Decreased TGFbeta signaling and increased COX2 expression in high risk women with increased mammographic breast density.
ABSTRACT: High mammographic density is associated with a increased risk of breast cancer. We hypothesized that specific pathways exist that are associated with increased mammographic density, and may therefore be used to identify potential targets for chemoprevention. Histologically confirmed normal breast tissue was collected from women undergoing breast surgery who had available demographic data and mammograms for review. Women with low versus high mammographic breast density were compared. Differentially expressed genes using Affymetrix HG U133Plus2 chips were identified in dense versus non-dense tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Ki67, and COX2 expression was performed. About 66 women were identified, 28 (42%) had high, and 38 (58%) had low mammographic density. About 73 genes had differential expression between normal breast tissue with high and low mammographic density (P < 0.001, fold change > or = 1.5 with a low false discovery rate (<10%). Network and canonical pathway analysis indicated decreased TGFbeta signaling (TGFBR2, SOS, SMAD3, CD44 and TNFRSF11B) in dense breast tissue relative to non-dense breast. By IHC, only COX2 expression in the stroma was statistically significant on multivariate analysis. TGFbeta ligands are currently the only growth factors known to prevent mammary epithelial cell proliferation. TGFbeta signaling has been reported to be inhibited by COX-2, and these molecules are highly differentially expressed in individuals at high risk of developing breast cancer. These results strongly suggest that COX2 inhibition should be investigated for breast cancer prevention despite possible increase in cardiovascular risk.
Project description:Mammographic density reflects the amount of stromal and epithelial tissues in relation to adipose tissue in the breast and is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Here we report the results from meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of three mammographic density phenotypes: dense area, non-dense area and percent density in up to 7,916 women in stage 1 and an additional 10,379 women in stage 2. We identify genome-wide significant (P<5 × 10(-8)) loci for dense area (AREG, ESR1, ZNF365, LSP1/TNNT3, IGF1, TMEM184B and SGSM3/MKL1), non-dense area (8p11.23) and percent density (PRDM6, 8p11.23 and TMEM184B). Four of these regions are known breast cancer susceptibility loci, and four additional regions were found to be associated with breast cancer (P<0.05) in a large meta-analysis. These results provide further evidence of a shared genetic basis between mammographic density and breast cancer and illustrate the power of studying intermediate quantitative phenotypes to identify putative disease-susceptibility loci.
Project description:BACKGROUND: High mammographic density might mask breast tumors, resulting in delayed diagnosis or missed cancers. PURPOSE: To investigate the association between mammographic density and histopathologic tumor characteristics (histologic type, size, grade, and lymph node status) among women screened in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Information about 1760 screen-detected ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and 7366 invasive breast cancers diagnosed among women aged 50-69 years, 1996-2010, was analyzed. The screening mammograms were classified subjectively according to the amount of fibroglandular tissue into fatty, medium dense, and dense by breast radiologists. Chi-square test was used to compare the distribution of tumor characteristics by mammographic density. Odds ratio (OR) of tumor characteristics by density was estimated by means of logistic regression, adjusting for screening mode (screen-film and full-field digital mammography), and age. RESULTS: Mean and median tumor size of invasive breast cancers was 13.8 and 12 mm, respectively, for women with fatty breasts, and 16.2 and 14 mm for those with dense breasts. Lymph node positive tumors were identified among 20.6% of women with fatty breasts compared with 27.2% of those with dense breasts (P < 0.001). The proportion of DCIS was significantly lower for women with fatty (15.8%) compared with dense breasts (22.0%). Women with dense breasts had an increased risk of large (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73) and lymph node positive tumors (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05-1.51) compared with women with fatty and medium dense breasts. CONCLUSION: High mammographic density was positively associated with tumor size and lymph node positive tumors.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>To investigate the cellular and immunophenotypic basis of mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer.<h4>Methods</h4>Mammograms and targeted breast biopsies were accrued from 24 women at high risk of breast cancer. Mammographic density was classified into Wolfe categories and ranked by increasing density. The histological composition and immunophenotypic profile were quantified from digitized haematoxylin and eosin-stained and immunohistochemically-stained (ER?, ER?, PgR, HER2, Ki-67, and CD31) slides and correlated to mammographic density.<h4>Results</h4>Increasing mammographic density was significantly correlated with increased fibrous stroma proportion (rs (22) = 0.5226, p = 0.0088) and significantly inversely associated with adipose tissue proportion (rs (22) = -0.5409, p = 0.0064). Contrary to previous reports, stromal expression of ER? was common (19/20 cases, 95%). There was significantly higher stromal PgR expression in mammographically-dense breasts (p=0.026).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The proportion of stroma and fat underlies mammographic density in women at high risk of breast cancer. Increased expression of PgR in the stroma of mammographically dense breasts and frequent and unexpected presence of stromal ER? expression raises the possibility that hormone receptor expression in breast stroma may have a role in mediating the effects of exogenous hormonal therapy on mammographic density.
Project description:Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Our objective was to examine its association with polymorphisms identifying breast cancer susceptibility loci that were ascertained in recent genome-wide association studies.Subjects were 825 women who participated in previous case-control studies of mammographic density and genetic factors nested within the Multiethnic Cohort study and were from three ethnic groups (White, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian). Eight polymorphisms (rs2981582 in FGFR2, rs3803662 and rs12443621in TOX3, rs3817198 in LSP1, rs981782 and rs10941679 near HCN1/MRPS30, rs889312 in MAP3K1, and rs13387042 at 2q) were examined. Mammographic density was quantified with a computer-assisted method as the percent dense area: the area of radiologically dense fibroglandular tissue relative to the total breast area that also includes radiologically lucent fatty tissue.The polymorphism rs12443621 in TOX3 was associated with percent dense area; women with at least one G allele (previously associated with increased breast cancer risk) had 3% to 4% higher densities than women with two A alleles. The polymorphism rs10941679 near HCN1/MRPS30 was also associated with percent dense area; women who were homozygous for the G allele (previously associated with increased breast cancer risk) had 4% to 5% lower densities than women with at least one A allele. The other polymorphisms were not associated with percent dense area.The available data suggest that the effects of most of these polymorphisms on breast cancer are not mediated by mammographic density. Some effects may have been too small to be detected. The association with rs12443621 may provide clues as to how variation in TOX3 influences breast cancer risk.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Increased mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. The reasons for this are not clear; two obvious possibilities are increased epithelial cell proliferation in mammographically dense areas and increased breast epithelium in women with mammographically dense breasts. We addressed this question by studying the number of epithelial cells in terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs) and in ducts, and their proliferation rates, as they related to local breast densities defined histologically within individual women.<h4>Method</h4>We studied deep breast tissue away from subcutaneous fat obtained from 12 healthy women undergoing reduction mammoplasty. A slide from each specimen was stained with the cell-proliferation marker MIB1. Each slide was divided into (sets of) areas of low, medium and high density of connective tissue (CT; highly correlated with mammographic densities). Within each of the areas, the numbers of epithelial cells in TDLUs and ducts, and the numbers MIB1 positive, were counted.<h4>Results</h4>The relative concentration (RC) of epithelial cells in high compared with low CT density areas was 12.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 10.9 to 13.8) in TDLUs and 34.1 (95% CI 26.9 to 43.2) in ducts. There was a much smaller difference between medium and low CT density areas: RC = 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.6) in TDLUs and 1.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.3) in ducts. The relative mitotic rate (RMR; MIB1 positive) of epithelial cells in high compared with low CT density areas was 0.59 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.66) in TDLUs and 0.65 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.79) in ducts; the figures for the comparison of medium with low CT density areas were 0.58 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.70) in TDLUs and 0.66 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.97) in ducts.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Breast epithelial cells are overwhelmingly concentrated in high CT density areas. Their proliferation rate in areas of high and medium CT density is lower than that in low CT density areas. The increased breast cancer risk associated with increased mammographic densities may simply be a reflection of increased epithelial cell numbers. Why epithelium is concentrated in high CT density areas remains to be explained.
Project description:Inflammation is one of the hallmarks of carcinogenesis. High mammographic density has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer but the mechanisms behind are poorly understood. We evaluated whether breasts with different mammographic densities exhibited differences in the inflammatory microenvironment. Postmenopausal women attending the mammography-screening program were assessed having extreme dense, n = 20, or entirely fatty breasts (nondense), n = 19, on their regular mammograms. Thereafter, the women were invited for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), microdialysis for the collection of extracellular molecules in situ and a core tissue biopsy for research purposes. On the MRI, lean tissue fraction (LTF) was calculated for a continuous measurement of breast density. LTF confirmed the selection from the mammograms and gave a continuous measurement of breast density. Microdialysis revealed significantly increased extracellular in vivo levels of IL-6, IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor, and CCL5 in dense breast tissue as compared with nondense breasts. Moreover, the ratio IL-1Ra/IL-1β was decreased in dense breasts. No differences were found in levels of IL-1β, IL-1Ra, CCL2, leptin, adiponectin, or leptin:adiponectin ratio between the two breast tissue types. Significant positive correlations between LTF and the pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as between the cytokines were detected. Stainings of the core biopsies exhibited increased levels of immune cells in dense breast tissue. Our data show that dense breast tissue in postmenopausal women is associated with a pro-inflammatory microenvironment and, if confirmed in a larger cohort, suggests novel targets for prevention therapies for women with dense breast tissue.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mammographic density adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) is a heritable marker of breast cancer susceptibility. Little is known about the biologic mechanisms underlying the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk. We examined whether common low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility variants contribute to interindividual differences in mammographic density measures. METHODS:We established an international consortium (DENSNP) of 19 studies from 10 countries, comprising 16,895 Caucasian women, to conduct a pooled cross-sectional analysis of common breast cancer susceptibility variants in 14 independent loci and mammographic density measures. Dense and nondense areas, and percent density, were measured using interactive-thresholding techniques. Mixed linear models were used to assess the association between genetic variants and the square roots of mammographic density measures adjusted for study, age, case status, BMI, and menopausal status. RESULTS:Consistent with their breast cancer associations, the C-allele of rs3817198 in LSP1 was positively associated with both adjusted dense area (P = 0.00005) and adjusted percent density (P = 0.001), whereas the A-allele of rs10483813 in RAD51L1 was inversely associated with adjusted percent density (P = 0.003), but not with adjusted dense area (P = 0.07). CONCLUSION:We identified two common breast cancer susceptibility variants associated with mammographic measures of radiodense tissue in the breast gland. IMPACT:We examined the association of 14 established breast cancer susceptibility loci with mammographic density phenotypes within a large genetic consortium and identified two breast cancer susceptibility variants, LSP1-rs3817198 and RAD51L1-rs10483813, associated with mammographic measures and in the same direction as the breast cancer association.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Because of the mixed reports from smaller studies, we examined associations of race with mammographic breast density and evaluated racial differences in the determinants of breast density.<h4>Methods</h4>Participants included 37 839 women (23 166 non-Hispanic white and 14 673 African American) receiving screening mammograms at the Joanne Knight Breast Health Center at Washington University School of Medicine from June 2010 to December 2015. Mammographic breast density was assessed using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (5th edition). To determine the association of race and participant characteristics with mammographic breast density, we used multivariable polytomous logistic regression models (reference group: almost entirely fatty).<h4>Results</h4>African American women had increased odds of extremely dense (adjusted odds ratio = 1.31, 95% confidence interval = 1.13 to 1.52) and reduced odds of heterogeneously dense breasts (adjusted odds ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval = 0.84 to 0.99) compared with non-Hispanic white women. Altogether, race, parity and age at first birth, current age, current body mass index (BMI), BMI at age 18 years, menarche, family history of breast cancer, oral contraceptive use, alcohol use, and menopausal status explained 33% of the variation in mammographic breast density. Among African American and non-Hispanic white women, these factors explained nearly 28.6% and 33.6% of the variation in mammographic density, respectively. Current BMI provided the greatest explanation of breast density (26.2% overall, 22.2% in African American, and 26.2% in non-Hispanic white women).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The determinants of mammographic breast density were generally similar between African American women and non-Hispanic white women. After adjustments for confounders, African Americans had higher likelihood of extremely dense breasts but lower likelihood of heterogeneously dense breasts. The greatest explanation of breast density was provided by BMI, regardless of race.
Project description:Women with dense breasts have an increased lifetime risk of malignancy that has been attributed to a higher epithelial density. Quantitative proteomics, collagen analysis, and mechanical measurements in normal tissue revealed that stroma in the high-density breast contains more oriented, fibrillar collagen that is stiffer and correlates with higher epithelial cell density. microRNA (miR) profiling of breast tissue identified miR-203 as a matrix stiffness-repressed transcript that is downregulated by collagen density and reduced in the breast epithelium of women with high mammographic density. Culture studies demonstrated that ZNF217 mediates a matrix stiffness- and collagen density-induced increase in Akt activity and mammary epithelial cell proliferation. Manipulation of the epithelium in a mouse model of mammographic density supported a causal relationship between stromal stiffness, reduced miR-203, higher levels of the murine homolog Zfp217, and increased Akt activity and mammary epithelial proliferation. ZNF217 was also increased in the normal breast epithelium of women with high mammographic density, correlated positively with epithelial proliferation and density, and inversely with miR-203. The findings identify ZNF217 as a potential target toward which preexisting therapies, such as the Akt inhibitor triciribine, could be used as a chemopreventive agent to reduce cancer risk in women with high mammographic density.
Project description:Alcohol consumption has been suggested to increase risk of breast cancer through a mechanism that also increases mammographic density. Whether the association between alcohol consumption and mammographic density is modified by background breast cancer risk has, however, not been studied.We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 53?060 Swedish women aged 40-74 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed using a web-based self-administered questionnaire. Mammographic density was measured using the fully-automated volumetric Volpara method. The Tyrer-Cuzick prediction model was used to estimate risk of developing breast cancer in the next 10 years. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and volumetric mammographic density and the potential influence of Tyrer-Cuzick breast cancer risk.Overall, increasing alcohol consumption was associated with higher absolute dense volume (cm(3)) and per cent dense volume (%). The association between alcohol consumption and absolute dense volume was most pronounced among women with the highest (?5%) Tyrer-Cuzick 10-year risk. Among high-risk women, women consuming 5.0-9.9, 10.0-19.9, 20.0-29.9, and 30.0-40.0?g of alcohol per day had 2.6?cm(3) (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2-4.9), 2.9?cm(3) (95% CI, -0.6 to 6.3), 4.6?cm(3) (95% CI, 1.5-7.7), and 10.8?cm(3) (95% CI, 4.8-17.0) higher absolute dense volume, respectively, as compared with women abstaining from alcohol. A trend of increasing alcohol consumption and higher absolute dense volume was seen in women at low (?3%) risk, but not in women at moderate (3.0-4.9%) risk.Alcohol consumption may increase breast cancer risk through increasing mammographic density, particularly in women at high background risk of breast cancer.