Pharmacological activation of REV-ERBs is lethal in cancer and oncogene-induced senescence.
ABSTRACT: The circadian clock imposes daily rhythms in cell proliferation, metabolism, inflammation and DNA damage response. Perturbations of these processes are hallmarks of cancer and chronic circadian rhythm disruption predisposes individuals to tumour development. This raises the hypothesis that pharmacological modulation of the circadian machinery may be an effective therapeutic strategy for combating cancer. REV-ERBs, the nuclear hormone receptors REV-ERB? (also known as NR1D1) and REV-ERB? (also known as NR1D2), are essential components of the circadian clock. Here we show that two agonists of REV-ERBs-SR9009 and SR9011-are specifically lethal to cancer cells and oncogene-induced senescent cells, including melanocytic naevi, and have no effect on the viability of normal cells or tissues. The anticancer activity of SR9009 and SR9011 affects a number of oncogenic drivers (such as HRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and others) and persists in the absence of p53 and under hypoxic conditions. The regulation of autophagy and de novo lipogenesis by SR9009 and SR9011 has a critical role in evoking an apoptotic response in malignant cells. Notably, the selective anticancer properties of these REV-ERB agonists impair glioblastoma growth in vivo and improve survival without causing overt toxicity in mice. These results indicate that pharmacological modulation of circadian regulators is an effective antitumour strategy, identifying a class of anticancer agents with a wide therapeutic window. We propose that REV-ERB agonists are inhibitors of autophagy and de novo lipogenesis, with selective activity towards malignant and benign neoplasms.
Project description:The cell-autonomous circadian clock regulates IgE- and IL-33-mediated mast cell activation, both of which are key events in the development of allergic diseases. Accordingly, clock modifiers could be used to treat allergic diseases, as well as many other circadian-related diseases, such as sleep and metabolic disorders. The nuclear receptors REV-ERB-? and -? (REV-ERBs) are crucial components of the circadian clockwork. Efforts to pharmacologically target REV-ERBs using putatively specific synthetic agonists, particularly SR9009, have yielded beneficial effects on sleep and metabolism. Here, we sought to determine whether REV-ERBs are functional in the circadian clockwork in mast cells and, if so, whether SR9009 affects IgE- and IL-33-mediated mast cell activation. Bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) obtained from wild-type mice expressed REV-ERBs, and SR9009 or other synthetic REV-ERBs agonists affected the mast cell clockwork. SR9009 inhibited IgE- and IL-33-mediated mast cell activation in wild-type BMMCs in association with inhibition of Gab2/PI3K and NF-?B activation. Unexpectedly, these suppressive effects of SR9009 were observed in BMMCs following mutation of the core circadian gene <i>Clock</i>. These findings suggest that SR9009 inhibits IgE- and IL-33-mediated mast cell activation independently of the functional circadian clock activity. Thus, SR9009 or other synthetic REV-ERB agonists may have potential for anti-allergic agents.
Project description:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinopathy with complex pathophysiology that is a common cause of anovulatory infertility in women. Although the disruption of circadian rhythms is indicated in PCOS, the role of the clock in the etiology of these pathologies has yet to be appreciated. The nuclear receptors REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ are core modulators of the circadian clock and participate in the regulation of a diverse set of biological functions. However, in PCOS, the expression of REV-ERBs and their effects remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ expression were lower in the granulosa cells of PCOS patients than in control subjects. <i>In vitro</i>, we found that the overexpression of REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ, and their agonist SR9009, promoted the expression of mitochondrial biosynthesis genes PGC-1α, NRF1, and TFAM and inhibited autophagy in KGN cells. Our results also indicate that REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ can inhibit apoptosis in granulosa cells and promote proliferation. Importantly, the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 ameliorates abnormal follicular development by promoting mitochondrial biosynthesis and inhibiting autophagy in a mouse PCOS model. This allows us to speculate that SR9009 has potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of PCOS.
Project description:Rationale: The circadian clock coordinates cell proliferation and metabolism and impacts the progression of some diseases, particularly cancer. Pharmacological modulation of the circadian machinery may be an effective therapeutic approach for treating cancer. SR9009 is a specific synthetic agonist of the REV-ERBs, essential circadian clock components. However, the potential efficacy and antitumor mechanism of this drug in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains poorly understood. Methods: Here, we used chemosensitive cells (H69 and H446) and the corresponding chemoresistant cells (H69AR and H446DDP) to assess the efficacy of the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 for the treatment of SCLC in vitro and further validated the antitumor effect in subcutaneous tumor models of SCLC. Then, we determined whether REV-ERB? was correlated with the anti-SCLC effect of SR9009. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) sequencing assays were conducted to identify potential DNA sequences directly regulated by REV-ERB?. Autophagy regulation by REV-ERB? and its possible mechanism in SR9009-based SCLC therapy were analyzed. Results: Here, we showed that the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 is specifically lethal to both chemosensitive and chemoresistant SCLC cells. REV-ERB? was involved in the antitumor effect of SR9009 in SCLC. The core autophagy gene Atg5 was identified as a direct downstream target of REV-ERB? and was suppressed by the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 in SCLC. Furthermore, the interaction of REV-ERB? with this autophagy gene impaired autophagy activity, leading to SR9009 cytotoxicity in SCLC cells. Principal conclusions: Our study provided a novel viewpoint indicating that the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 could be a novel and promising therapeutic strategy in first- or second-line SCLC treatment. The anti-SCLC effect of SR9009 is mediated by REV-ERB dependent suppression of autophagy via direct repression of the autophagy gene Atg5.
Project description:The circadian clock regulates behavioural and physiological processes in a 24-h cycle. The nuclear receptors REV-ERB? and REV-ERB? are involved in the cell-autonomous circadian transcriptional/translational feedback loops as transcriptional repressors. A number of studies have also demonstrated a pivotal role of REV-ERBs in regulation of metabolic, neuronal, and inflammatory functions including bile acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, and production of inflammatory cytokines. Given the multifunctional role of REV-ERBs, it is important to elucidate the mechanism through which REV-ERBs exert their functions. To this end, we established a Rev-erb?/Rev-erb? double-knockout mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell model and analyzed the circadian clock and clock-controlled output gene expressions. A comprehensive mRNA-seq analysis revealed that the double knockout of both Rev-erb? and Rev-erb? does not abrogate expression rhythms of E-box-regulated core clock genes but drastically changes a diverse set of other rhythmically-expressed output genes. Of note, REV-ERB?/? deficiency does not compromise circadian expression rhythms of PER2, while REV-ERB target genes, Bmal1 and Npas2, are significantly upregulated. This study highlight the relevance of REV-ERBs as pivotal output mediators of the mammalian circadian clock.
Project description:Circadian dysfunction is a common attribute of many neurodegenerative diseases, most of which are associated with neuroinflammation. Circadian rhythm dysfunction has been associated with inflammation in the periphery, but the role of the core clock in neuroinflammation remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Rev-erb?, a nuclear receptor and circadian clock component, is a mediator of microglial activation and neuroinflammation. We observed time-of-day oscillation in microglial immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, which was disrupted in Rev-erb?-/- mice. Rev-erb? deletion caused spontaneous microglial activation in the hippocampus and increased expression of proinflammatory transcripts, as well as secondary astrogliosis. Transcriptomic analysis of hippocampus from Rev-erb?-/- mice revealed a predominant inflammatory phenotype and suggested dysregulated NF-?B signaling. Primary Rev-erb?-/- microglia exhibited proinflammatory phenotypes and increased basal NF-?B activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that Rev-erb? physically interacts with the promoter regions of several NF-?B-related genes in primary microglia. Loss of Rev-erb? in primary astrocytes had no effect on basal activation but did potentiate the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In vivo, Rev-erb?-/- mice exhibited enhanced hippocampal neuroinflammatory responses to peripheral LPS injection, while pharmacologic activation of Rev-erbs with the small molecule agonist SR9009 suppressed LPS-induced hippocampal neuroinflammation. Rev-erb? deletion influenced neuronal health, as conditioned media from Rev-erb?-deficient primary glial cultures exacerbated oxidative damage in cultured neurons. Rev-erb?-/- mice also exhibited significantly altered cortical resting-state functional connectivity, similar to that observed in neurodegenerative models. Our results reveal Rev-erb? as a pharmacologically accessible link between the circadian clock and neuroinflammation.
Project description:The nuclear receptors REV-ERB? and -? link circadian rhythms and metabolism. Like other nuclear receptors, REV-ERB activity can be regulated by ligands, including naturally occurring heme. A putative ligand, SR9009, has been reported to elicit a range of beneficial effects in healthy as well as diseased animal models and cell systems. However, the direct involvement of REV-ERBs in these effects of SR9009 has not been thoroughly assessed, as experiments were not performed in the complete absence of both proteins. Here, we report the generation of a mouse model for conditional genetic deletion of REV-ERB? and -?. We show that SR9009 can decrease cell viability, rewire cellular metabolism, and alter gene transcription in hepatocytes and embryonic stem cells lacking both REV-ERB? and -?. Thus, the effects of SR9009 cannot be used solely as surrogate for REV-ERB activity.
Project description:A promising new therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the circadian system. Although patients with AD are known to have abnormal circadian rhythms and suffer sleep disturbances, the role of the molecular clock in regulating amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathology is still poorly understood. Here, we explored how the circadian repressors REV-ERBα and β affected Aβ clearance in mouse microglia. We discovered that, at Circadian time 4 (CT4), microglia expressed higher levels of the master clock protein BMAL1 and more rapidly phagocytosed fibrillary Aβ<sub>1-42</sub> (fAβ<sub>1-42</sub> ) than at CT12. BMAL1 directly drives transcription of REV-ERB proteins, which are implicated in microglial activation. Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of REV-ERBs with the small molecule antagonist SR8278 or genetic knockdown of REV-ERBs-accelerated microglial uptake of fAβ<sub>1-42</sub> and increased transcription of BMAL1. SR8278 also promoted microglia polarization toward a phagocytic M2-like phenotype with increased P2Y<sub>12</sub> receptor expression. Finally, constitutive deletion of Rev-erbα in the 5XFAD model of AD decreased amyloid plaque number and size and prevented plaque-associated increases in disease-associated microglia markers including TREM2, CD45, and Clec7a. Altogether, our work suggests a novel strategy for controlling Aβ clearance and neuroinflammation by targeting REV-ERBs and provides new insights into the role of REV-ERBs in AD.
Project description:The nuclear receptors (NRs) REV-ERBα and β, encoded by Nr1d1 and Nr1d2, link circadian rhythms and metabolism. REV-ERB lacks the canonical NR activation domain, and thus functions as a transcriptional repressor. Like other NRs, REV-ERBs can be regulated by ligands, including naturally occurring heme, which potentiate their repressive activity. Attempts to pharmacologically target REV-ERBs by the use of putatively specific synthetic agonists, particularly SR90096, have suggested a wide range of beneficial effects in healthy as well as diseased animal models and cell systems. For instance, Sulli et al. recently reported that REV-ERB activation by SR9009 is specifically lethal to cancer (stem) cells but not other cell types. Because REV-ERBs are core components of the molecular clock, the results were interpreted as a link between the body’s circadian timekeeping system and cancer. Moreover, increased energy expenditure after SR9009 administration decreases obesity in mice, and the reported activity of SR9009 as an exercise mimetic in skeletal muscle have resulted in online sales of the compound as a performance-enhancing drug, with advertisements reassuringly highlighting REV-ERBs as the molecular target (https://www.evolutionary.org/stenabolic-sr9009-review; https://www.simplyanabolics.com/sarms/sr9009-stenabolic/).
Project description:The nuclear receptor Rev-erb? regulates circadian rhythm and metabolism, but its effects are modest and it has been considered to be a secondary regulator of the cell-autonomous clock. Here we report that depletion of Rev-erb? together with closely related Rev-erb? has dramatic effects on the cell-autonomous clock as well as hepatic lipid metabolism. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts were rendered arrhythmic by depletion of both Rev-erbs. In mouse livers, Rev-erb? mRNA and protein levels oscillate with a diurnal pattern similar to that of Rev-erb?, and both Rev-erbs are recruited to a remarkably similar set of binding sites across the genome, enriched near metabolic genes. Depletion of both Rev-erbs in liver synergistically derepresses several metabolic genes as well as genes that control the positive limb of the molecular clock. Moreover, deficiency of both Rev-erbs causes marked hepatic steatosis, in contrast to relatively subtle changes upon loss of either subtype alone. These findings establish the two Rev-erbs as major regulators of both clock function and metabolism, displaying a level of subtype collaboration that is unusual among nuclear receptors but common among core clock proteins, protecting the organism from major perturbations in circadian and metabolic physiology.
Project description:Rev-Erb-? and Rev-Erb-? are nuclear receptors that regulate the expression of genes involved in the control of circadian rhythm, metabolism and inflammatory responses. Rev-Erbs function as transcriptional repressors by recruiting nuclear receptor co-repressor (NCoR)-HDAC3 complexes to Rev-Erb response elements in enhancers and promoters of target genes, but the molecular basis for cell-specific programs of repression is not known. Here we present evidence that in mouse macrophages Rev-Erbs regulate target gene expression by inhibiting the functions of distal enhancers that are selected by macrophage-lineage-determining factors, thereby establishing a macrophage-specific program of repression. Remarkably, the repressive functions of Rev-Erbs are associated with their ability to inhibit the transcription of enhancer-derived RNAs (eRNAs). Furthermore, targeted degradation of eRNAs at two enhancers subject to negative regulation by Rev-Erbs resulted in reduced expression of nearby messenger RNAs, suggesting a direct role of these eRNAs in enhancer function. By precisely defining eRNA start sites using a modified form of global run-on sequencing that quantifies nascent 5' ends, we show that transfer of full enhancer activity to a target promoter requires both the sequences mediating transcription-factor binding and the specific sequences encoding the eRNA transcript. These studies provide evidence for a direct role of eRNAs in contributing to enhancer functions and suggest that Rev-Erbs act to suppress gene expression at a distance by repressing eRNA transcription.