Assessing Community Health: An Innovative Tool for Measuring Height and Length.
ABSTRACT: Anthropometric measurements, including height and length, are routinely needed for health research worldwide. Measurement boards are the current gold standard for obtaining the height and length of children. In community-based research, however, the size and weight of the measurement boards make them difficult and cumbersome to carry in the field. In addition, children and infants may express an unwillingness to be placed onto the measurement board. Electronic measuring tools commonly used in industry and contracting work are precise and portable. This study piloted a protocol to use an adapted laser measurement tool, the anthropometric measurement assist (AMA), to obtain height and recumbent length in children in Western Kenya. Intra- and inter-observer variability were determined and compared with measurement board measurements. Results of this initial pilot indicated that the AMA may be a viable alternative to measurement boards. The AMA can measure height/length accurately and reliably, is portable and is equivalent in price to measuring boards, making it a viable option for fieldwork in low-resourced countries.
Project description:Background: Malnutrition affects body growth, size, and composition of children. Yet, few functional biomarkers are known to be associated with childhood morphology.Objective: This cross-sectional study examined associations of anthropometric indicators of height, musculature, and fat mass with plasma proteins by using proteomics in a population cohort of school-aged Nepalese children.Methods: Height, weight, midupper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps and subscapular skinfolds, upper arm muscle area (AMA), and arm fat area (AFA) were assessed in 500 children 6-8 y of age. Height-for-age z scores (HAZs), weight-for-age z scores (WAZs), and body mass index-for-age z scores (BAZs) were derived from the WHO growth reference. Relative protein abundance was quantified by using tandem mass spectrometry. Protein-anthropometry associations were evaluated by linear mixed-effects models and identified as having a false discovery rate (q) <5%.Results: Among 982 proteins, 1, 10, 14, and 17 proteins were associated with BAZ, HAZ, MUAC, and AMA, respectively (q < 0.05). Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, 2 IGF-binding proteins, and carnosinase-1 were associated with both HAZ and AMA. Proteins involved in nutrient transport, activation of innate immunity, and bone mineralization were associated with HAZ. Several extracellular matrix proteins were positively associated with AMA alone. The proteomes of MUAC and AMA substantially overlapped, whereas no proteins were associated with AFA or triceps and subscapular skinfolds. Myosin light-chain kinase, possibly reflecting leakage from muscle, was inversely associated with BAZ. The proteome of WAZ was the largest (n = 33) and most comprehensive, including proteins involved in neural development and oxidative stress response, among others.Conclusions: Plasma proteomics confirmed known biomarkers of childhood growth and revealed novel proteins associated with lean mass in chronically undernourished children. Identified proteins may serve as candidates for assessing growth and nutritional status of children in similar undernourished settings. The antenatal micronutrient supplementation trial yielding the study cohort of children was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00115271.
Project description:Background: Population-level health and nutrition surveys provide critical anthropometric data used to monitor trends of the prevalence of under nutrition and overweight in children under 5 years old, and overweight and obesity in the population over 5 years of age. Objective: Analyze the children malnutrition and overweight and obesity in children, teenagers and adults through the National Health and Nutrition Surveys information available from public databases. Materials and Methods: Comparable anthropometric data was gathered by five Mexican National Health and Nutrition Surveys (in Spanish, ENSANUT). In pre-school-age children, under nutrition status was identified through underweight (Z-score below -2 in weight-for-age), stunting (chronic malnutrition) (Z-score below -2 for length/height-for-age), or wasting (Z-score below -2, for weight-for-length/height); overweight status was defined as a body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) for age over +2. For school-age children and adolescents, a Z-score BMI between +1 and +2 deviations was defined as overweight, and between +2 and +5.5 as obesity. In adults (≥20 years of age), overweight status was classified as a BMI between 25.0 and 29.9, and obesity as ≥30. Results: The anthropometric data presented derives from the databases of five survey years of the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey: 2006, 2012, 2016, 2018, and 2020. They include a total of 210,915 subjects with complete anthropometric data (weight, length/height) distributed on five survey moments; subjects were categorized by age group: pre-school-age children (n = 25,968), school-age children (n = 42,255), adolescents (n = 39,275), and adults (n = 103,417). Prevalence of malnutrition by indicator was calculated: in pre-school-age children: low height- and weight-for-age, low weight-for-height, and overweight; and in school-age children, adolescents, and adults, the indicators calculated were overweight and obesity. Conclusions: Results demonstrate the importance of maintaining systematic, reliable, and timely national anthropometric data in the population, in order to detect and track trends and to form the basis of nutrition-related public policy.
Project description:Prior research on the determinants of child health has focused on contemporaneous risk factors such as maternal behaviors, dietary factors, and immediate environmental conditions. Research on intergenerational factors that might also predispose a child to increased health adversity remains limited.To examine the association between maternal height and child mortality, anthropometric failure, and anemia.We retrieved data from the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey in India (released in 2008). The study population constitutes a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of singleton children aged 0 to 59 months and born after January 2000 or January 2001 (n = 50 750) to mothers aged 15 to 49 years from all 29 states of India. Information on children was obtained by a face-to-face interview with mothers, with a response rate of 94.5%. Height was measured with an adjustable measuring board calibrated in millimeters. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were considered as covariates. Modified Poisson regression models that account for multistage survey design and sampling weights were estimated.Mortality was the primary end point; underweight, stunting, wasting, and anemia were included as secondary outcomes.In adjusted models, a 1-cm increase in maternal height was associated with a decreased risk of child mortality (relative risk [RR], 0.978; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.970-0.987; P < .001), underweight (RR, 0.971; 95% CI, 0.968-0.974; P < .001), stunting (RR, 0.971; 95% CI, 0.968-0.0973; P < .001), wasting (RR, 0.989; 95% CI, 0.984-0.994; P < .001), and anemia (RR, 0.998; 95% CI, 0.997-0.999; P = .02). Children born to mothers who were less than 145 cm in height were 1.71 times more likely to die (95% CI, 1.37-2.13) (absolute probability, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.07-0.12) compared with mothers who were at least 160 cm in height (absolute probability, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.04-0.07). Similar patterns were observed for anthropometric failure related to underweight and stunting. Paternal height was not associated with child mortality or anemia but was associated with child anthropometric failure.In a nationally representative sample of households in India, maternal height was inversely associated with child mortality and anthropometric failure.
Project description:The causes of the "dual burden" of stunting and obesity remain unclear, and its existence at the individual level varies between populations. We investigate whether the individual dual burden differentially affects low socioeconomic status Peruvian children from contrasting environments (urban lowlands and rural highlands), and whether tibia length can discount the possible autocorrelation between adiposity proxies and height due to height measurement error.Stature, tibia length, weight, and waist circumference were measured in children aged 3-8.5 years (n = 201). Height and body mass index (BMI) z scores were calculated using international reference data. Age-sex-specific centile curves were also calculated for height, BMI, and tibia length. Adiposity proxies (BMI z score, waist circumference-height ratio (WCHtR)) were regressed on height and also on tibia length z scores.Regression model interaction terms between site (highland vs. lowland) and height indicate that relationships between adiposity and linear growth measures differed significantly between samples (P < 0.001). Height was positively associated with BMI among urban lowland children, and more weakly with WCHtR. Among rural highland children, height was negatively associated with WCHtR but unrelated to BMI. Similar results using tibia length rather than stature indicate that stature measurement error was not a major concern.Lowland and rural highland children differ in their patterns of stunting, BMI, and WCHtR. These contrasts likely reflect environmental differences and overall environmental stress exposure. Tibia length or knee height can be used to assess the influence of measurement error in height on the relationship between stature and BMI or WCHtR.
Project description:Background:Well-trained anthropometrists are essential for the delivery of high-quality anthropometric data used to evaluate public health nutrition interventions. Scant data are currently available on the precision of data collected by large teams of anthropometrists employed for nutrition surveys in low-income country settings. Objectives:The purpose of this study was to assess the precision of child midupper arm circumference (MUAC) and length/height measurements taken by fieldworkers training for nutrition survey deployment. Methods:Following 3 d of training, an anthropometry standardization exercise was conducted in small teams of trainees at 7 sites in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. In groups of 2-4, trainee anthropometrists (n = 79) each measured 16 children aged 6-47 mo (n = 336) twice for MUAC and length/height. Both intraobserver and interobserver precision were analyzed using technical error of measurement (TEM), relative TEM, coefficient of reliability (R), and repeatability metrics. Bland-Altman limits of agreement were calculated for intraobserver measurements. Results:Intraobserver TEM was between 0.00 and 0.57 cm for MUAC (Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement: -0.50 to 0.54 cm) and between 0.04 and 2.58 cm for length/height measurements (Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement: -1.43 to 1.41 cm). Interobserver TEM was between 0.09 and 0.43 cm for MUAC and between 0.06 and 2.98 cm for length/height measurements. A high proportion of trainees achieved intraobserver R >0.95 (MUAC: 95%; length/height: 97%). Most teams also achieved interobserver R >0.95 (MUAC: 90%; length/height: 95%). Conclusions:Large numbers of anthropometrists (>75) in low-income settings can attain satisfactory precision in anthropometry following training and standardization. These protocols permit researchers to assess trainees, identify individuals who have not achieved the desired level of precision, and retrain or adjust roles prior to survey deployment.
Project description:Evaluation of nutritional status is necessary during childhood and the juvenile years when the level of hydration and the adipose tissues experience significant changes. Anthropometric measurements and their derived indices are valid proxies to predict body fat, obesity (general or central) and their associated cardiovascular risks. The dataset under consideration also provides the socio-demographic related information and anthropometric measurement values related to height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HpC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), neck circumference (NC), and wrist circumference (WrC). Standard procedure was adopted for quantifying the body measurements. The data were consisting of 10,782 children and adolescents aged 2-19 years, belonging four major cities of Pakistan viz. Multan, Lahore, Rawalpindi and Islamabad. This dataset is beneficial to develop anthropometric growth charts which will provide the essential knowledge of growth and nutritional disorders (e.g., stunted, overweight and obesity) of Pakistani children and adolescents. The dataset can also be used by researchers to calculate body surface area (BSA), body frame size (BFS), body shape index (BSI), and tri-ponderal mass index (TMI) of children and adolescents that are also some other reliable indicators of obesity and insulin resistance as well as cardiometabolic risk in children and adults.
Project description:The authors examined the relationship of maternal anthropometry to fetal growth and birth weight among 1005 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women in Lilongwe, Malawi, who consented to enrollment in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study (www.thebanstudy.org). Anthropometric assessments of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), and arm fat area (AFA) were collected at the baseline visit between 12 and 30 weeks' gestation and in up to 4 follow-up prenatal visits. In longitudinal analysis, fundal height increased monotonically at an estimated rate of 0.92 cm/wk and was positively and negatively associated with AMA and AFA, respectively. These latter relationships varied over weeks of follow-up. Baseline MUAC, AMA, and AFA were positively associated with birth weight (MUAC: 31.84 g/cm(2), 95% confidence interval [CI], 22.18-41.49 [P < .01]; AMA: 6.88 g/cm(2), 95% CI, 2.51-11.26 [P < .01]; AFA: 6.97 g/cm(2), 95% CI, 3.53-10.41 [P < .01]). In addition, MUAC and AMA were both associated with decreased odds for low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g) (MUAC: odds ratio [OR] = 0.85, 95% CI, 0.77-0.94 [P < .01]; AMA: OR = 0.95, 95% CI, 0.91-0.99 [P < .05]). These findings support the use of MUAC as an efficient, cost-effective screening tool for LBW in HIV-infected women, as in HIV-uninfected women.
Project description:Background and purpose - When children with irregular body proportions or asymmetric limbs present, it may be unclear where the pathology is located. An improved understanding of the clinical ratio between upper extremity, lower extremity, and spine length may help elucidate whether there is disproportion between the trunk and limbs, and whether there is a reduction deficit of the shorter limb rather than hypertrophy of the longer limb. Patients and methods - We used the Brush Foundation study of child growth and development, which was a prospective, longitudinal study of healthy children between the 1930s and the 1950s, and we collected serial clinical measurements for 290 children at 3,326 visits. Children ranged from 2 to 20 years of age during the study period. Linear and quadratic regression were used to construct nomographs and 95% prediction intervals for anthropometric body proportions. Results - The maximum anterior superior iliac spine height to sitting height ratio occurred at 12.4 years in females and at 14.17 years in males. Overall, the ratio of arm length to sitting height was 0.76 (SD 0.06), the ratio of arm length to anterior superior iliac spine height was 0.76 (SD 0.03), and the ratio of anterior superior iliac spine height to sitting height was 0.98 (SD 0.13). When comparing ratios between arm length, anterior superior iliac spine height, and sitting height, the smallest variance between appendicular proportions was found in the arm length to anterior superior iliac spine height ratio. Interpretation - We recommend comparisons between total arm length and anterior superior iliac spine height to distinguish limb reduction deficits from hemi-hypertrophy, with sitting height being used only if combined upper and lower extremity discrepancy is noted.
Project description:UNLABELLED:New models describing anthropometrically adjusted normal values of bone mineral density and content in children have been created for the various measurement sites. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters. INTRODUCTION:Previous descriptions of children's bone mineral measurements by age have focused on segmenting diverse populations by race and sex without adjusting for anthropometric variables or have included the effects of a single anthropometric variable. METHODS:We applied multivariate semi-metric smoothing to the various pediatric bone-measurement sites using data from the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study to evaluate which of sex, race, age, height, weight, percent body fat, and sexual maturity explain variations in the population's bone mineral values. By balancing high adjusted R(2) values with clinical needs, two models are examined. RESULTS:At the spine, whole body, whole body sub head, total hip, hip neck, and forearm sites, models were created using sex, race, age, height, and weight as well as an additional set of models containing these anthropometric variables and percent body fat. For bone mineral density, weight is more important than percent body fat, which is more important than height. For bone mineral content, the order varied by site with body fat being the weakest component. Including more anthropometrics in the model reduces the overlap of the critical groups, identified as those individuals with a Z-score below -2, from the standard sex, race, and age model. CONCLUSIONS:If body fat is not available, the simpler model including height and weight should be used. The inclusion of multiple explanatory variables in the models provides the opportunity to calculate Z-scores that are adjusted with respect to the relevant anthropometric parameters.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine associations between receipt of an electronic food voucher (e-voucher) compared to food rations on the nutritional status of Rohingya children living in refugee camps in Bangladesh. METHODS:This is an associational study using cross-sectional data. We measured heights and weights of 523 children aged between 6 and 23 months in households receiving either a food ration consisting of rice, pulses, vegetable oil (362 children) or an e-voucher (161 children) that could be used to purchase 19 different foods. Data were also collected on the characteristics of their mothers and the households in which they lived, including household demographics, consumption and expenditure, coping strategies, livelihoods and income profiles, and access to assistance. Associations between measures of anthropometric status (height-for-age z scores, stunting, weight-for-height z scores, wasting, weight-for-age z scores and mid-upper arm circumference) and household receipt of the e-voucher were estimated using ordinary least squares regressions. Control variables included child, maternal, household and locality characteristics. The study received ethical approval from the Institutional Review Board of the International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC. RESULTS:Household receipt of an e-voucher was associated with improved linear growth in children. This association is robust to the inclusion of maternal, household and location characteristics. The magnitude of the association is 0.38 SD (CI: 0.01, 0.74), and statistically significant at the five percent level. We cannot reject the null hypothesis that these associations differ by child sex. Receipt of an e-voucher is not associated with stunting when a full set of control variables are included. There is no association between receipt of e-vouchers and weight-for-length, weight-for-age or mid-upper arm circumference. We cannot reject the null hypothesis that these associations differ by child sex. CONCLUSIONS:In a humanitarian assistance setting, Rohingya refugee camps in Bangladesh, household receipt of an electronic food voucher instead of a food ration is associated with improvements in the linear growth of children between 6 and 23 months but not in measures of acute undernutrition or other anthropometric outcomes. Our associational evidence indicates that transitioning from food rations to electronic food vouchers does not adversely affect child nutritional status.