Proton Pump Inhibitors and Serum Magnesium Levels in Patients With Torsades de Pointes.
ABSTRACT: Background: Torsades de pointes (TdP) is a life-threatening ventricular tachycardia occurring in long QT-syndrome patients. It usually develops when multiple QT-prolonging factors are concomitantly present, more frequently drugs and electrolyte imbalances. Since proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs)-associated hypomagnesemia is an increasingly recognized adverse event, PPIs were recently included in the list of drugs with conditional risk of TdP, despite only few cases of TdP in PPI users have been reported so far. Objectives: Aim of the present study is to evaluate whether PPI-induced hypomagnesemia actually has a significant clinical impact on the risk of TdP in the general population. Methods: Forty-eight unselected patients who experienced TdP were consecutively enrolled (2008-2017). Shortly after the first TdP episode, in those patients who did not receive magnesium sulfate and/or potassium or calcium replacement therapy, serum electrolytes were measured and their relationship with PPI usage analyzed. Results: Many patients (28/48, 58%) were under current PPI treatment when TdP occurred. Among TdP patients in whom serum electrolyte determinations were obtained before replacement therapy (27/48), those taking PPIs had significantly lower serum magnesium levels than those who did not. Hypomagnesemia occurred in ~40% of patients receiving PPIs (6/14), in all cases after an extended treatment (>2 weeks). In patients taking PPIs the mean QT-prolonging risk factor number was significantly higher than in those who did not, a difference which was mainly driven by lower magnesium levels. Conclusions: In unselected TdP patients, PPI-induced hypomagnesemia was common and significantly contributed to their cumulative arrhythmic risk. By providing clinical support to current recommendations, our data confirm that more awareness is needed when a PPI is prescribed, specifically as regards the risk of life-threatening arrhythmias.
Project description:Although many case reports have described patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced hypomagnesemia, the impact of PPI use on hypomagnesemia has not been fully clarified through comparative studies. We aimed to evaluate the association between the use of PPI and the risk of developing hypomagnesemia by conducting a systematic review with meta-analysis.We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library using the primary keywords "proton pump," "dexlansoprazole," "esomeprazole," "ilaprazole," "lansoprazole," "omeprazole," "pantoprazole," "rabeprazole," "hypomagnesemia," "hypomagnesaemia," and "magnesium." Studies were included if they evaluated the association between PPI use and hypomagnesemia and reported relative risks or odds ratios or provided data for their estimation. Pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the random effects model. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed with Cochran's Q test and I2 statistics.Nine studies including 115,455 patients were analyzed. The median Newcastle-Ottawa quality score for the included studies was seven (range, 6-9). Among patients taking PPIs, the median proportion of patients with hypomagnesemia was 27.1% (range, 11.3-55.2%) across all included studies. Among patients not taking PPIs, the median proportion of patients with hypomagnesemia was 18.4% (range, 4.3-52.7%). On meta-analysis, pooled odds ratio for PPI use was found to be 1.775 (95% confidence interval 1.077-2.924). Significant heterogeneity was identified using Cochran's Q test (df?=?7, P<0.001, I2?=?98.0%).PPI use may increase the risk of hypomagnesemia. However, significant heterogeneity among the included studies prevented us from reaching a definitive conclusion.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are an under-appreciated risk factor for hypomagnesemia. Whether hospitalization with hypomagnesemia is associated with use of PPIs is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of multiple health care databases in Ontario, Canada, from April 2002 to March 2012. Patients who were enrolled as cases were Ontarians aged 66 years or older hospitalized with hypomagnesemia. For each individual enrolled as a case, we identified up to four individuals as controls matched on age, sex, kidney disease, and use of various diuretic classes. Exposure to PPIs was categorized according to the most proximate prescription prior to the index date as current (within 90 days), recent (within 91 to 180 days), or remote (within 181 to 365 days). We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratio for the association of outpatient PPI use and hospitalization with hypomagnesemia. To test the specificity of our findings we examined use of histamine H2 receptor antagonists, drugs with no causal link to hypomagnesemia. We studied 366 patients hospitalized with hypomagnesemia and 1,464 matched controls. Current PPI use was associated with a 43% increased risk of hypomagnesemia (adjusted odds ratio, 1.43; 95% CI 1.06-1.93). In a stratified analysis, the risk was particularly increased among patients receiving diuretics, (adjusted odds ratio, 1.73; 95% CI 1.11-2.70) and not significant among patients not receiving diuretics (adjusted odds ratio, 1.25; 95% CI 0.81-1.91). We estimate that one excess hospitalization with hypomagnesemia will occur among 76,591 outpatients treated with a PPI for 90 days. Hospitalization with hypomagnesemia was not associated with the use of histamine H2 receptor antagonists (adjusted odds ratio 1.06; 95% CI 0.54-2.06). Limitations of this study include a lack of access to serum magnesium levels, uncertainty regarding diagnostic coding of hypomagnesemia, and generalizability of our findings to younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: PPIs are associated with a small increased risk of hospitalization with hypomagnesemia among patients also receiving diuretics. Physicians should be aware of this association, particularly for patients with hypomagnesemia. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Project description:Cancer patients may receive a high number of medications with the potential to prolong QT interval and subsequent TdP (torsades de pointes). This study aimed to identify the prevalence of QT prolonging drugs, their TdP risk, QT prolonging drug-drug interactions (QT-DDIs), levels, predictors, and TdP risk of drugs involved in QT-DDIs.This multicenter study included cancer patients from three major tertiary care hospitals of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Micromedex DrugReax® was used for identification of QT-DDIs. TdP risks were identified by AZCERT (Arizona Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics) classification. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of QT-DDIs.Of 555 patients, 51% were females. Mean age was 46.9?±?15.7 years. Total 28 distinct QT prolonging drugs were identified in 92.6% of the patients. Overall 21.8% patients were presented with QT-DDIs. Of total 288 identified QT-DDIs, all were of major-severity and fair-documentation. According to AZCERT classification, 59.9% of the interacting drugs were included in list-1 (known risk of TdP), 4.7% in list-2 (possible risk of TdP) and 6.8% in list-3 (conditional risk of TdP). Univariate logistic regression analysis showed significant results for various predictors such as, 8-9 prescribed medications (p?<?0.001) and ?10 medications (p?<?0.001), 2 QT drugs (p?<?0.001) and ?3 QT drugs (p?<?0.001), breast cancer (p?=?0.03), gastrointestinal cancer (p?=?0.03), 4-5 supportive care drugs (p?<?0.001), 6-8 supportive care drugs (p?<?0.001) and >8 supportive care drugs (p?<?0.001).A high prevalence of QT prolonging drugs and QT-DDIs was reported in oncology. Appropriate precautions are needed to prevent harmful consequences of these interactions.
Project description:Case series suggest that long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is associated with hypomagnesemia, but the current literature lacks systematically collected data. Our aim was to examine whether hypomagnesemia at the time of hospital admission is associated with out-of-hospital use of PPIs.Nested case-control study matched for age and sex.Data were collected retrospectively from a tertiary acute-care facility. Eligible cases consisted of 402 adults with hypomagnesemia (serum magnesium <1.4 mEq/L) at the time of hospital admission to medical services, age- and sex-matched with 402 control individuals with normal serum magnesium levels (1.4-2.0 mEq/L).Out-of-hospital PPI use was identified in the hospital record. An omeprazole equivalent dose was calculated when possible. Covariates included the Charlson-Deyo comorbidity index, diabetes, diuretic use, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and gastroesophageal reflux.Multivariable conditional logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association of PPI use with hypomagnesemia at the time of hospital admission.PPI use was not associated with hypomagnesemia (adjusted OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.61-1.11). Neither PPI type nor omeprazole equivalent daily dose was associated with hypomagnesemia. Sensitivity analyses of PPI use restricted to patients with esophageal disorders (adjusted OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.69-1.45), severe hypomagnesemia (magnesium, ?1.0 mEq/L; adjusted OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.13-4.61), or estimated glomerular filtration rate ?60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (adjusted OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.53-1.34) were unrevealing.Exposure misclassification; hospitalized patients on medical services may not be representative of a broader ambulatory-based population.In a hospital-based adult population, out-of-hospital PPI use is not associated with hypomagnesemia at the time of hospital admission to medical services. In light of these inconclusive results, prospective cohort studies are needed to address this rare potential medication-related adverse effect.
Project description:Magnesium concentration is a proven predictor of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Recent reports have indicated that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use affects serum magnesium levels, however few studies have investigated the relationship between PPI use and magnesium levels in hemodialysis patients. This study aimed to clarify the association between PPI use and serum magnesium levels in hemodialysis patients. We designed this cross sectional study and included 1189 hemodialysis patients in stable condition. Associations between PPI and magnesium-related factors, as well as other possible confounders, were evaluated using a multiple regression model. We defined hypomagnesemia as a value < 2.0 mg/dL, and created comparable logistic regression models to assess the association between PPI use and hypomagnesemia. PPI use is associated with a significantly lower mean serum magnesium level than histamine 2 (H2) receptor antagonists or no acid-suppressive medications (mean [SD] PPI: 2.52 [0.45] mg/dL; H2 receptor antagonist: 2.68 [0.41] mg/dL; no acid suppressive medications: 2.68 [0.46] mg/dL; P = 0.001). Hypomagnesemia remained significantly associated with PPI (adjusted OR, OR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.14-3.69; P = 0.017). PPI use is associated with an increased risk of hypomagnesemia in hemodialysis patients. Future prospective studies are needed to explore magnesium replacement in PPI users on hemodialysis.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Medication is one of the main causes of long QT syndrome (LQTS) and torsades de pointes (TdP), and the older adult population is at particularly high risk. The aim of the present study was to describe the prescription patterns of drugs with a risk of TdP in the Colombian older adult population.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients older than 65 years who received medication with a risk of TdP during three consecutive months were selected. The medication was obtained and classified according to the QT Drug List from Crediblemeds.org. The data were analysed using SPSS-22.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 55?932 patients were chronically receiving QT-prolonging drugs; 61.9% (n = 34 ,632) were women and the mean age of the sample was 75.6 years. Drugs with a conditional risk were consumed by 95.2% of patients, 5.3% received drugs with a known risk and 2.9% received drugs with a possible risk. Two or more QT-prolonging drugs were consumed by 10.3% of the patients (n = 5786). Most of the sample (96.8%, n = 54?170) had at least one additional risk factor for LQTS, with a mean of 3.1 ± 0.9 risk factors. Patients receiving QT-prolonging drugs for psychiatric and neurological disease were at a higher risk of major polypharmacy [odds ratio (OR) 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.80, 3.22) and of receiving high doses of QT-prolonging drugs (OR 3.8; 95% CI 3.52, 4.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The widespread use of medication that causes TdP and the high prevalence of additional risks in the older adult population raise the need for accurate prediction of risk and constant patient monitoring. Patients taking psychiatric drugs are at a higher risk of TdP.
Project description:<h4>Backgrounds</h4>Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can be associated with vascular calcification in patients undergoing dialysis through hypomagnesemia. However, only few studies have demonstrated the influence of PPIs on vascular calcification in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). This study aimed to investigate whether the use of PPIs accelerates vascular calcification in patients on HD.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>We retrospectively evaluated 200 HD patients who underwent regular blood tests and computed tomography (CT) between 2016 and 2017. The abdominal aortic calcification index (ACI) was measured using abdominal CT. The difference in the ACI values between 2016 and 2017 was evaluated as ?ACI. Patients were divided into PPI and non-PPI groups, and variables, such as patient background, medication, laboratory data, and ?ACI were compared. Factors independently associated with higher ?ACI progression (? third tertile value of ?ACI in this study) were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis.<h4>Results</h4>The PPI and non-PPI groups had 112 (56%) and 88 (44%) patients, respectively. Median and third tertile value of ?ACIs were 4.2% and 5.8%, respectively. Serum magnesium was significantly lower in the PPI (2.1 mg/dL) than in the non-PPI (2.3 mg/dL) group (P <0.001). Median ?ACI was significantly higher in the PPI (5.0%) than in the non-PPI (3.8%) group (P = 0.009). A total of 77 (39%) patients had a higher ?ACI. Multivariate analysis revealed that PPIs (odds ratio = 2.23; 95% confidence interval = 1.11-4.49), annual mean calcium phosphorus product, ACI in 2016, baseline serum magnesium levels, and HD vintage were independent factors associated with higher ?ACI progression after adjusting for confounders.<h4>Conclusion</h4>PPI use may accelerate vascular calcification in patients on HD. Further studies are necessary to elucidate their influence on vascular calcification.
Project description:PURPOSE: After complaints of too many low-specificity drug-drug interaction (DDI) alerts on QT prolongation, the rules for QT alerting in the Dutch national drug database were restricted in 2007 to obviously QT-prolonging drugs. The aim of this virtual study was to investigate whether this adjustment would improve the identification of patients at risk of developing Torsades de Pointes (TdP) due to QT-prolonging drug combinations in a computerized physician order entry system (CPOE) and whether these new rules should be implemented. METHODS: During a half-year study period, inpatients with overridden DDI alerts regarding QT prolongation and with an electrocardiogram recorded before and within 1 month of the alert override were included if they did not have a ventricular pacemaker and did not use the low-risk combination cotrimoxazole and tacrolimus. QT-interval prolongation and the risk of developing TdP were calculated for all patients and related to the number of patients for whom a QT-alert would be generated in the new situation with the restricted database. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients (13%) met the inclusion criteria. In this study population, knowledge base-adjustment would reduce the number of alerts by 53%. However, the positive predictive value of QT alerts would not change (31% before and 30% after) and only 47% of the patients at risk of developing TdP would be identified in CPOEs using the adjusted knowledge base. CONCLUSION: The new rules for QT alerting would result in a poorer identification of patients at risk of developing TdP than the old rules. This is caused by the many non-drug-related risk factors for QT prolongation not being incorporated in CPOE alert generation. The partial contribution of all risk factors should be studied and used to create clinical rules for QT alerting with an acceptable positive predictive value.
Project description:Mounting evidence indicates that in chronic inflammatory arthritis (CIA), QTc prolongation is frequent and correlates with systemic inflammatory activation. Notably, basic studies demonstrated that inflammatory cytokines induce profound changes in potassium and calcium channels resulting in a prolonging effect on cardiomyocyte action potential duration, thus on the QT interval on the electrocardiogram. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, the risk of sudden cardiac death is significantly increased when compared to non-RA subjects. Conversely, to date no data are available about torsades de pointes (TdP) prevalence in CIA, and the few cases reported considered CIA only an incidental concomitant disease, not contributing factor to TdP development. We report three patients with active CIA developing marked QTc prolongation, in two cases complicated with TdP degenerating to cardiac arrest. In these patients, a blood sample was obtained within 24?h from TdP/marked QTc prolongation occurrence, and levels of IL-6, TNF?, and IL-1 were evaluated. In all three cases, IL-6 was markedly elevated, ~10 to 100 times more than reference values. Moreover, one patient also showed high circulating levels of TNF? and IL-1. In conclusion, active CIA may represent a currently overlooked QT-prolonging risk factor, potentially contributing in the presence of other "classical" risk factors to TdP occurrence. In particular, a relevant role may be played by elevated circulating IL-6 levels via direct electrophysiological effects on the heart. This fact should be carefully kept in mind, particularly when recognizable risk factors are already present and/or the addition of QT-prolonging drugs is required.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous meta-analyses have suggested that there might be an association between the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and the development of hypomagnesemia, although the conclusions were no definitive. METHODS:To provide an update on this topic, we performed a meta-analysis of all observational studies that examined the association between the use of PPIs and the development of hypomagnesemia. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (January 1970 to June 2018) to identify observational studies that examined the association between the use of PPIs and the incidence and prevalence of hypomagnesemia. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA:In the absence of randomized controlled trials, we focused primarily on observational studies, including cross-sectional, case-control, retrospective, and prospective cohort studies. There was no limitation on sample size or study duration. Random-effect models meta-analyses were used to compute pooled unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for binary variables. RESULTS:Sixteen observational studies were identified, including 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 case-control studies, and 1 cohort study, with a total of 131,507 patients. The pooled percentage of PPI users was 43.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.0%, 64.0%). Among PPI users, 19.4% (95% CI 13.8%, 26.5%) had hypomagnesemia compared to 13.5% (95% CI 7.9%, 22.2%) among nonusers. By meta-analysis, PPI use was significantly associated with hypomagnesemia, with a pooled unadjusted OR of 1.83 (95% CI 1.26, 2.67; P?=?.002) and a pooled adjusted OR of 1.71 (95% CI 1.33, 2.19; P?<?.001). In subgroup analyses, high-dose PPI use was associated with higher odds for hypomagnesemia relative to low-dose PPI use (pooled adjusted OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.26, 3.59; P?=?.005). CONCLUSION:Our findings are in support of the results of the previous meta-analyses. Furthermore, we found a dose-response between the PPI use and development of hypomagnesemia.