Botulinum Toxin Type A-A Modulator of Spinal Neuron-Glia Interactions under Neuropathic Pain Conditions.
ABSTRACT: Neuropathic pain represents a significant clinical problem because it is a chronic condition often refractory to available therapy. Therefore, there is still a strong need for new analgesics. Botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) is used to treat a variety of clinical diseases associated with pain. Glia are in continuous bi-directional communication with neurons to direct the formation and refinement of synaptic connectivity. This review addresses the effects of BoNT/A on the relationship between glia and neurons under neuropathic pain. The inhibitory action of BoNT/A on synaptic vesicle fusion that blocks the release of miscellaneous pain-related neurotransmitters is known. However, increasing evidence suggests that the analgesic effect of BoNT/A is mediated through neurons and glial cells, especially microglia. In vitro studies provide evidence that BoNT/A exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by diminishing NF-κB, p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in microglia and directly interacts with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Furthermore, BoNT/A appears to have no more than a slight effect on astroglia. The full activation of TLR2 in astroglia appears to require the presence of functional TLR4 in microglia, emphasizing the significant interaction between those cell types. In this review, we discuss whether and how BoNT/A affects the spinal neuron-glia interaction and reduces the development of neuropathy.
Project description:Spinal cord microglia contribute to nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. We have previously demonstrated that toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling is critical for nerve injury-induced activation of spinal cord microglia, but the responsible endogenous TLR2 agonist has not been identified. Here, we show that nerve injury-induced upregulation of sialyltransferase St3gal2 in sensory neurons leads to an increase in expression of the sialylated glycosphingolipid, GT1b. GT1b ganglioside is axonally transported to the spinal cord dorsal horn and contributes to characteristics of neuropathic pain such as mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Spinal cord GT1b functions as an TLR2 agonist and induces proinflammatory microglia activation and central sensitization. Pharmacological inhibition of GT1b synthesis attenuates nerve injury-induced spinal cord microglia activation and pain hypersensitivity. Thus, the St3gal2-GT1b-TLR2 axis may offer a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of neuropathic pain.
Project description:Allergic and atopic disorders have increased over the past few decades and have been associated with neuropsychiatric conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder and asthmatic amyotrophy. Myelitis presenting with neuropathic pain can occur in patients with atopic disorder; however, the relationship between allergic inflammation and neuropathic pain, and the underlying mechanism, remains to be established. We studied whether allergic inflammation affects the spinal nociceptive system. We found that mice with asthma, atopic dermatitis, or atopic diathesis had widespread and significantly more activated microglia and astroglia in the spinal cord than those without atopy, and displayed tactile allodynia. Microarray analysis of isolated microglia revealed a dysregulated phenotype showing upregulation of M1 macrophage markers and downregulation of M2 markers in atopic mice. Among the cell surface protein genes, endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) was most upregulated. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that EDNRB expression was enhanced in microglia and astroglia, whereas endothelin-1, an EDNRB ligand, was increased in serum, lungs, and epidermis of atopic mice. No EDNRA expression was found in the spinal cord. Expression of FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B was significantly higher in the dorsal horn neurons of asthma mice than nonatopic mice. The EDNRB antagonist BQ788 abolished glial and neural activation and allodynia. We found increased serum endothelin-1 in atopic patients with myelitis and neuropathic pain, and activation of spinal microglia and astroglia with EDNRB upregulation in an autopsied case. These results suggest that allergic inflammation induces diffuse glial activation, influencing the nociceptive system via the EDNRB pathway. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT:The prevalence of allergic disorders has markedly increased over the past few decades. Allergic disorders are associated with neuropsychiatric conditions; however, the relationship between allergic inflammation and CNS complications is unknown. A peculiar myelitis presenting with persistent neuropathic pain has been reported in patients with allergic disorders. We studied how atopy exerts substantial influence on the nociceptive system. We found that mice with allergic disorders had severe allodynia with activated astroglia and microglia, and showed marked upregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor type B (EDNRB) in the spinal cord. A selective EDNRB antagonist prevented allodynia and glial activation. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism whereby atopy induces glial activation and neuropathic pain via an ET-1/EDNRB pathway.
Project description:Neuropathic pain that typically develops when peripheral nerves are damaged through surgery, bone compression in cancer, diabetes, or infection is a major factor causing impaired quality of life in millions of people worldwide. Recently, there has been a rapidly growing body of evidence indicating that spinal glia play a critical role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Accumulating findings also indicate that nucleotides play an important role in neuron-glia communication through P2 purinoceptors. Damaged neurons release or leak nucleotides including ATP and UTP to stimulate microglia through P2 purinoceptors expressing on microglia. It was shown in an animal model of neuropathic pain that microglial P2X(4) and P2X(7) receptors are crucial in pain signaling after peripheral nerve lesion. In this review, we describe the modification of neuropathic pain sensation through microglial P2X(4) and P2X(7), with the possibility of P2Y(6) and P2Y(12) involvement.
Project description:While the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unclear, research from the clinic and preclinical models identified the essential role of inflammation and demyelination in the pathogenesis of MS. Current treatments focused on anti-inflammatory processes are effective against acute episodes and relapsing-remitting MS, but patients still move on to develop secondary progressive MS. MS progression is associated with activation of microglia and astrocytes, and importantly, metabolic dysfunction leading to neuronal death. Neuronal death also contributes to chronic neuropathic pain. Metabolic support of neurons by glia may play central roles in preventing progression of MS and chronic neuropathic pain. Here, we review mechanisms of metabolic cooperation between glia and neurons and outline future perspectives exploring metabolic support of neurons by glia.
Project description:Considerable insight has been gained into the comorbid, interactive effects of HIV and drug abuse in the brain using experimental models. This review, which considers opiates, methamphetamine, and cocaine, emphasizes the importance of host genetics and glial plasticity in driving the pathogenic neuron remodeling underlying neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and drug abuse comorbidity. Clinical findings are less concordant than experimental work, and the response of individuals to HIV and to drug abuse can vary tremendously. Host-genetic variability is important in determining viral tropism, neuropathogenesis, drug responses, and addictive behavior. However, genetic differences alone cannot account for individual variability in the brain "connectome." Environment and experience are critical determinants in the evolution of synaptic circuitry throughout life. Neurons and glia both exercise control over determinants of synaptic plasticity that are disrupted by HIV and drug abuse. Perivascular macrophages, microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia can harbor the infection. Uninfected bystanders, especially astroglia, propagate and amplify inflammatory signals. Drug abuse by itself derails neuronal and glial function, and the outcome of chronic exposure is maladaptive plasticity. The negative consequences of coexposure to HIV and drug abuse are determined by numerous factors including genetics, sex, age, and multidrug exposure. Glia and some neurons are generated throughout life, and their progenitors appear to be targets of HIV and opiates/psychostimulants. The chronic nature of HIV and drug abuse appears to result in sustained alterations in the maturation and fate of neural progenitors, which may affect the balance of glial populations within multiple brain regions.
Project description:Clinical studies show that chronic pain is accompanied by memory deficits and reduction in hippocampal volume. Experimental studies show that spared nerve injury (SNI) of the sciatic nerve induces long-term potentiation (LTP) at C-fiber synapses in spinal dorsal horn, but impairs LTP in the hippocampus. The opposite changes may contribute to neuropathic pain and memory deficits, respectively. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the functional synaptic changes are unclear. Here, we show that the dendrite lengths and spine densities are reduced significantly in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, but increased in spinal neurokinin-1-positive neurons in mice after SNI, indicating that the excitatory synaptic connectivity is reduced in hippocampus but enhanced in spinal dorsal horn in this neuropathic pain model. Mechanistically, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) is upregulated in bilateral hippocampus and in ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn, whereas brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is decreased in the hippocampus but increased in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn after SNI. Importantly, the SNI-induced opposite changes in synaptic connectivity and BDNF expression are prevented by genetic deletion of TNF receptor 1 in vivo and are mimicked by TNF-? in cultured slices. Furthermore, SNI activated microglia in both spinal dorsal horn and hippocampus; pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of microglia prevented the region-dependent synaptic changes, neuropathic pain, and memory deficits induced by SNI. The data suggest that neuropathic pain involves different structural synaptic alterations in spinal and hippocampal neurons that are mediated by overproduction of TNF-? and microglial activation and may underlie chronic pain and memory deficits.Chronic pain is often accompanied by memory deficits. Previous studies have shown that peripheral nerve injury produces both neuropathic pain and memory deficits and induces long-term potentiation (LTP) at C-fiber synapses in spinal dorsal horn (SDH) but inhibits LTP in hippocampus. The opposite changes in synaptic plasticity may contribute to chronic pain and memory deficits, respectively. However, the structural and molecular bases of these alterations of synaptic plasticity are unclear. Here, we show that the complexity of excitatory synaptic connectivity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression are enhanced in SDH but reduced in the hippocampus in neuropathic pain and the opposite changes depend on tumor necrosis factor-alpha/tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 signaling and microglial activation. The region-dependent synaptic alterations may underlie chronic neuropathic pain and memory deficits induced by peripheral nerve injury.
Project description:Glia, a non-excitable cell type once considered merely as the connective tissue between neurons, is nowadays acknowledged for its essential contribution to multiple physiological processes including learning, memory formation, excitability, synaptic plasticity, ion homeostasis, and energy metabolism. Moreover, as glia are key players in the brain immune system and provide structural and nutritional support for neurons, they are intimately involved in multiple neurological disorders. Recent advances have demonstrated that glial cells, specifically microglia and astroglia, are involved in several neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Epilepsy, Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). While there is compelling evidence for glial modulation of synaptic formation and regulation that affect neuronal signal processing and activity, in this manuscript we will review recent findings on neuronal activity that affect glial function, specifically during neurodegenerative disorders. We will discuss the nature of each glial malfunction, its specificity to each disorder, overall contribution to the disease progression and assess its potential as a future therapeutic target.
Project description:Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is a reduced responsiveness of innate immune cells like macrophages/monocytes to an endotoxin challenge following a previous encounter with the endotoxin. Although ET in peripheral systems has been well studied, little is known about ET in the brain. The present study showed that brain immune cells, microglia, being different from peripheral macrophages, displayed non-cell autonomous mechanisms in ET formation. Specifically, neurons and astroglia were indispensable for microglial ET. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) secreted from these non-immune cells was essential for governing microglial ET. Neutralization of M-CSF deprived the neuron-glia conditioned medium of its ability to enable microglia to form ET when microglia encountered two lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatments. Recombinant M-CSF protein rendered enriched microglia refractory to the second LPS challenge leading to microglial ET. Activation of microglial M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR; also known as CSF1R) and the downstream ERK1/2 signals was responsible for M-CSF-mediated microglial ET. Endotoxin-tolerant microglia in neuron-glia cultures displayed M2-like polarized phenotypes, as shown by upregulation of M2 marker Arg-1, elevated production of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10, and decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor ?, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1?). Endotoxin-tolerant microglia protected neurons against LPS-elicited inflammatory insults, as shown by reduced neuronal damages in LPS pre-treatment group compared with the group without LPS pre-treatment. Moreover, while neurons and astroglia became injured during chronic neuroinflammation, microglia failed to form ET. Thus, this study identified a distinct non-cell autonomous mechanism of microglial ET. Interactions of M-CSF secreted by neurons and astroglia with microglial M-CSFR programed microglial ET. Loss of microglial ET could be an important pathogenetic mechanism of inflammation-associated neuronal damages.
Project description:Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) and minocycline are potent drugs used in clinical therapies. The primary molecular mechanism of BoNT/A is the cleavage of SNARE proteins, which prevents cells from releasing neurotransmitters from vesicles, while the effects of minocycline are related to the inhibition of p38 activation. Both BoNT/A and minocycline exhibit analgesic effects, however, their direct impact on glial cells is not fully known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of those drugs on microglial and astroglial activity after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and their potential synergistic action. Our results show that BoNT/A and minocycline influenced primary microglial cells by inhibiting intracellular signaling pathways, such as p38, ERK1/2, NF-?B, and the release of pro-inflammatory factors, including IL-1?, IL-18, IL-6, and NOS2. We have revealed that, in contrast to minocycline, BoNT/A treatment did not decrease LPS-induced release of pro-inflammatory factors in the astroglia. In addition, BoNT/A decreased SNAP-23 in both types of glial cells and also SNAP-25 expressed only in astrocytes. Moreover, BoNT/A increased TLR2 and its adaptor protein MyD88, but not TLR4 exclusively in microglial cells. Furthermore, we have shown the impact of BoNT/A on microglial and astroglial cells, with a particular emphasis on its molecular target, TLR2. In contrast, minocycline did not affect any of those factors. We have revealed that despite of different molecular targets, minocycline, and BoNT/A reduced the release of microglia-derived pro-inflammatory factors. In conclusion, we have shown that BoNT/A and minocycline are effective drugs for the management of neuroinflammation by dampening the activation of microglial cells, with minocycline also affecting astroglial activity.
Project description:Prostaglandins (PGs) are typical lipid mediators that play a role in homeostasis and disease. They are synthesized from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenase 1 (COX1) and COX2. Although COX2 has been reported to be upregulated in the spinal cord after nerve injury, its expression and functional roles in neuropathic pain remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Cox2, PGI2 synthase (Pgis), and prostaglandin I2 receptor (IP receptor) mRNA in the rat spinal cord after spared nerve injury (SNI). Levels of Cox2 and Pgis mRNA increased in endothelial cells from 24 to 48 h after nerve injury. IP receptor mRNA was constitutively expressed in dorsal horn neurons. A COX2 inhibitor and IP receptor antagonists attenuated pain behavior in the early phase of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between COX2 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) in the spinal cord of a rat SNI model. Levels of TNF? mRNA transiently increased in the spinal microglia 24 h after SNI. The TNF receptors Tnfr1 and Tnfr2 mRNA were colocalized with COX2. Intrathecal injection of TNF? induced Cox2 and Pgis mRNA expression in endothelial cells. These results revealed that microglia-derived TNF? induced COX2 and PGIS expression in spinal endothelial cells and that endothelial PGI2 played a critical role in neuropathic pain via neuronal IP receptor. These findings further suggest that the glia-endothelial cell interaction of the neurovascular unit via transient TNF? is involved in the generation of neuropathic pain.