Improving Quality and Consistency in NRG Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0631 for Spine Radiosurgery via Knowledge-Based Planning.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:To use knowledge-based planning (KBP) as a method of producing high-quality, consistent, protocol-compliant treatment plans in a complex setting of spine stereotactic body radiation therapy on NRG Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0631. METHODS AND MATERIALS:An internally developed KBP model was applied to an external validation cohort of 22 anonymized cases submitted under NRG Oncology RTOG 0631. The original and KBP plans were compared via their protocol compliance, target conformity and gradient index, dose to critical structures, and dose to surrounding normal tissues. RESULTS:The KBP model generated plans meeting all protocol objectives in a single optimization when tested on both internal and protocol-submitted NRG Oncology RTOG 0631 cases. Two submitted plans that were considered to have a protocol-unacceptable deviation were made protocol compliant through the use of the model. There were no statistically significant differences in protocol spinal cord metrics (D10% and D0.03cc) between the manually optimized plans and the KBP plans. The volume of planning target volume receiving prescription dose increased from 93.3% ± 3.2% to 98.3% ± 1.4% (P = .01) when using KBP. High-dose spillage to surrounding normal tissues (V105%) showed no significant differences (2.1 ± 7.3 cm3 for manual plans to 1.8 ± 0.6 cm3 with KBP), and dosimetric outliers with large amounts of spillage were eliminated through the use of KBP. Knowledge-based planning plans were also found to be significantly more consistent in several metrics, including target coverage and high dose outside of the target. CONCLUSION:Incorporation of KBP models into the clinical trial setting may have a profound impact on the quality of trial results, owing to the increase in consistency and standardization of planning, especially for treatment sites or techniques that are nonstandard.
Project description:PURPOSE:This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a single-institution, knowledge-based planning (KBP) model as a dosimetric plan quality control (QC) for multi-institutional clinical trials. The efficacy of this QC tool was retrospectively evaluated using a subset of plans submitted to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) study 0617. METHODS AND MATERIALS:A single KBP model was created using commercially available software (RapidPlan; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and data from 106 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who were treated at a single institution. All plans had prescriptions that ranged from 60 Gy in 30 fractions to 74 Gy in 37 fractions and followed the planning guidelines from RTOG 0617. Two sets of optimization objectives were created to produce different trade-offs using the single KBP model predictions: one prioritizing target coverage and a second prioritizing lung sparing (LS) while allowing an acceptable variation in target coverage. Three institutions submitted a high volume of clinical plans to RTOG 0617 and provided data on 25 patients, which were replanned using both sets of optimization objectives. Model-generated, dose-volume histogram predictions were used to identify patients who exceeded the lung clinical target volume (CTV) V20Gy >37% and would benefit from the LS objectives. Overall plan quality differences between KBP-generated plans and clinical plans were evaluated at RTOG 0617-defined dosimetric endpoints. RESULTS:Target coverage and organ at risk sparing was significantly improved for most KBP-generated plans compared with those from clinical trial data. The KBP model using prioritized target coverage objectives reduced heart Dmean and V40Gy by 2.1 Gy and 5.2%, respectively. Similarly, using LS objectives reduced the lung CTV Dmean and V20Gy by 2.0 Gy and 2.9%, respectively. The KBP predictions correctly identified all patients with lung CTV V20Gy > 37% (5 of 25 patients) and significantly reduced the dose to the lung CTV by applying the LS optimization objectives. CONCLUSIONS:A single-institution KBP model can be applied as a QC tool for multi-institutional clinical trials to improve overall plan quality and provide decision-support to determine the need for anatomy-based dosimetric trade-offs.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To investigate a planning technique that can possibly reduce low-to-intermediate dose spillage (measured by R50%, D2cm values) in lung SBRT plans.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Dose falloff outside the target was studied retrospectively in 102 SBRT VMAT plans of lung tumor. Plans having R50% and/or D2cm higher than recommended tolerances in RTOG protocols 0813 and 0915 were replanned with new optimization constraints using novel shell structures and novel constraints. Violations in the RTOG R50% value can be rectified with a dose constraint to a novel shell structure ("OptiForR50"). The construction of structure OptiForR50% and the novel optimization criteria translate the RTOG goals for R50% into direct inputs for the optimizer. Violations in the D2cm can be rectified using constraints on a 0.5 cm thick shell structure with inner surface 2cm from the PTV surface. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare differences in dose conformity, volume of hot spots, R50%, D2cm of the target in addition to the OAR doses. A two-sided P-value of 0.05 was used to assess statistical significance.<h4>Results</h4>Among 102 lung SBRT plans with PTV sizes ranging from 5 to 179 cc, 32 plans with violations in R50% or D2cm were reoptimized. The mean reduction in R50% (4.68 vs 3.89) and D2cm (56.49 vs 52.51) was statistically significant both having P < 0.01. Target conformity index, volume of 105% isodose contour outside PTV, normal lung V20, and mean dose to heart and aorta were significantly lowered with P < 0.05.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The novel planning methodology using multiple shells including the novel OptiForR50 shell with precisely calculated dimensions and optimizer constraints lead to significantly lower values of R50% and D2cm and lower dose spillage in lung SBRT plans. All plans were successfully brought into the zone of no RTOG violations.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an emerging technique for treating oligometastases, but limited data is available on what plan quality is achievable for a range of modalities and clinical sites.<h4>Methods</h4>SBRT plans for lung, spine, bone, adrenal, liver and node sites from 17 participating centers were reviewed. Centers used various delivery techniques including static and rotational intensity-modulation and multiple non-coplanar beams. Plans were split into lung and other body sites and evaluated with different plan quality metrics, including two which are independent of target coverage; "prescription dose spillage" (PDS) and "modified gradient index" (MGI). These were compared to constraints from the ROSEL and RTOG 0813 clinical trials.<h4>Results</h4>Planning target volume (PTV) coverage was compromised (PTV V100%?<?90%) in 29% of patient plans in order to meet organ-at-risk (OAR) tolerances, supporting the use of plan quality metrics which are independent of target coverage. Both lung (n?=?48) and other body (n?=?99) site PDS values agreed well with ROSEL constraints on dose spillage, but RTOG 0813 values were too high to detect sub-optimal plans. MGI values for lung plans were mis-matched to both sets of previous constraints, with ROSEL values too high and RTOG 0813 values too low. MGI values were lower for other body plans as expected, though this was only statistically significant for PTV volumes <20?cm<sup>3</sup>.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Updated guidance for lung and other body site SBRT plan quality using the PDS and MGI metrics is presented.
Project description:We evaluated the feasibility of combined hippocampal- and scalp-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans. This study included 7 patients who received conventional palliative whole brain radiation treatment (WBRT) for brain metastasis. The brain, hippocampus, and scalp were contoured and replanned with intensity modulated radiation therapy. The prescription dose was 30 Gray (Gy) in 10 fractions with hippocampus and normal structure constraints per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0933 protocol. Further planning was done to minimize the scalp dose while maintaining the dose constraints for the hippocampus. Dose volume histograms were obtained from conventional opposed lateral fields, IMRT and compared. Planning target volume (PTV) coverage for all plans fell within the RTOG 0933 critical structure acceptable variation category. When compared to traditional opposed lateral fields, the IMRT plan with combined hippocampal- and scalp-sparing constraints was able to significantly reduce the max and mean scalp dose as well as the percentage of scalp receiving 10 and 20 Gy by 46% and 35%, respectively, while maintaining acceptable RTOG 0933 hippocampal dose variations. We conclude that acceptable PTV coverage and sparing of the scalp and hippocampus can be accomplished using a 9-field non-coplanar IMRT plan. Prospective study is warranted to understand the impact on radiation induced alopecia.
Project description:Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is currently well-adopted as a curative treatment for primary and metastatic liver tumors. Among SBRT methods, dynamic conformal arc therapy (DCAT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) are the most preferred methods. In this study, we report a comparison study measuring the dose distribution and delivery efficiency differences between DCAT and VMAT for liver SBRT. All patients who were treated with SBRT for primary or metastatic liver tumors with a curative aim between January 2016 and December 2017 at DIRAMS were enrolled in the study. For all patients, SBRT plans were designed using the Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm in Monaco treatment planning system (version 5.1). The planning goals were set according to the RTOG 0813, RTOG 0915, and RTOG 1112 protocols. A plan comparison was made on the metrics of dose volume histogram, planning and delivery efficiency, monitor unit (MU), and dosimetric indices. PTV coverage was evaluated using the following: Dmean, D95%, D98%, D2%, D50%, Dmax, V95%, heterogeneity index (HI), and conformality index (CI). For DCAT and VMAT, respectively, the Dmean was 5942.8 ± 409.3 cGy and 5890.6 ± 438.8 cGy, D50% was 5968.8 ± 413.1 cGy and 5954.3 ± 405.2 cGy, and CI was 1.05 ± 0.05 and 1.03 ± 0.04. The D98% and V95% were 5580.0 ± 465.3 cGy and 20.4 ± 12.0 mL for DCAT, and 5596.0 ± 478.7 cGy and 20.5 ± 12.0 mL for VMAT, respectively. For normal liver, V40, V30, V20, V17, V5, Dmean, Dmax were evaluated for comparison. The V30, V20, and V10 were significantly higher in DCAT; other parameters of normal livers showed no statistically significant differences. For evaluation of intermediate dose spillage, D2cm(%) and R50% of DCAT and VMAT were 45.8 ± 7.9 and 5.6 ± 0.9 and 45.1 ± 6.7 and 5.5 ± 1.2, respectively. Planning and delivery efficiency were evaluated using MU, Calculation time, and Delivery time. DCAT had shorter Calculation time and Delivery time with smaller MU. MU was smaller in DCAT and the average difference was 300.1 MU. For liver SBRT, DCAT is an effective alternative to VMAT plans that could meet the planning goals proposed by the RTOG SBRT protocol and increases plan and delivery effectiveness, while also ignoring the interplay effect.
Project description:The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0813 protocol requires the use of dose calculation algorithms with tissue heterogeneity corrections to compute dose on stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) plans. A new photon dose calculation algorithm called Acuros XB (AXB) has recently been implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS). The main purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric results of AXB with that of anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) for RTOG 0813 parameters. Additionally, phantom study was done to evaluate the dose prediction accuracy of AXB and AAA beyond low-density medium of different thicknesses by comparing the calculated results with the measurements. For the RTOG dosimetric study, 14 clinically approved SBRT NSCLC cases were included. The planning target volume (PTV) ranged from 3.2-43.0 cc. RapidArc treatment plans were generated in the Eclipse TPS following RTOG 0813 dosimetric criteria, and treatment plans were calculated using AAA with heterogeneity correction (AAA plans). All the AAA plans were then recalculated using AXB with heterogeneity correction (AXB plans) for identical beam parameters and same number of monitor units. The AAA and AXB plans were compared for following RTOG 0813 parameters: ratio of prescription isodose volume to PTV (R100%), ratio of 50% prescription isodose volume to PTV (R50%), maximal dose 2 cm from the PTV in any direction as a percentage of prescription dose (D2cm), and the percentage of ipsilateral lung receiving dose equal to or larger than 20 Gy (V20). The phantom study showed that the results of AXB had better agreement with the measurements, and the difference ranged from -1.7% to 2.8%. The AAA results showed larger disagreement with the measurements, with differences from 4.1% to 12.5% for field size 5 × 5cm2 and from 1.4% to 6.8% for field size 10 × 10 cm2. The results from the RTOG SBRT lung cases showed that, on average, the AXB plans produced lower values for R100%, R50%, and D2cm by 4.96%, 1.15%, and 1.60%, respectively, but higher V20 of ipsilateral lung by 1.09% when compared with AAA plans. In the set of AAA plans, minor deviation was seen for R100% (six cases), R50% (nine cases), D2cm (four cases), and V20 (one case). Similarly, the AXB plans also showed minor deviation for R100% (one case), R50% (eight cases), D2cm (three cases), and V20 (one case). The dosimetric results presented in the current study show that both the AXB and AAA can meet the RTOG 0813 dosimetric criteria.
Project description:NRG Oncology RTOG 0529 assessed the feasibility of dose-painted intensity modulated radiation therapy (DP-IMRT) to reduce the acute morbidity of chemoradiation with 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and mitomycin-C (MMC) for T2-4N0-3M0 anal cancer. This secondary analysis was performed to identify patient and treatment factors associated with acute and late gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs).NRG Oncology RTOG 0529 treatment plans were reviewed to extract dose-volume data for tightly contoured small bowel, loosely contoured anterior pelvic contents (APC), and uninvolved colon outside the target volume (UC). Univariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate association between volumes of each structure receiving doses ?5 to 60 Gy (V5-V60) in 5-Gy increments between patients with and without grade ?2 acute and late GI AEs, and grade ?3 acute GI AEs. Additional patient and treatment factors were evaluated in multivariate logistic regression (acute AEs) or Cox proportional hazards models (late AEs).Among 52 evaluable patients, grade ?2 acute, grade ?2 late, and grade ?3 acute GI AEs were observed in 35, 17, and 10 patients, respectively. Trends (P<.05) toward statistically significant associations were observed between grade ?2 acute GI AEs and small bowel dose (V20-V40), grade ?2 late GI AEs and APC dose (V60), grade ?3 acute GI AEs and APC dose (V5-V25), increasing age, tumor size >4 cm, and worse Zubrod performance status. Small bowel volumes of 186.0 cc, 155.0 cc, 41.0 cc, and 30.4 cc receiving doses greater than 25, 30, 35, and 40 Gy, respectively, correlated with increased risk of acute grade ?2 GI AEs.Acute and late GI AEs from 5FU/MMC chemoradiation using DP-IMRT correlate with radiation dose to the small bowel and APC. Such associations will be incorporated in the dose-volume normal tissue constraint design for future NRG oncology anal cancer studies.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>To investigate patterns of failure in institutional credentialing submissions to NRG/RTOG 1005 with the aim of improving the quality and consistency for future breast cancer protocols.<h4>Methods and materials</h4>NRG/RTOG 1005 allowed the submission of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) breast plans. Credentialing required institutions to pass a 2-step quality assurance (QA) process: (1) benchmark, requiring institutions to create a plan with no unacceptable deviations and ≤1 acceptable variation among the dose volume (DV) criteria, and (2) rapid review, requiring each institution's first protocol submission to have no unacceptable deviations among the DV criteria or contours. Overall rates, number of resubmissions, and reasons for resubmission were analyzed for each QA step.<h4>Results</h4>In total, 352 institutions participated in benchmark QA and 280 patients enrolled had rapid review QA. Benchmark initial failure rates were similar for 3DCRT (18%), IMRT (17%), and SIB (18%) plans. For 3DCRT and IMRT benchmark plans, ipsilateral lung most frequently failed the DV criteria, and SIB DV failures were seen most frequently for the heart. Rapid review contour initial failures (35%) were due to target rather than organs at risk. For 29% of the rapid review initial failures, the planning target volume boost eval volume was deemed an unacceptable deviation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The review of the benchmark and rapid review QA submissions indicates that acceptable variations or unacceptable deviations for the ipsilateral lung and heart dose constraints were the most commonly observed cause of benchmark QA failure, and unacceptable deviations in target contouring, rather than normal structure contouring, were the most common cause of rapid review QA failure. These findings suggest that a rigorous QA process is necessary for high quality and homogeneity in radiation therapy in multi-institutional trials of breast cancer to ensure that the benefits of radiation therapy far outweigh the risks.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Quality assurance (QA) of treatment plans in clinical trials improves protocol compliance and patient outcomes. Retrospective use of knowledge-based-planning (KBP) in clinical trials has demonstrated improved treatment plan quality and consistency. We report the results of prospective use of KBP for real-time QA of treatment plan quality in the TROG 15.03 FASTRACK II trial, which evaluates efficacy of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for kidney cancer.<h4>Methods</h4>A KBP model was generated based on single institution data. For each patient in the KBP phase (open to the last 31 patients in the trial), the treating centre submitted treatment plans 7 days prior to treatment. A treatment plan was created by using the KBP model, which was compared with the submitted plan for each organ-at-risk (OAR) dose constraint. A report comparing each plan for each OAR constraint was provided to the submitting centre within 24 h of receiving the plan. The centre could then modify the plan based on the KBP report, or continue with the existing plan.<h4>Results</h4>Real-time feedback using KBP was provided in 24/31 cases. Consistent plan quality was in general achieved between KBP and the submitted plan. KBP review resulted in replan and improvement of OAR dosimetry in two patients. All centres indicated that the feedback was a useful QA check of their treatment plan.<h4>Conclusion</h4>KBP for real-time treatment plan review was feasible for 24/31 cases, and demonstrated ability to improve treatment plan quality in two cases. Challenges include integration of KBP feedback into clinical timelines, interpretation of KBP results with respect to clinical trade-offs, and determination of appropriate plan quality improvement criteria.
Project description:To demonstrate an efficient method for training and validation of a knowledge-based planning (KBP) system as a radiation therapy clinical trial plan quality-control system.We analyzed 86 patients with stage IB through IVA cervical cancer treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy at 2 institutions according to the standards of the INTERTECC (International Evaluation of Radiotherapy Technology Effectiveness in Cervical Cancer, National Clinical Trials Network identifier: 01554397) protocol. The protocol used a planning target volume and 2 primary organs at risk: pelvic bone marrow (PBM) and bowel. Secondary organs at risk were rectum and bladder. Initial unfiltered dose-volume histogram (DVH) estimation models were trained using all 86 plans. Refined training sets were created by removing sub-optimal plans from the unfiltered sample, and DVH estimation models… and DVH estimation models were constructed by identifying 30 of 86 plans emphasizing PBM sparing (comparing protocol-specified dosimetric cutpoints V10 (percentage volume of PBM receiving at least 10 Gy dose) and V20 (percentage volume of PBM receiving at least 20 Gy dose) with unfiltered predictions) and another 30 of 86 plans emphasizing bowel sparing (comparing V40 (absolute volume of bowel receiving at least 40 Gy dose) and V45 (absolute volume of bowel receiving at least 45 Gy dose), 9 in common with the PBM set). To obtain deliverable KBP plans, refined models must inform patient-specific optimization objectives and/or priorities (an auto-planning "routine"). Four candidate routines emphasizing different tradeoffs were composed, and a script was developed to automatically re-plan multiple patients with each routine. After selection of the routine that best met protocol objectives in the 51-patient training sample (KBPFINAL), protocol-specific DVH metrics and normal tissue complication probability were compared for original versus KBPFINAL plans across the 35-patient validation set. Paired t tests were used to test differences between planning sets.KBPFINAL plans outperformed manual planning across the validation set in all protocol-specific DVH cutpoints. The mean normal tissue complication probability for gastrointestinal toxicity was lower for KBPFINAL versus validation-set plans (48.7% vs 53.8%, P<.001). Similarly, the estimated mean white blood cell count nadir was higher (2.77 vs 2.49 k/mL, P<.001) with KBPFINAL plans, indicating lowered probability of hematologic toxicity.This work demonstrates that a KBP system can be efficiently trained and refined for use in radiation therapy clinical trials with minimal effort. This patient-specific plan quality control resulted in improvements on protocol-specific dosimetric endpoints.