Enhancing quality of life among adolescents with bipolar disorder: A randomized trial of two psychosocial interventions.
ABSTRACT: Adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) report lower quality of life (QoL) than adolescents with other psychiatric disorders. This study compared the efficacy of family-focused therapy for adolescents (FFT-A) plus pharmacotherapy to brief psychoeducation (enhanced care, or EC) plus pharmacotherapy on self-rated QoL in adolescents with BD over 2 years.Participants were 141 adolescents (mean age: 15.6±1.4yr) with BD I or II who had a mood episode in the previous 3 months. Adolescents and parents were randomly assigned to (1) FFT-A, given in 21 sessions in 9 months of psychoeducation, communication enhancement training, and problem-solving skills training, or (2) EC, given in 3 family psychoeducation sessions. Study psychiatrists provided patient participants with protocol-based pharmacotherapy for the duration of the study. QoL was assessed with The KINDLRQuestionnaire (Ravens-Sieberer and Bullinger, 1998) during active treatment (baseline to 9 months) and during a post-treatment follow-up (9-24 months).The two treatment groups did not differ in overall QoL scores over 24 months. However, adolescents in FFT-A had greater improvements in quality of family relationships and physical well-being than participants in EC. For quality of friendships, the trajectory during active treatment favored EC, whereas the trajectory during post-treatment favored FFT-A.We were unable to standardize medication use or adherence over time. Quality of life was based on self-report rather than on observable functioning.A short course of family psychoeducation and skills training may enhance relational functioning and health in adolescents with BD. The effects of different psychosocial interventions on peer relationships deserves further study.
Project description:Family-focused therapy (FFT) is an evidence-based intervention for adults and children with bipolar disorder (BD) and their caregivers, usually given in conjunction with pharmacotherapy after an illness episode. The treatment consists of conjoint sessions of psychoeducation regarding bipolar illness, communication enhancement training, and problem-solving skills training. This paper summarizes over 30 years of research on FFT and family processes in BD. Across eight randomized controlled trials with adults and adolescents with BD, FFT and mood-stabilizing medications have been found to hasten recovery from mood episodes, reduce recurrences, and reduce levels of symptom severity compared to briefer forms of psychoeducation and medications over 1-2 years. Several studies indicate that the effects of FFT on symptom improvement are greater among patients with high-expressed emotion relatives. New research focuses on FFT as an early intervention for youth at risk for BD, neuroimaging as a means of evaluating treatment mechanisms, and progress in implementing FFT in community mental health settings.
Project description:The course of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents is highly recurrent and impairing. This article describes the adaptation of family-focused treatment (FFT) for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. FFT is given in 21 sessions over 9 months, and is usually initiated during the recovery period following an acute episode of depression or (hypo)mania. The treatment consists of an engagement phase followed by psychoeducation, communication enhancement training, and problem-solving skills training. Results of randomized trials in adults and adolescents find that patients with bipolar disorder who receive FFT and pharmacotherapy recover from episodes more quickly and have longer periods of sustained remission than patients who receive briefer forms of therapy and pharmacotherapy. The application of FFT to youth who are genetically at risk for bipolar disorder is described. Problems in disseminating empirically supported family interventions in community settings are discussed.
Project description:Longitudinal studies have begun to clarify the phenotypic characteristics of adolescents and young adults at clinical high risk for psychosis. This 8-site randomized trial examined whether a 6-month program of family psychoeducation was effective in reducing the severity of attenuated positive and negative psychotic symptoms and enhancing functioning among individuals at high risk.Adolescents and young adults (mean age 17.4 ± 4.1 years) with attenuated positive psychotic symptoms, brief and intermittent psychosis, or genetic risk with functional deterioration were randomly assigned to 18 sessions of family-focused therapy for individuals at clinical high risk (FFT-CHR) in 6 months or 3 sessions of family psychoeducation (enhanced care [EC]). FFT-CHR included psychoeducation about early signs of psychosis, stress management, communication training, and problem-solving skills training, whereas EC focused on symptom prevention. Independent evaluators assessed participants at baseline and 6 months on positive and negative symptoms and social-role functioning.Of 129 participants, 102 (79.1%) were followed up at 6 months. Participants in FFT-CHR showed greater improvements in attenuated positive symptoms over 6 months than participants in EC (F1,97 = 5.49, p = .02). Negative symptoms improved independently of psychosocial treatments. Changes in psychosocial functioning depended on age: participants more than 19 years of age showed more role improvement in FFT-CHR, whereas participants between 16 and 19 years of age showed more role improvement in EC. The results were independent of concurrent pharmacotherapy.Interventions that focus on improving family relationships may have prophylactic efficacy in individuals at high risk for psychosis. Future studies should examine the specificity of effects of family intervention compared to individual therapy of the same duration and frequency. Clinical trial registration information-Prevention Trial of Family Focused Treatment in Youth at Risk for Psychosis; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT01907282.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Research has begun to elucidate the optimal pharmacological treatments for pediatric-onset bipolar patients, but few studies have examined the role of psychosocial interventions as adjuncts to pharmacotherapy in maintenance treatment. This article describes an adjunctive family-focused psychoeducational treatment for bipolar adolescents (FFT-A). The adult version of FFT has been shown to be effective in forestalling relapses in two randomized clinical trials involving bipolar adults. METHODS:FFT-A is administered to adolescents who have had an exacerbation of manic, depressed, or mixed symptoms within the last 3 months. It is given in 21 outpatient sessions of psychoeducation, communication enhancement training, and problem solving skills training. We describe modifications to the adult FFT model to address the developmental issues and unique clinical presentations of pediatric-onset patients. RESULTS:An open treatment trial involving 20 bipolar adolescents (11 boys, 9 girls; mean age 14.8+/-1.6) found that the combination of FFT-A and mood stabilizing medications was associated with improvements in depression symptoms, mania symptoms, and behavior problems over 1 year. LIMITATIONS:These early results are based on a small-scale open trial. CONCLUSIONS:Results from an ongoing randomized controlled trial will clarify whether combining FFT-A with pharmacotherapy improves the 2-year course of adolescent bipolar disorder. If the results are positive, then a structured manual-based psychosocial approach will be available for clinicians who treat adolescent bipolar patients in the community.
Project description:Depression and brief periods of (hypo)mania are linked to an increased risk of progression to bipolar I or II disorder (BD) in children of bipolar parents. This randomized trial examined the effects of a 4-month family-focused therapy (FFT) program on the 1-year course of mood symptoms in youth at high familial risk for BD, and explored its comparative benefits among youth in families with high versus low expressed emotion (EE).Participants were 40 youth (mean 12.3±2.8 years, range 9-17) with BD not otherwise specified, major depressive disorder, or cyclothymic disorder who had a first-degree relative with BD I or II and active mood symptoms (Young Mania Rating Scale [YMRS]>11 or Child Depression Rating Scale>29). Participants were randomly allocated to FFT-High Risk version (FFT-HR; 12 sessions of psychoeducation and training in communication and problem-solving skills) or an education control (EC; 1-2 family sessions).Youth in FFT-HR had more rapid recovery from their initial mood symptoms (hazard ratio = 2.69, p = .047), more weeks in remission, and a more favorable trajectory of YMRS scores over 1 year than youth in EC. The magnitude of treatment effect was greater among youth in high-EE (versus low-EE) families.FFT-HR may hasten and help sustain recovery from mood symptoms among youth at high risk for BD. Longer follow-up will be necessary to determine whether early family intervention has downstream effects that contribute to the delay or prevention of full manic episodes in vulnerable youth.
Project description:Previous studies have found that family-focused treatment is an effective adjunct to pharmacotherapy in stabilizing symptoms in adult bipolar disorder. The authors examined whether pharmacotherapy and family-focused treatment for adolescents with bipolar disorder was more effective than pharmacotherapy and brief psychoeducation (enhanced care) in decreasing time to recovery from a mood episode, increasing time to recurrence, and reducing symptom severity over 2 years.A total of 145 adolescents (mean age, 15.6 years) with bipolar I or II disorder and a DSM-IV-TR manic, hypomanic, depressive, or mixed episode in the previous 3 months were randomly assigned, with family members, either to pharmacotherapy and family-focused treatment, consisting of psychoeducation (i.e., recognition and early intervention with prodromal symptoms), communication enhancement training, and problem-solving skills training, delivered in 21 sessions over 9 months; or to pharmacotherapy and three weekly sessions of enhanced care (family psychoeducation). Independent evaluators assessed participants at baseline, every 3 months during year 1, and every 6 months during year 2, using weekly ratings of mood.Twenty-two participants (15.2%) withdrew shortly after randomization. Time to recovery or recurrence and proportion of weeks ill did not differ between the two treatment groups. Secondary analyses revealed that participants in family-focused treatment had less severe manic symptoms during year 2 than did those in enhanced care.After an illness episode, intensive psychotherapy combined with best-practice pharmacotherapy does not appear to confer advantages over brief psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in hastening recovery or delaying recurrence among adolescents with bipolar disorder.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The primary objective of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) is to establish the effectiveness of a novel online quality of life (QoL) intervention tailored for people with late stage (? 10 episodes) bipolar disorder (BD) compared with psychoeducation. Relative to early stage individuals, this late stage group may not benefit as much from existing psychosocial treatments. The intervention is a guided self-help, mindfulness based intervention (MBI) developed in consultation with consumers, designed specifically for web-based delivery, with email coaching support. METHODS/DESIGN:This international RCT will involve a comparison of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two 5-week adjunctive online self-management interventions: Mindfulness for Bipolar 2.0 and an active control (Psychoeducation for Bipolar). A total of 300 participants will be recruited primarily via social media channels. Main inclusion criteria are: a diagnosis of BD (confirmed via a phone-administered structured diagnostic interview), no current mood episode, history of 10 or more mood episodes, no current psychotic features or active suicidality, under the care of a medical practitioner. Block randomisation will be used for allocation to the interventions, and participants will retain access to the program for 6 months. Evaluations will be conducted at pre- and post- treatment, and at 3- and 6- months follow-up. The primary outcome measure will be the Brief Quality of Life in Bipolar Disorder Scale (Brief QoL.BD), collected immediately post-intervention at 5 weeks (T1). Secondary measures include BD-related symptoms (mania, depression, anxiety, stress), time to first relapse, functioning, sleep quality, social rhythm stability and resource use. Measurements will be collected online and via telephone assessments at baseline (T0), 5 weeks (T1), three months (T2) and six months (T3). Candidate moderators (diagnosis, anxiety or substance comorbidities, demographics and current treatments) will be investigated as will putative therapeutic mechanisms including mindfulness, emotion regulation and self-compassion. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted. Acceptability and any unwanted events (including adverse treatment reactions) will be documented and explored. DISCUSSION:This definitive trial will test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a novel QoL focused, mindfulness based, online guided self-help intervention for late stage BD, and investigate its putative mechanisms of therapeutic action. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT03197974 . Registered 23 June 2017.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Behavioral high-risk phenotypes predict the onset of bipolar disorder among youths who have parents with bipolar disorder. Few studies have examined whether early intervention delays new mood episodes in high-risk youths.<h4>Objective</h4>To determine whether family-focused therapy (FFT) for high-risk youths is more effective than standard psychoeducation in hastening recovery and delaying emergence of mood episodes during the 1 to 4 years after an active period of mood symptoms.<h4>Design, settings, and participants</h4>This multisite randomized clinical trial included referred youths (aged 9-17 years) with major depressive disorder or unspecified (subthreshold) bipolar disorder, active mood symptoms, and at least 1 first- or second-degree relative with bipolar disorder I or II. Recruitment started from October 6, 2011, and ended on September 15, 2016. Independent evaluators interviewed participants every 4 to 6 months to measure symptoms for up to 4 years. Data analysis was performed from March 13 to November 3, 2019.<h4>Interventions</h4>High-risk youths and parents were randomly allocated to FFT (12 sessions in 4 months of psychoeducation, communication training, and problem-solving skills training; n?=?61) or enhanced care (6 sessions in 4 months of family and individual psychoeducation; n?=?66). Youths could receive medication management in either condition.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>The coprimary outcomes, derived using weekly psychiatric status ratings, were time to recovery from prerandomization symptoms and time to a prospectively observed mood (depressive, manic, or hypomanic) episode after recovery. Secondary outcomes were time to conversion to bipolar disorder I or II and longitudinal symptom trajectories.<h4>Results</h4>All 127 participants (82 [64.6%] female; mean [SD] age, 13.2 [2.6] years) were followed up for a median of 98 weeks (range, 0-255 weeks). No differences were detected between treatments in time to recovery from pretreatment symptoms. High-risk youths in the FFT group had longer intervals from recovery to the emergence of the next mood episode (?2?=?5.44; P?=?.02; hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.48-0.92;), and from randomization to the next mood episode (?2?=?4.44; P?=?.03; hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.35-0.97) than youths in enhanced care. Specifically, FFT was associated with longer intervals to depressive episodes (log-rank ?2?=?6.24; P?=?.01; hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31-0.88) but did not differ from enhanced care in time to manic or hypomanic episodes, conversions to bipolar disorder, or symptom trajectories.<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Family skills-training for youths at high risk for bipolar disorder is associated with longer times between mood episodes. Clarifying the relationship between changes in family functioning and changes in the course of high-risk syndromes merits future investigation.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01483391.
Project description:Context:The existing literature on the treatment of pediatric chronic tic disorder (CTD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) indicates that both behavioral therapy (BT) and pharmacotherapy (PT) are effective for reducing symptoms. Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of BT compared to psychoeducation (PE) or PT for reducing tics and co-occurring symptoms and for improving quality of life (QoL) in a sample of youths with CTD and TS. Design:A 10?weeks, 2 sites (Catania, Rome) randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized to receive one of the following treatments: BT, PE, or PT. Participants:110 outpatients aged between 8 and 17?years affected by CTD or TS. Results:Patients in the BT and PT groups showed a significant reduction in the severity of tic symptoms, while the PE group did not show any improvement. PT was more effective for reducing obsessive compulsive symptoms than BT, while PE group did not show any improvement. Both BT and PT groups showed an improvement in most QoL domains, whereas no differences were found in the PE group. Conclusions:BT is as effective as pharmacological therapy in the treatment of tic disorders in children and adolescents, thus offering an alternative to medications for CTD and TS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The integrated treatment of first episode psychosis has been shown to improve functionality and negative symptoms in previous studies. In this paper, we describe a study of integrated treatment (individual psychoeducation complementary to pharmacotherapy) versus treatment as usual, comparing results at baseline with those at 6-month re-assessment (at the end of the study) for these patients, and online training of professionals to provide this complementary treatment, with the following objectives: 1) to compare the efficacy of individual psychoeducation as add-on treatment versus treatment as usual in improving psychotic and mood symptoms; 2) to compare adherence to medication, functioning, insight, social response, quality of life, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, between both groups; and 3) to analyse the efficacy of online training of psychotherapists. METHODS/DESIGN:This is a single-blind randomised clinical trial including patients with first episode psychosis from hospitals across Spain, randomly assigned to either a control group with pharmacotherapy and regular sessions with their psychiatrist (treatment as usual) or an intervention group with integrated care including treatment as usual plus a psychoeducational intervention (14 sessions). Training for professionals involved at each participating centre was provided by the coordinating centre (University Hospital of Álava) through video conferences. Patients are evaluated with an extensive battery of tests assessing clinical and sociodemographic characteristics (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorders, Strauss and Carpenter Prognostic Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale, Morisky Green Adherence Scale, Functioning Assessment Short Test, World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument WHOQOL-BREF (an abbreviated version of the WHOQOL-100), and EuroQoL questionnaire), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels are measured in peripheral blood at baseline and at 6 months. The statistical analysis, including bivariate analysis, linear and logistic regression models, will be performed using SPSS. DISCUSSION:This is an innovative study that includes the assessment of an integrated intervention for patients with first episode psychosis provided by professionals who are trained online, potentially making it possible to offer the intervention to more patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01783457 clinical trials.gov. Date of registration in primary registry 23 January 2013.