Lysosome activation clears aggregates and enhances quiescent neural stem cell activation during aging.
ABSTRACT: In the adult brain, the neural stem cell (NSC) pool comprises quiescent and activated populations with distinct roles. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that quiescent and activated NSCs exhibited differences in their protein homeostasis network. Whereas activated NSCs had active proteasomes, quiescent NSCs contained large lysosomes. Quiescent NSCs from young mice accumulated protein aggregates, and many of these aggregates were stored in large lysosomes. Perturbation of lysosomal activity in quiescent NSCs affected protein-aggregate accumulation and the ability of quiescent NSCs to activate. During aging, quiescent NSCs displayed defects in their lysosomes, increased accumulation of protein aggregates, and reduced ability to activate. Enhancement of the lysosome pathway in old quiescent NSCs cleared protein aggregates and ameliorated the ability of quiescent NSCs to activate, allowing them to regain a more youthful state.
Project description:Quiescence is important for sustaining neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult brain over the lifespan. Lysosomes are digestive organelles that degrade membrane receptors after they undergo endolysosomal membrane trafficking. Enlarged lysosomes are present in quiescent NSCs (qNSCs) in the subventricular zone of the mouse brain, but it remains largely unknown how lysosomal function is involved in the quiescence. Here we show that qNSCs exhibit higher lysosomal activity and degrade activated EGF receptor by endolysosomal degradation more rapidly than proliferating NSCs. Chemical inhibition of lysosomal degradation in qNSCs prevents degradation of signaling receptors resulting in exit from quiescence. Furthermore, conditional knockout of TFEB, a lysosomal master regulator, delays NSCs quiescence in vitro and increases NSC proliferation in the dentate gyrus of mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that enhanced lysosomal degradation is an important regulator of qNSC maintenance.
Project description:The quiescence, activation, and subsequent neurogenesis of neural stem cells (NSCs) play essential roles in the physiological homeostasis and pathological repair of the central nervous system. Previous studies indicate that transmembrane protein Ttyh1 is required for the stemness of NSCs, whereas the exact functions <i>in vivo</i> and precise mechanisms are still waiting to be elucidated. By constructing Ttyh1-promoter driven reporter mice, we determined the specific expression of Ttyh1 in quiescent NSCs and niche astrocytes. Further evaluations on Ttyh1 knockout mice revealed that Ttyh1 ablation leads to activated neurogenesis and enhanced spatial learning and memory in adult mice (6-8 weeks). Correspondingly, Ttyh1 deficiency results in accelerated exhaustion of NSC pool and impaired neurogenesis in aged mice (12 months). By RNA-sequencing, bioinformatics and molecular biological analysis, we found that Ttyh1 is involved in the regulation of calcium signaling in NSCs, and transcription factor NFATc3 is a critical effector in quiescence versus cell cycle entry regulated by Ttyh1. Our research uncovered new endogenous mechanisms that regulate quiescence versus activation of NSCs, therefore provide novel targets for the intervention to activate quiescent NSCs to participate in injury repair during pathology and aging.
Project description:Deciphering the mechanisms that regulate the quiescence of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies based on the stimulation of their endogenous regenerative potential in the damaged brain. We show that LeXbright cells sorted from the adult mouse subventricular zone exhibit all the characteristic features of quiescent NSCs. Indeed, they constitute a subpopulation of slowly dividing cells that is able to enter the cell cycle to regenerate the irradiated niche. Comparative transcriptomic analyses showed that they express hallmarks of NSCs but display a distinct molecular signature from activated NSCs (LeX+EGFR+ cells). Particularly, numerous membrane receptors are expressed on quiescent NSCs. We further revealed a different expression pattern of Syndecan-1 between quiescent and activated NSCs and demonstrated its role in the proliferation of activated NSCs. Our data highlight the central role of the stem cell microenvironment in the regulation of quiescence in adult neurogenic niches.
Project description:Stem cells often divide asymmetrically to produce one stem cell and one differentiating cell, thus maintaining the stem cell pool. Although neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mouse subventricular zone have been suggested to divide asymmetrically, intrinsic cell fate determinants for asymmetric NSC division are largely unknown. Stem cell niches are important for stem cell maintenance, but the niche for the maintenance of adult quiescent NSCs has remained obscure. Here we show that the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1) is required to maintain quiescent NSCs in the adult mouse subventricular zone. Dll1 protein is induced in activated NSCs and segregates to one daughter cell during mitosis. Dll1-expressing cells reside in close proximity to quiescent NSCs, suggesting a feedback signal for NSC maintenance by their sister cells and progeny. Our data suggest a model in which NSCs produce their own niche cells for their maintenance through asymmetric Dll1 inheritance at mitosis.
Project description:Identifying the mechanisms controlling quiescence and activation of neural stem cells (NSCs) is crucial for understanding brain repair. Here, we demonstrate that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling actively regulates different pools of quiescent and proliferative NSCs in the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), one of the main brain neurogenic niches. Specific deletion of the Hh receptor Patched in NSCs during adulthood upregulated Hh signaling in quiescent NSCs, progressively leading to a large accumulation of these cells in the V-SVZ. The pool of non-neurogenic astrocytes was not modified, whereas the activated NSC pool increased after a short period, before progressively becoming exhausted. We also showed that Sonic Hedgehog regulates proliferation of activated NSCs in vivo and shortens both their G<sub>1</sub> and S-G<sub>2</sub>/M phases in culture. These data demonstrate that Hh orchestrates the balance between quiescent and activated NSCs, with important implications for understanding adult neurogenesis under normal homeostatic conditions or during injury.
Project description:Quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult brain are regenerative cells that could be activated therapeutically to repair damage. It is becoming apparent that quiescent NSCs exhibit heterogeneity in their propensity for activation and in the progeny that they generate. We discovered recently that NSCs undergo quiescence in either G<sub>0</sub> or G<sub>2</sub> in the Drosophila brain, challenging the notion that all quiescent stem cells are G<sub>0</sub> arrested. We found that G<sub>2</sub>-quiescent NSCs become activated prior to G<sub>0</sub> NSCs. Here, we show that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Dacapo (Dap; ortholog of p57<sup>KIP2</sup>) determines whether NSCs enter G<sub>0</sub> or G<sub>2</sub> quiescence during embryogenesis. We demonstrate that the dorsal patterning factor, Muscle segment homeobox (Msh; ortholog of MSX1/2/3) binds directly to the Dap locus and induces Dap expression in dorsal NSCs, resulting in G<sub>0</sub> arrest, while more ventral NSCs undergo G<sub>2</sub> quiescence. Our results reveal region-specific regulation of stem cell quiescence.
Project description:The ability of stem cells to switch between quiescence and proliferation is crucial for tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Drosophila quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs) extend a primary cellular protrusion from the cell body prior to their reactivation. However, the structure and function of this protrusion are not well established. Here, we show that in the protrusion of quiescent NSCs, microtubules are predominantly acentrosomal and oriented plus-end-out toward the tip of the primary protrusion. We have identified Mini Spindles (Msps)/XMAP215 as a key microtubule regulator in quiescent NSCs that governs NSC reactivation via regulating acentrosomal microtubule growth and orientation. We show that quiescent NSCs form membrane contact with the neuropil and E-cadherin, a cell adhesion molecule, localizes to these NSC-neuropil junctions. Msps and a plus-end directed motor protein Kinesin-2 promote NSC cell cycle re-entry and target E-cadherin to NSC-neuropil contact during NSC reactivation. Together, this work establishes acentrosomal microtubule organization in the primary protrusion of quiescent NSCs and the Msps-Kinesin-2 pathway that governs NSC reactivation, in part, by targeting E-cad to NSC-neuropil contact sites.
Project description:Quiescent stem cells in adult tissues can be activated for homeostasis or repair. Neural stem cells (NSCs) in Drosophila are reactivated from quiescence in response to nutrition by the insulin signaling pathway. It is widely accepted that quiescent stem cells are arrested in G0 In this study, however, we demonstrate that quiescent NSCs (qNSCs) are arrested in either G2 or G0 G2-G0 heterogeneity directs NSC behavior: G2 qNSCs reactivate before G0 qNSCs. In addition, we show that the evolutionarily conserved pseudokinase Tribbles (Trbl) induces G2 NSCs to enter quiescence by promoting degradation of Cdc25String and that it subsequently maintains quiescence by inhibiting Akt activation. Insulin signaling overrides repression of Akt and silences trbl transcription, allowing NSCs to exit quiescence. Our results have implications for identifying and manipulating quiescent stem cells for regenerative purposes.
Project description:Adult mouse hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) generate new neurons that integrate into existing hippocampal networks and modulate mood and memory. These NSCs are largely quiescent and are stimulated by niche signals to activate and produce neurons. Wnt/β-catenin signalling acts at different steps along the hippocampal neurogenic lineage, but whether it has a direct role in the regulation of NSCs remains unclear. Here, we used Wnt/β-catenin reporters and transcriptomic data from in vivo and in vitro models to show that adult NSCs respond to Wnt/β-catenin signalling. Wnt/β-catenin stimulation instructed the neuronal differentiation of proliferating NSCs and promoted the activation or differentiation of quiescent NSCs in a dose-dependent manner. However, deletion of β-catenin in NSCs did not affect either their activation or maintenance of their stem cell characteristics. Together, these results indicate that, although NSCs do respond to Wnt/β-catenin stimulation in a dose-dependent and state-specific manner, Wnt/β-catenin signalling is not cell-autonomously required to maintain NSC homeostasis, which reconciles some of the contradictions in the literature as to the role of Wnt/β-catenin signalling in adult hippocampal NSCs.
Project description:Neurogenesis continues in the post-developmental brain throughout life. The ability to stimulate the production of new neurones requires both quiescent and actively proliferating pools of neural stem cells (NSCs). Actively proliferating NSCs ensure that neurogenic demand can be met, whilst the quiescent pool makes certain NSC reserves do not become depleted. The processes preserving the NSC quiescent pool are only just beginning to be defined. Herein, we identify a switch between NSC proliferation and quiescence through changing intracellular redox signalling. We show that N-terminal post-translational cleavage products of the prion protein (PrP) induce a quiescent state, halting NSC cellular growth, migration, and neurite outgrowth. Quiescence is initiated by the PrP cleavage products through reducing intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species. First, inhibition of redox signalling results in increased mitochondrial fission, which rapidly signals quiescence. Thereafter, quiescence is maintained through downstream increases in the expression and activity of superoxide dismutase-2 that reduces mitochondrial superoxide. We further observe that PrP is predominantly cleaved in quiescent NSCs indicating a homeostatic role for this cascade. Our findings provide new insight into the regulation of NSC quiescence, which potentially could influence brain health throughout adult life.