Genetic profiling of Mycobacterium bovis strains from slaughtered cattle in Eritrea.
ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium bovis (M.bovis) is the main causative agent for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and can also be the cause of zoonotic tuberculosis in humans. In view of its zoonotic nature, slaughterhouse surveillance, potentially resulting in total or partial condemnation of the carcasses and organs, is conducted routinely. Spoligotyping, VNTR profiling, and whole genome sequencing (WGS) of M. bovis isolated from tissues with tuberculosis-like lesions collected from 14 cattle at Eritrea's largest slaughterhouse in the capital Asmara, were conducted.The 14 M. bovis isolates were classified into three different spoligotype patterns (SB0120, SB0134 and SB0948) and six VNTR profiles. WGS results matched those of the conventional genotyping methods and further discriminated the six VNTR profiles into 14 strains. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of the M. bovis isolates suggests two independent introductions of BTB into Eritrea possibly evolving from a common ancestral strain in Europe.This molecular study revealed the most important strains of M. bovis in Eritrea and their (dis)similarities with the strains generally present in East Africa and Europe, as well as potential routes of introduction of M. bovis. Though the sample size is small, the current study provides important information as well as platform for future in-depth molecular studies on isolates from both the dairy and the traditional livestock sectors in Eritrea and the region. This study provides information onthe origin of some of the M. bovis strains in Eritrea, its genetic diversity, evolution and patterns of spread between dairy herds. Such information is essential in the development and implementation of future BTB control strategy for Eritrea.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>After 15 years of absence, in 2013 bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium (M.) bovis and M. caprae, reemerged in the Swiss dairy cattle population. In order to identify the sources of infection as well as the spread of the agents, molecular-epidemiologic tracing by MIRU-VNTR analysis in combination with spoligotyping was performed. A total of 17 M. bovis and 7 M. caprae isolates were cultured from tuberculous bovine lymph nodes and analyzed with a set of 49 genetic markers by using automated capillary electrophoresis.<h4>Results</h4>The outbreak in the western part of Switzerland was caused by M. bovis spoligotype SB0120. With the exception of four single-locus variations observed in MIRU 20, the MIRU-VNTR profiles of the 17 M. bovis isolates were identical, indicating a single source of infection. M. bovis detected in one archival bovine specimen from the outbreak region showed an identical MIRU-VNTR profile, suggesting persistence of the agent in a dairy herd for nearly fifteen years. The outbreak in the eastern part of Switzerland was caused by M. caprae spoligotype SB0418. All Swiss M. caprae isolates showed the Lechtal-type MIRU-VNTR profile, described as endemic in wild ruminants and in dairy cattle in Austrian bordering regions. This suggests the agent was most likely introduced by Swiss dairy cattle summering on Austrian pastures.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present study is the first MIRU-VNTR analysis of Swiss bTB mycobacterial isolates. The genotyping assay was found to be highly discriminating and suitable for the epidemiological tracing of further outbreaks. These findings will contribute to the development of an international MIRU-VNTR database aiming to improve bTB surveillance.
Project description:Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a transmissible disease notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health and to the European Union, with ongoing efforts of surveillance and eradication in every EU member state. In Germany, a country which has been declared officially free from bovine tuberculosis since 1997 by the EU, M. bovis infections still occur sporadically in cattle and other mammals, including humans. Here, the transmission routes of a bTB outbreak in a wildlife park in Germany affecting different cervid species, bison, lynx, and pot-bellied pigs were followed by employing whole-genome sequencing (WGS) combined with spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. One single M. bovis strain persisted from 2002 to 2015, and transmission between the park and a distantly located captive cervid farm was verified. The spoligotyping patterns remained identical, while MIRU-VNTR typing of 24 loci of the standardized panel and locus 2163a as an additional locus revealed one change at locus 2165 in a strain from a fallow deer and one at locus 2461 in isolates from red deer over the whole time period. WGS analysis confirmed the close relatedness of the isolates, with a maximum of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected between any two sequenced isolates. In conclusion, our data confirm a longitudinal outbreak of M. bovis in a German wildlife park and provide the first insights into the dynamics of different genotyping markers in M. bovis.
Project description:Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle persists in Mexico, posing a threat to human health. Control of bovine tuberculosis, through the National Program Against Bovine Tuberculosis, has led to the decrease of disease prevalence in most of the country, except for high dairy production regions. Genotyping of M. bovis has been performed mainly by spoligotyping and variable number tandem repeats (VNTR), but higher resolution power can be useful for a finer definition of the spread of the disease. Whole genome sequencing and spoligotyping was performed for a set of 322 M. bovis isolates from different sources in Mexico: Baja California, Coahuila, Estado de Mexico, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Queretaro and Veracruz, from dairy and beef cattle, as well as humans. Twelve main genetic clades were obtained through WGS and genetic diversity analysis. A clear differentiation of the Baja California isolates was seen as they clustered together exclusively. However, isolates from the central states showed no specific clustering whatsoever. Although WGS proves to have higher resolving power than spoligotyping, and since there was concordance between WGS and spoligotyping results, we consider that the latter is still an efficient and practical method for monitoring bovine tuberculosis in developing countries, where resources for higher technology are scarce.
Project description:Ethiopia has the largest cattle population in Africa. The vast majority of the national herd is of indigenous zebu cattle maintained in rural areas under extensive husbandry systems. However, in response to the increasing demand for milk products and the Ethiopian government's efforts to improve productivity in the livestock sector, recent years have seen increased intensive husbandry settings holding exotic and cross breeds. This drive for increased productivity is however threatened by animal diseases that thrive under intensive settings, such as bovine tuberculosis (BTB), a disease that is already endemic in Ethiopia.An extensive study was conducted to: estimate the prevalence of BTB in intensive dairy farms in central Ethiopia; identify associated risk factors; and characterize circulating strains of the causative agent, Mycobacterium bovis. The comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT), questionnaire survey, post-mortem examination, bacteriology, and molecular typing were used to get a better understanding of the BTB prevalence among dairy farms in the study area. Based on the CIDT, our findings showed that around 30% of 2956 tested dairy cattle from 88 herds were positive for BTB while the herd prevalence was over 50%. Post-mortem examination revealed gross tuberculous lesions in 34/36 CIDT positive cattle and acid-fast bacilli were recovered from 31 animals. Molecular typing identified all isolates as M. bovis and further characterization by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing indicated low strain diversity within the study area.This study showed an overall BTB herd prevalence of 50% in intensive dairy farms in Addis Ababa and surroundings, signalling an urgent need for intervention to control the disease and prevent zoonotic transmission of M. bovis to human populations consuming dairy products coming from these farms. It is suggested that government and policy makers should work together with stakeholders to design methods for the control of BTB in intensive farms in Ethiopia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bovine tuberculosis has led to serious economic losses for Sika Deer producers in China. Strategies for controlling the spread of Mycobacterium bovis are often hampered by a lack of epidemiological data. Specifically, tracing infections requires the ability to trace back infections, which, in turn, requires the ability to determine isolates with a common source. This study was planned to assess the discriminatory power of each mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU)-variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) locus and evaluate the most appropriate combination of MIRU-VNTR loci for molecular epidemiological studies on Sika Deer in China. RESULTS:The discriminatory power of MIRU-VNTR typing based on 22 known loci (12 MIRUs, 2 ETRs, 4 QUBs, and 4 Mtubs) were assessed in 96?Mycobacterium bovis strains collected sequentially from Sika Deer at a slaughterhouse in northeastern China. We defined four loci (MIRU4, ETRA, QUB11b, and Mtub4) as highly discriminative, eight loci (MIRU2, MIRU23, MIRU27, MIRU31, MIRU39, MIRU40, QUB26, and Mtub21) as moderately discriminative, and three loci (MIRU16, Mtub30, and Mtub34) as poorly discriminative. The final locus showed no polymorphism between strains. MIRU-VNTR typing as a whole was highly discriminative, with an overall allelic diversity of 0.897. Of the loci tested, the four highly discriminative loci and eight moderately discriminative loci proved to be most appropriate for first line typing of M. bovis from Sika Deer, with the same resolving ability as all 22 loci (H?=?0.897). CONCLUSIONS:MIRU-VNTR typing is quick and effective for typing bovine tuberculosis isolates from Sika Deer in China.
Project description:Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is an important re-emerging disease affecting livestock, wildlife and humans. Epidemiological studies are crucial to identifying the source of bTB infection, and its transmission dynamics and host preference, and thus to the implementation of effective strategies to contain it. In this study, we typed M. bovis isolates from livestock, and investigated their genetic diversity and distribution. A total of 204 M. bovis isolates were collected from cattle (n = 164) and Sicilian black pigs (n = 40) reared in a limited area of the province of Messina, northeastern Sicily, an area that had previously been identified as having the highest incidence of bTB in livestock on the island. All M. bovis isolates were typed by both spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTR analysis. Results from both methods were then combined in order to improve the discriminatory power of M. bovis typing. We identified 73 combined genetic profiles. Thirty-five point six percent of the profiles were common to at least two animals, whereas 64.4% of profiles occurred in only one animal. A number of genetic profiles were predominant in either cattle or black pigs. We identified common genetic patterns in M. bovis isolates originating not only from neighboring districts, but also from non-neighboring districts. Our findings suggest that bTB is widespread in our setting, and is caused by a large number of genetically diverse M. bovis strains. The ecology and farming practices characteristic of the area may explain the substantial M. bovis heterogeneity observed, and could represent obstacles to bTB eradication.
Project description:To study the dynamics of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in France, 4,654 M. bovis strains isolated mainly from livestock and wildlife since 1978 were characterized by spoligotyping and MLVA based on MIRU-VNTR. In our study spoligotyping allowed the discrimination of 176 types although 3 spoligotypes are predominant and account for more than half of the total strain population: SB0120 (26%), SB0134 (11%) and SB0121 (6%). In addition, 11% of the isolates, principally from Southern France, showing close spoligotypes and MIRU-VNTR types have been gathered in a family designated as the "F4-family". MLVA typing allowed extensive discrimination, particularly for strains with predominant spoligotypes, with a total of 498 genotypes, several of which were highly regionalized. The similarity of the strains' genetic relationships based on spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR markers supports the co-existence of different clonal populations within the French M. bovis population. A genetic evolution of the strains was observed both geographically and in time. Indeed, as a result of the reduction of bTB due to the national control campaigns, a large reduction of the strains' genetic variability took place in the last ten years. However, in the regions were bTB is highly prevalent at present, cases in both livestock and in wildlife are due to the spread of unique local genotype profiles. Our results show that the highly discriminating genotyping tools used in this study for molecular studies of bTB are useful for addressing pending questions, which would lead to a better insight into the epidemiology of the disease, and for finding proper solutions for its sustainable control in France.
Project description:The United States official bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication program has utilized genotyping for Mycobacterium bovis isolates since 2000 and whole genome sequencing was implemented in 2013. The program has been highly successful, yet as bTB prevalence has reached historic lows, a small number of new bTB-affected cattle herds occur annually. Therefore, understanding the epidemiology of bTB transmission is critically important, in order to target limited resources for surveillance and achieve eradication. This evaluation described the diversity and epidemiology of M. bovis isolates identified in the USA livestock. Isolates from animals within the bTB endemic area of Michigan were excluded. Broad diversity was found among 1,248 isolates, collected from affected cattle and farmed cervids herds and fed cattle during 1989-2018. Nearly 70% of isolates from 109 herds/cases during 1999-2018 were European clonal complex 1 and 30% were European clonal complex 2. The sources of infection based on the herd investigation were known for 41% of herds/cases and 59% were not epidemiologically linked to another USA origin herd. Whole genome sequencing results were consistent with the investigation findings and previously unrecognized links between herds and cases were disclosed. For herds/cases with an unknown source of infection, WGS results suggested several possible sources, including undocumented cattle movement, imported cattle and humans. The use of WGS in new cases has reduced the time and costs associated with epidemiological investigations. Within herd SNP diversity was evaluated by examining 18 herds with 10 or more isolates sequenced. Forty percent of isolates had not diverged or accumulated any SNPs, and 86% of the isolates had accumulated 3 or fewer SNPs. The results of WGS does not support a bTB reservoir in USA cattle. The bTB eradication program appears to be highly effective as the majority of herds/cases in the USA are unique strains with limited herd to herd transmission.
Project description:Whole genome sequencing (WGS) technology holds great promise as a tool for the forensic epidemiology of bacterial pathogens. It is likely to be particularly useful for studying the transmission dynamics of an observed epidemic involving a largely unsampled 'reservoir' host, as for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in British and Irish cattle and badgers. BTB is caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the M. tuberculosis complex that also includes the aetiological agent for human TB. In this study, we identified a spatio-temporally linked group of 26 cattle and 4 badgers infected with the same Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) type of M. bovis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between sequences identified differences that were consistent with bacterial lineages being persistent on or near farms for several years, despite multiple clear whole herd tests in the interim. Comparing WGS data to mathematical models showed good correlations between genetic divergence and spatial distance, but poor correspondence to the network of cattle movements or within-herd contacts. Badger isolates showed between zero and four SNP differences from the nearest cattle isolate, providing evidence for recent transmissions between the two hosts. This is the first direct genetic evidence of M. bovis persistence on farms over multiple outbreaks with a continued, ongoing interaction with local badgers. However, despite unprecedented resolution, directionality of transmission cannot be inferred at this stage. Despite the often notoriously long timescales between time of infection and time of sampling for TB, our results suggest that WGS data alone can provide insights into TB epidemiology even where detailed contact data are not available, and that more extensive sampling and analysis will allow for quantification of the extent and direction of transmission between cattle and badgers.
Project description:Mycobacterium bovis is the main pathogen of bovine, zoonotic, and wildlife tuberculosis. Despite the existence of programs for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) control in many regions, the disease remains a challenge for the veterinary and public health sectors, especially in developing countries and in high-income nations with wildlife reservoirs. Current bTB control programs are mostly based on test-and-slaughter, movement restrictions, and post-mortem inspection measures. In certain settings, contact tracing and surveillance has benefited from M. bovis genotyping techniques. More recently, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has become the preferential technique to inform outbreak response through contact tracing and source identification for many infectious diseases. As the cost per genome decreases, the application of WGS to bTB control programs is inevitable moving forward. However, there are technical challenges in data analyses and interpretation that hinder the implementation of M. bovis WGS as a molecular epidemiology tool. Therefore, the aim of this review is to describe M. bovis genotyping techniques and discuss current standards and challenges of the use of M. bovis WGS for transmission investigation, surveillance, and global lineages distribution. We compiled a series of associated research gaps to be explored with the ultimate goal of implementing M. bovis WGS in a standardized manner in bTB control programs.