TRPV2 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or TRPV4 shRNA. Silencing TRPV2, but not TRPV4, significantly reduced cell proliferation by arresting cells at the G0/G1 boundary of the cell cycle. Cell migration was reduced by silencing TRPV2 or TRPV4. Western blot revealed that silencing TRPV2 decreased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, pERK1/2 and pAkt, whereas silencing TRPV4 only reduced pAkt expression. Our results demonstrate for the first time that functional TRPV2 and TRPV4 channels are abundantly expressed in human cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells. TRPV2 channels, but not TRPV4 channels, participate in regulating cell cycle progression; moreover, both TRPV2 and TRPV4 are involved in migration of human cardiac c-kit(+) progenitor cells.