Structural basis of ligand binding modes at the neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor.
ABSTRACT: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and have important roles in food intake, anxiety and cancer biology 1,2 . The NPY-Y receptor system has emerged as one of the most complex networks with three peptide ligands (NPY, peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide) binding to four receptors in most mammals, namely the Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptors, with different affinity and selectivity 3 . NPY is the most powerful stimulant of food intake and this effect is primarily mediated by the Y1 receptor (Y1R) 4 . A number of peptides and small-molecule compounds have been characterized as Y1R antagonists and have shown clinical potential in the treatment of obesity 4 , tumour 1 and bone loss 5 . However, their clinical usage has been hampered by low potency and selectivity, poor brain penetration ability or lack of oral bioavailability 6 . Here we report crystal structures of the human Y1R bound to the two selective antagonists UR-MK299 and BMS-193885 at 2.7 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. The structures combined with mutagenesis studies reveal the binding modes of Y1R to several structurally diverse antagonists and the determinants of ligand selectivity. The Y1R structure and molecular docking of the endogenous agonist NPY, together with nuclear magnetic resonance, photo-crosslinking and functional studies, provide insights into the binding behaviour of the agonist and for the first time, to our knowledge, determine the interaction of its N terminus with the receptor. These insights into Y1R can enable structure-based drug discovery that targets NPY receptors.
Project description:N-terminal labelled fluorescent BODIPY-NPY peptide analogues were tested in Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptor-binding assays performed in rat brain membrane preparations and HEK293 cells expressing the rat Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptors. BODIPY TMR/FL-[Leu31, Pro34]NPY/PYY were able to compete for specific [Leu31, Pro34]PYY-binding sites with an affinity similar to that observed for the native peptide at the Y1 (Ki=1-6 nM), Y2 (Ki>1000 nM), Y4 (Ki=10 nM) and Y5 (Ki=1-4 nM) receptor subtypes. BODIPY FL-PYY(3-36) was able to compete for specific Y2 (Ki=10 nM) and Y5 (Ki=30 nM) binding sites, but had almost no affinity in Y1 and Y4 assays. BODIPY FL-hPP was able to compete with high affinity (Ki; 1 and 15 nM) only in Y4 and Y5 receptor-binding assays. BODIPY TMR-[cPP(1-7), NPY(19-23), Ala31, Aib32, Gln34]hPP and BODIPY TMR-[hPP(1-17), Ala31, Aib32]NPY were potent competitors only on specific Y5-binding sites (Ki=0.1-0.6 nM). As expected, these fluorescent peptides inhibited forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation, demonstrating that they retained their agonist properties. When tested in confocal microscopy imaging, fluorescent Y1 and Y5 agonists internalized in a time-dependent manner in Y1 and Y5 transfected cells, respectively. These results demonstrate that BODIPY-conjugated NPY analogues retain their selectivity, affinity and agonist properties for the Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptor subtypes, respectively. Thus, they represent novel tools to study and visualize NPY receptors in living cells.
Project description:The increased proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play important roles in pathophysiological remodeling of arteries during hypertension in pregnancy. However, the mechanisms involved in this process remain unclear. We hypothesized that Neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is a potent mitogenic peptide, participates in modulating proliferation and migration of VSMCs during hypertension in pregnancy. Using pregnant hypertensive rats, induced by intraperitoneal injection of L-nitro-arginine methylester (L-NAME), the plasma concentration of NPY was detected. Open angle, which reflects the non-uniform remodeling with high sensitivity, was used to detect the pathophysiological vascular remodeling in vivo. The results revealed that NPY concentration and artery open angle were both significantly increased in rats with hypertension in pregnant. The underlying mechanism of elevated NPY on vascular remodeling were further analyzed by using cultured VSMCs in vitro. In cultured VSMCs, NPY most effectively stimulated the migration and proliferation of VSMCs at 10-6 mol/L, similar to the plasma concentration in L-NAME hypertension in pregnant rats. NPY up-regulated the expressions of both Y1 and Y5 receptors, increased the phosphorylations of STAT3 on Tyr705 and Ser727 residues, and induced the expression of c-Fos. The NPY-induced VSMCs proliferation was reduced by Y5 receptor antagonist, and fully blocked by combinations with other antagonist, such as Y2+Y5, Y1+Y5, and Y1+Y2+Y5. In contrast, the NPY-induced VSMC migration was blocked by either Y receptor antagonist or any combination of Y receptor antagonists. These results suggest that the elevated plasma concentration of NPY during hypertension in pregnancy may induce VSMC proliferation mainly via Y5 receptor, which subsequently modulate STAT3 and c-Fos signaling pathways to result in the vascular remodeling. These results also suggest that NPY mainly acts on VSMCs in vitro via Y1, Y5 receptors and in vascular tissues in vivo via Y5 receptor.
Project description:Frequent binge drinking has been linked to heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and the development of ethanol dependence. Thus, identifying pharmaceutical targets to treat binge drinking is of paramount importance. Here we employed a mouse model of binge-like ethanol drinking to study the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY). To this end, the present set of studies utilized pharmacological manipulation of NPY signaling, immunoreactivity (IR) mapping of NPY and NPY receptors, and electrophysiological recordings from slice preparations of the amygdala. The results indicated that central infusion of NPY, a NPY Y1 receptor (Y1R) agonist, and a Y2R antagonist significantly blunted binge-like ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J mice (that achieved blood ethanol levels >80?mg/dl in control conditions). Binge-like ethanol drinking reduced NPY and Y1R IR in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and 24?h of ethanol abstinence after a history of binge-like drinking promoted increases of Y1R and Y2R IR. Electrophysiological recordings of slice preparations from the CeA showed that binge-like ethanol drinking augmented the ability of NPY to inhibit GABAergic transmission. Thus, binge-like ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J mice promoted alterations of NPY signaling in the CeA, and administration of exogenous NPY compounds protected against binge-like drinking. The current data suggest that Y1R agonists and Y2R antagonists may be useful for curbing and/or preventing binge drinking, protecting vulnerable individuals from progressing to the point of ethanol dependence.
Project description:Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and NPY receptors are widely expressed in various organs and cell types and have been shown to have pleiotropic functions. However, their presence or role in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) remains unknown. We now show that undifferentiated hESCs primarily express NPY and its Y1 and Y5 receptors. Inhibition of NPY signalling using either the selective NPY Y1 or Y5 receptor antagonist reduces the maintenance of self-renewal and proliferation of undifferentiated hESCs. We also provide compelling evidence that exogenous NPY supports the long-term growth of undifferentiated hESCs in the absence of feeder cell factors using only knockout serum replacement media. Further, NPY facilitates the use of chemically defined medium made up of N2/B27 supplement and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for hESC feeder-free culture. Our results indicate that both Y1 and Y5 receptors appear to be involved in the NPY-mediated activation of AKT/protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in hESCs. Notably, only Y1 receptor, but not Y5 receptor, is responsible for the NPY-induced activation of cAMP-response element binding (CREB) in hESCs. These results provide the first evidence that NPY and its Y1 and Y5 receptors have potential role in maintaining hESC self-renewal and pluripotency. We demonstrate the underlying importance of NPY signalling and its usefulness in the development of a defined and xeno-free culture condition for the large-scale propagation of undifferentiated hESCs.
Project description:Interactions of the human NPY (neuropeptide Y) receptor Y1 with the two endogenous agonists NPY and peptide YY and two non-peptide antagonists were investigated using site-directed mutagenesis at 17 positions. The present study was triggered by contradictions among previously published reports and conclusions that seemed inconsistent with sequence comparisons across species and receptor subtypes. Our results show that Asp287, at the border between TM (transmembrane) region 6 and EL3 (extracellular loop 3) influences peptide binding, while two aspartic residues in EL2 do not, in agreement with some previous studies but in disagreement with others. A hydrophobic pocket of the Y1 receptor consisting of Tyr100 (TM2), Phe286 (TM6) and His298 (EL3) has been proposed to interact with the amidated C-terminus of NPY, a theory that is unsupported by sequence comparisons between Y1, Y2 and Y5. Nevertheless, our results confirm that these amino acid residues are critical for peptide binding, but probably interact with NPY differently than proposed previously. Studies with the Y1-selective antagonist SR120819A identified a new site of interaction at Asn116 in TM3. Position Phe173 in TM4 is also important for binding of this antagonist. In contrast with previous reports, we found that Phe173 is not crucial for the binding of BIBP3226, another selective Y1 receptor antagonist. Also, we found that position Thr212 (TM5) is important for binding of both antagonists. Our mutagenesis results and our three-dimensional model of the receptor based on the high-resolution structure of bovine rhodopsin suggest new interactions for agonist as well as antagonist binding to the Y1 receptor.
Project description:Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a member of the pancreatic polypeptide family, is an orexigenic hormone. GnRH-1 neurons express NPY receptors. This suggests a direct link between metabolic function and reproduction. However, the effect of NPY on GnRH-1 cells has been variable, dependent on metabolic and reproductive status of the animal. This study circumvents these issues by examining the role of NPY on GnRH-1 neuronal activity in an explant model that is based on the extra-central nervous system origin of GnRH-1 neurons. These prenatal GnRH-1 neurons express many receptors found in GnRH-1 neurons in the brain and use similar transduction pathways. In addition, these GnRH-1 cells exhibit spontaneous and ligand-induced oscillations in intracellular calcium as well as pulsatile calcium-controlled GnRH-1 release. Single-cell PCR determined that prenatal GnRH-1 neurons express the G protein-coupled Y1 receptor (Y1R). To address the influence of NPY on GnRH-1 neuronal activity, calcium imaging was used to monitor individual and population dynamics. NPY treatment, mimicked with Y1R agonist, significantly decreased the number of calcium peaks per minute in GnRH-1 neurons and was prevented by a Y1R antagonist. Pertussis toxin blocked the effect of NPY on GnRH-1 neuronal activity, indicating the coupling of Y1R to inhibitory G protein. The NPY-induced inhibition was independent of the adenylate cyclase pathway but mediated by the activation of G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels. These results indicate that at an early developmental stage, GnRH-1 neuronal activity can be directly inhibited by NPY via its Y1R.
Project description:1. The purpose of this work was to verify the hypothesis that the rabbit ileum is a selective preparation for the NPY Y5 receptor by using new selective antagonists recently synthesized. Spontaneous contractions of the rabbit isolated ileum were recorded and binding experiments were performed in cells expressing the human NPY Y1, Y2, Y4 or Y5 receptor subtype. 2. NPY analogues produced a concentration-dependent transient inhibition of the spontaneous contractions of the rabbit ileum with the following order of potency hPP > rPP > PYY > or = [Leu31,-Pro34]-NPY > NPY >> NPY13-36. Pre-exposure to rPP, PYY, [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY or NPY (but not NPY13-36) inhibited the effect of subsequent administration of hPP suggesting cross-desensitization of the preparation. The apparent affinity of the various agonists studied was correlated to the affinity reported for the human Y4 receptor subtype (and to a lesser extent for the rat Y4 subtype) but not to the affinity for the Y5 receptor subtype. 3. BIBO 3304, a selective NPY Y1 receptor antagonist, and CGP 71683A, a selective NPY Y5 receptor antagonist, did not affect the response to hPP. JCF 109, another NPY Y5 receptor antagonist, produced an inhibition of the response to hPP but only at the highest dose tested (10 microM) which also, by itself, produced intrinsic inhibitory effects. 4. 1229U91, a non-selective ligand for Y1, Y2, Y4 and Y5 receptors with high affinity toward the Y1 and Y4 receptor subtypes, produced a concentration-dependent transient inhibition of the spontaneous contractions of the rabbit ileum and a dose-dependent inhibition of the response to hPP (apparent pKB: 7.2). 5. These results suggest that in the rabbit ileum, the NPY receptor involved in the inhibition of the spontaneous contractile activity is a NPY Y4 receptor subtype.
Project description:Although previous studies have demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY) modulates nociceptors, the relative contributions of the Y1 and Y2 receptors are unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of Y1 and Y2 receptor activation on nociceptors stimulated by bradykinin (BK) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2).Combined immunohistochemistry (IHC) with in situ hybridization (ISH) demonstrated that Y1- and Y2-receptors are collocated with bradykinin (2) (B2)-receptors in rat trigeminal ganglia (TG). The relative functions of the Y1 and Y2 receptors in modulating BK/PGE2-evoked CGRP release and increased intracellular calcium levels in cultured TG neurons were evaluated.The Y1 and Y2 receptors are co-expressed with B2 in TG neurons, suggesting the potential for direct NPY modulation of BK responses. Pretreatment with the Y1 agonist [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY, inhibited BK/PGE2-evoked CGRP release. Conversely, pretreatment with PYY(3-36), a Y2 agonist, increased BK/PGE2 evoked CGRP release. Treatment with NPY evoked an overall inhibitory effect, although of lesser magnitude. Similarly, [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY inhibited BK/PGE2-evoked increases in intracellular calcium levels whereas PYY(3-36) increased responses. NPY inhibition of BK/PGE2-evoked release of CGRP was reversed by the Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBO3304, and higher concentrations of BIBO3304 significantly facilitated CGRP release. The Y2 receptor antagonist, BIIE0246, enhanced the inhibitory NPY effects.These results demonstrate that NPY modulation of peptidergic neurons is due to net activation of inhibitory Y1 and excitatory Y2 receptor systems. The relative expression or activity of these opposing receptor systems may mediate dynamic responses to injury and pain.
Project description:The role of neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor (Y2R) in human diseases such as obesity, mood disorders, and alcoholism could be better resolved by the use of small-molecule chemical probes that are substantially different from the currently available Y2R antagonist, N-[(1S)-4-[(aminoiminomethyl)amino]-1-[[[2-(3,5-dioxo-1,2-diphenyl-1,2,4-triazolidin-4-yl)ethyl]amino]carbonyl]butyl]-1-[2-[4-(6,11-dihydro-6-oxo-5H-dibenz[b,e]azepin-11-yl)-1-piperazinyl]-2-oxoethyl]-cyclopentaneacetamide) (BIIE0246). Presented here are five potent, selective, and publicly available Y2R antagonists identified by a high-throughput screening approach. These compounds belong to four chemical scaffolds that are structurally distinct from the peptidomimetic BIIE0246. In functional assays, IC(50) values between 199 and 4400 nM against the Y2R were measured, with no appreciable activity against the related NPY-Y1 receptor (Y1R). Compounds also displaced radiolabeled peptide YY from the Y2R with high affinity (K(i) values between 1.55 and 60 nM) while not displacing the same ligand from the Y1R. In contrast to BIIE0246, Schild analysis with NPY suggests that two of the five compounds behave as competitive antagonists. Profiling against a panel of 40 receptors, ion channels, and transporters found in the central nervous system showed that the five Y2R antagonists demonstrate greater selectivity than BIIE0246. Furthermore, the ability of these antagonists to penetrate the blood-brain barrier makes them better suited for pharmacological studies of Y2R function in both the brain and periphery.
Project description:Fasting triggers a constellation of physiological and behavioral changes, including increases in peripherally produced ghrelin and centrally produced hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY). Refeeding stimulates food intake in most species; however, hamsters primarily increase foraging and food hoarding with smaller increases in food intake. Fasting-induced increases in foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters are mimicked by peripheral ghrelin, central NPY, and NPY Y1 receptor agonist injections. Because fasting stimulates ghrelin and subsequently NPY synthesis/release, it may be that fasting-induced increased hoarding is mediated by NPY Y1 receptor activation. Therefore, we asked: Can an Y1 receptor antagonist block fasting- or ghrelin-induced increases in foraging, food hoarding, and food intake? This was accomplished by injecting the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist 1229U91 intracerebroventricularly in hamsters fasted, fed, or given peripheral ghrelin injections and housed in a running wheel-based food delivery foraging system coupled with simulated-burrow housing. Three foraging conditions were used: 1) no running wheel access, free food, 2) running wheel access, free food, or 3) foraging requirement (10 revolutions/pellet) for food. Fasting was a more potent stimulator of foraging and food hoarding than ghrelin. Concurrent injections of 1229U91 completely blocked fasting- and ghrelin-induced increased foraging and food intake and attenuated, but did not always completely block, fasting- and ghrelin-induced increases in food hoarding. Collectively, these data suggest that the NPY Y1 receptor is important for the effects of ghrelin- and fasting-induced increases in foraging and food intake, but other NPY receptors and/or other neurochemical systems are involved in increases in food hoarding.