The detection of 3 ambiguous type 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV2s) in Uganda.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV or Sabin) is genetically unstable and may mutate to form vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). METHODS:In 2014, two VDPVs type 2 were identified during routine surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases. Consequently, a retrospective VDPV survey was conducted to ensure that there was no circulating VDPV in the country. All Sabin poliovirus isolates identified in Uganda 6 months before and 6 months after were re-screened; Sabin 1 and 3 polioviruses were re-screened for Sabin 2 and Sabin 2 polioviruses were re-screened for VDPVs type 2. The Poliovirus rRT-PCR ITD/VDPV 4.0 assay and sequencing were used respectively. RESULTS:The first two VDPVs type2 were identified in Eastern Uganda and the third was identified during the survey from South-western Uganda. These regions had low OPV coverage and poor AFP surveillance indicators. CONCLUSION:The retrospective VDPV survey was a useful strategy to screen for VDPVs more exhaustively. Supplementary surveillance methods need to be encouraged.
Project description:The Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) may evolve into pathogenic viruses, causing sporadic cases and outbreaks of poliomyelitis. Such vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV) generally exhibit altered antigenicity. The current paradigm to distinguish VDPV from OPV and wild polioviruses is to characterize primarily those poliovirus isolates that demonstrate deviations from OPV in antigenic and genetic intratypic differentiation (ITD) tests. Here we report on two independent cases of poliomyelitis caused by VDPVs with "Sabin-like" properties in several ITD assays. The results suggest the existence of diverse pathways of OPV evolution and necessitate improvement of poliovirus surveillance, which currently potentially misses this class of VDPV.
Project description:From August 2011 to February 2012, an outbreak caused by type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) occurred in Aba County, Sichuan, China. During the outbreak, four type 2 VDPVs (?0.6% nucleotide divergence in the VP1 region relative to the Sabin 2 strain) were isolated from 3 patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and one close contact. In addition, a type 2 pre-VDPV (0.3% to 0.5% divergence from Sabin 2) that was genetically related to these type 2 VDPVs was isolated from another AFP patient. These 4 patients were all unimmunized children 0.7 to 1.1 years old. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the 4 VDPV isolates differed from Sabin 2 by 0.7% to 1.2% in nucleotides in the VP1 region and shared 5 nucleotide substitutions with the pre-VDPV. All 5 isolates were closely related, and all were S2/S3/S2/S3 recombinants sharing common recombination crossover sites. Although the two major determinants of attenuation and temperature sensitivity phenotype of Sabin 2 (A481 in the 5' untranslated region and Ile143 in the VP1 protein) had reverted in all 5 isolates, one VDPV (strain CHN16017) still retained the temperature sensitivity phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the third coding position of the complete P1 coding region suggested that the cVDPVs circulated locally for about 7 months following the initiating oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) dose. Our findings reinforce the point that cVDPVs can emerge and spread in isolated communities with immunity gaps and highlight the emergence risks of type 2 cVDPVs accompanying the trivalent OPV used. To solve this issue, it is recommended that type 2 OPV be removed from the trivalent OPV or that inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) be used instead.
Project description:From March to May 2006, type 1 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) was isolated from one case patient with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and six unimmunized healthy contacts in isolated mountain villages in Guangxi, China. We conducted epidemiological investigations in the affected communities and nucleotide sequence analyses of the cVDPV isolates. The results of the investigations showed that the AFP patient, an unimmunized 10-year-old boy, and five laboratory-confirmed contacts lived in the same village; one contact lived in a neighboring village. Only approximately 27% of children 5 to 10 years of age in the affected villages had received three or more doses of the trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Nucleotide sequence analyses revealed that the cVDPV isolates differed from the Sabin 1 (S1) isolate at 1.4 to 2.2% of VP1 nucleotide positions and shared 12 nucleotide substitutions within VP1. All isolates were S1/S2/S1/S3 recombinants sharing common recombination junctions. Key determinants of attenuation were replaced. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the cVDPV circulated locally for approximately 12 months following the initiating OPV dose. No VDPVs were found after mass OPV immunizations, conducted from May to June 2006, that targeted all children <12 years of age. Our findings reinforce the point that VDPVs can emerge and spread in isolated communities with immunity gaps. Maintenance of sensitive AFP and poliovirus surveillance is essential to permit early detection and a rapid response to VDPV circulation.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Transmission of wild polioviruses (WPVs) and vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) have been interrupted in Cameroon since July 2014. Subsequently, Cameroon withdrew Sabin type 2 from routine immunization in April 2016. This study aimed to investigate the detection rates and overtime distribution of the types of PVs recovered from urban sewage in Cameroon. RESULTS:From January 2016 to December 2017, 517 sewage specimens originating from Yaounde (325 specimens) and Douala (192 specimens) were analyzed. No WPVs and VDPVs were isolated in this study. In contrast, vaccine strains of poliovirus were detected throughout the study period. Isolates Sabin types 1 and 3 were sporadically detected whereas Sabin 2 was found only from January to May 2016 both in Yaounde and Douala. The absence of Sabin 2 in sewage specimens since June 2016 indicates its rapid disappearance after withdrawal from routine immunization in April 2016. This study provides substantial support to the observation that WPV and VDPVs have been successfully eliminated in Cameroon. However, it remains essential to maintain and extend high quality environmental surveillance as long as WPV reservoirs and VDPV outbreaks are detected in Africa.
Project description:Significantly divergent polioviruses (VDPV) derived from the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) from Sabin strains, like wild polioviruses, are capable of prolonged transmission and neuropathology. This is mainly shown for VDPV type 2. Here we describe a molecular-epidemiological investigation of a case of VDPV type 3 circulation leading to paralytic poliomyelitis in a child in an orphanage, where OPV has not been used. Samples of feces and blood serum from the patient and 52 contacts from the same orphanage were collected twice and investigated. The complete genome sequencing was performed for five polioviruses isolated from the patient and three contact children. The level of divergence of the genomes of the isolates corresponded to approximately 9-10 months of evolution. The presence of 61 common substitutions in all isolates indicated a common intermediate progenitor. The possibility of VDPV3 transmission from the excretor to susceptible recipients (unvaccinated against polio or vaccinated with inactivated poliovirus vaccine, IPV) with subsequent circulation in a closed children's group was demonstrated. The study of the blood sera of orphanage residents at least twice vaccinated with IPV revealed the absence of neutralizing antibodies against at least two poliovirus serotypes in almost 20% of children. Therefore, a complete rejection of OPV vaccination can lead to a critical decrease in collective immunity level. The development of new poliovirus vaccines that create mucosal immunity for the adequate replacement of OPV from Sabin strains is necessary.
Project description:Between October 2001 and April 2002, five cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) associated with type 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) were reported in the southern province of the Republic of Madagascar. To determine viral factors that favor the emergence of these pathogenic VDPVs, we analyzed in detail their genomic and phenotypic characteristics and compared them with co-circulating enteroviruses. These VDPVs appeared to belong to two independent recombinant lineages with sequences from the type 2 strain of the oral poliovaccine (OPV) in the 5'-half of the genome and sequences derived from unidentified species C enteroviruses (HEV-C) in the 3'-half. VDPV strains showed characteristics similar to those of wild neurovirulent viruses including neurovirulence in poliovirus-receptor transgenic mice. We looked for other VDPVs and for circulating enteroviruses in 316 stools collected from healthy children living in the small area where most of the AFP cases occurred. We found vaccine PVs, two VDPVs similar to those found in AFP cases, some echoviruses, and above all, many serotypes of coxsackie A viruses belonging to HEV-C, with substantial genetic diversity. Several coxsackie viruses A17 and A13 carried nucleotide sequences closely related to the 2C and the 3D(pol) coding regions of the VDPVs, respectively. There was also evidence of multiple genetic recombination events among the HEV-C resulting in numerous recombinant genotypes. This indicates that co-circulation of HEV-C and OPV strains is associated with evolution by recombination, resulting in unexpectedly extensive viral diversity in small human populations in some tropical regions. This probably contributed to the emergence of recombinant VDPVs. These findings give further insight into viral ecosystems and the evolutionary processes that shape viral biodiversity.
Project description:Four cases of acute flaccid paralysis caused by slightly evolved (Sabin-like) vaccine polioviruses of serotype 2 were registered in July to August 2010 in an orphanage of Biysk (Altai Region, Russia). The Biysk cluster of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) had several uncommon, if not unique, features. (i) Until this outbreak, Sabin-like viruses (in distinction to more markedly evolved vaccine-derived polioviruses [VDPVs]) were reported to cause only sporadic cases of VAPP. Consequently, VAPP cases were not considered to require outbreak-type responses. However, the Biysk outbreak completely blurred the borderline between Sabin-like viruses and VDPVs in epidemiological terms. (ii) The outbreak demonstrated a very high disease/infection ratio, apparently exceeding even that reported for wild polioviruses. The viral genome structures did not provide any substantial hints as to the underlying reason(s) for such pathogenicity. (iii) The replacement of intestinal poliovirus lineages by other Sabin-like lineages during short intervals after the disease onsets was observed in two patients. Again, the sequences of the respective genomes provided no clues to explain these events. (iv) The polioviruses isolated from the patients and their contacts demonstrated a striking heterogeneity as well as rapid and uneven evolution of the whole genomes and their parts, apparently due to extensive interpersonal contacts in a relatively small closed community, multiple bottlenecking, and recombination. Altogether, the results demonstrate several new aspects of pathogenicity, epidemiology, and evolution of vaccine-related polioviruses and underscore several serious gaps in understanding these problems.The oral poliovirus vaccine largely contributed to the nearly complete disappearance of poliovirus-caused poliomyelitis. Being generally safe, it can, in some cases, result in a paralytic disease. Two types of such outcomes are distinguished: those caused by slightly diverged (Sabin-like) viruses on the one hand and those caused by significantly diverged VDPVs on the other. This classification is based on the number of mutations in the viral genome region encoding a viral structural protein. Until now, only sporadic poliomyelitis cases due to Sabin-like polioviruses had been described, and in distinction from the VDPV-triggered outbreaks, they did not require broad-scale epidemiological responses. Here, an unusual outbreak of poliomyelitis caused by a Sabin-like virus is reported, which had an exceptionally high disease/infection ratio. This outbreak blurred the borderline between Sabin-like polioviruses and VDPVs both in pathogenicity and in the kind of responses required, as well as underscoring important gaps in understanding the pathogenicity, epidemiology, and evolution of vaccine-derived polioviruses.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) have caused poliomyelitis outbreaks in communities with sub-optimal vaccination. Israeli environmental surveillance of sewage from populations with high (>95%) documented vaccine coverage of confirmed efficacy identified two separate evolutionary clusters of VDPVs: Group 1 (1998-2005, one system, population 1.6x10(6)) and Group 2 (2006, 2 systems, populations 0.7x10(6) and 5x10(4)). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Molecular analyses support evolution of nine Group 1 VDPVs along five different lineages, starting from a common ancestral type 2 vaccine-derived Sabin-2/Sabin-1 recombinant strain, and independent evolution of three Group 2 VDPVs along one lineage starting from a different recombinant strain. The primary evidence for two independent origins was based on comparison of unique recombination fingerprints, the number and distribution of identical substitutions, and evolutionary rates. Geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies against Group 1 VDPVs were significantly lower than against vaccine strains in all age-group cohorts tested. All individuals had neutralizing titers >1:8 against these VDPVs except 7% of the 20-50 year cohort. Group 1 VDPVs were highly neurovirulent in a transgenic mouse model. Intermediate levels of protective immunity against Group 2 VDPVs correlated with fewer (5.0+1.0) amino acid substitutions in neutralizing antigenic sites than in Group 1 VDPV's (12.1+/-1.5). SIGNIFICANCE: VDPVs that revert from live oral attenuated vaccines and reacquire characteristics of wild-type polioviruses not only threaten populations with poor immune coverage, but are also a potential source for re-introduction of poliomyelitis into highly immune populations through older individuals with waning immunity. The presence of two independently evolved groups of VDPVs in Israel and the growing number of reports of environmental VDPV elsewhere make it imperative to determine the global frequency of environmental VDPV. Our study underscores the importance of the environmental surveillance and the need to reconsider the global strategies for polio eradication and the proposed cessation of vaccination.
Project description:A type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV), differing from the Sabin 2 strain at 8.6% (78/903) of VP1 nucleotide positions, was isolated from seawater collected from a seaport in São Paulo State, Brazil. The P1/capsid region is related to the Sabin 2 strain, but sequences within the 5'-untranslated region and downstream of the P1 region were derived from recombination with other members of Human Enterovirus Species C (HEV-C). The two known attenuating mutations had reverted to wild-type (A481G in the 5'-UTR and Ile143Thr in VP1). The VDPV isolate had lost the temperature sensitive phenotype and had accumulated amino acid substitutions in neutralizing antigenic (NAg) sites 3a and 3b. The date of the initiating OPV dose, estimated from the number of synonymous substitutions in the capsid region, was approximately 8.5 years before seawater sampling, a finding consistent with a long time of virus replication and possible transmission among several individuals. Although no closely related type 2 VDPVs were detected in Brazil or elsewhere, this VDPV was found in an area with a mobile population, where conditions may favor both viral infection and spread. Environmental surveillance serves as an important tool for sensitive and early detection of circulating poliovirus in the final stages of global polio eradication.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mass campaigns with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) have brought the world close to the eradication of wild poliovirus. However, to complete eradication, OPV must itself be withdrawn to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV). Synchronized global withdrawal of OPV began with serotype 2 OPV (OPV2) in April 2016, which presented the first test of the feasibility of eradicating all polioviruses. METHODS:We analyzed global surveillance data on the detection of serotype 2 Sabin vaccine (Sabin-2) poliovirus and serotype 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV2, defined as vaccine strains that are at least 0.6% divergent from Sabin-2 poliovirus in the viral protein 1 genomic region) in stool samples from 495,035 children with acute flaccid paralysis in 118 countries and in 8528 sewage samples from four countries at high risk for transmission; the samples were collected from January 1, 2013, through July 11, 2018. We used Bayesian spatiotemporal smoothing and logistic regression to identify and map risk factors for persistent detection of Sabin-2 poliovirus and VDPV2. RESULTS:The prevalence of Sabin-2 poliovirus in stool samples declined from 3.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5 to 4.3) at the time of OPV2 withdrawal to 0.2% (95% CI, 0.1 to 2.7) at 2 months after withdrawal, and the detection rate in sewage samples declined from 71.0% (95% CI, 61.0 to 80.0) to 13.0% (95% CI, 8.0 to 20.0) during the same period. However, 12 months after OPV2 withdrawal, Sabin-2 poliovirus continued to be detected in stool samples (<0.1%; 95% CI, <0.1 to 0.1) and sewage samples (8.0%; 95% CI, 5.0 to 13.0) because of the use of OPV2 in response to VDPV2 outbreaks. Nine outbreaks were reported after OPV2 withdrawal and were associated with low coverage of routine immunization (odds ratio, 1.64 [95% CI, 1.14 to 2.54] per 10% absolute decrease) and low levels of population immunity (odds ratio, 2.60 [95% CI, 1.35 to 5.59] per 10% absolute decrease) within affected countries. CONCLUSIONS:High population immunity has facilitated the decline in the prevalence of Sabin-2 poliovirus after OPV2 withdrawal and restricted the circulation of VDPV2 to areas known to be at high risk for transmission. The prevention of VDPV2 outbreaks in these known areas before the accumulation of substantial cohorts of children susceptible to type 2 poliovirus remains a high priority. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the World Health Organization.).