Abscisic Acid as a Dominant Signal in Tomato During Salt Stress Predisposition to Phytophthora Root and Crown Rot.
ABSTRACT: Salt stress predisposes plants to Phytophthora root and crown rot in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. We used the tomato-Phytophthora capsici interaction to examine zoospore chemoattraction and assessed expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes regulated by salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) following a salt-stress episode. Although salt treatment enhances chemoattraction of tomato roots to zoospores, exudates from salt-stressed roots of ABA-deficient mutants, which do not display the predisposition phenotype, have a similar chemoattraction as exudates from salt-stressed, wild-type roots. This suggests that ABA action during predisposing stress enhances disease through effects on plant responses occurring after initial contact and during ingress by the pathogen. The expression of NCED1 (ABA synthesis) and TAS14 (ABA response) in roots generally corresponded to previously reported changes in root ABA levels during salt stress onset and recovery in a pattern that was not altered by infection by P. capsici. The PR genes, P4 and PI-2, hallmarks in tomato for SA and JA action, respectively, were induced in non-stressed roots during infection and strongly suppressed in infected roots exposed to salt-stress prior to inoculation. However, there was a similar proportional increase in pathogen colonization observed in salt-stressed plants relative to non-stressed plants in both wild-type and a SA-deficient nahG line. Unlike the other tomato cultivars used in this study that showed a strong predisposition phenotype, the processing tomato cv. 'Castlemart' and its JA mutants were not predisposed by salt. Salt stress predisposition to crown and root rot caused by P. capsici appears to be strongly conditioned by ABA-driven mechanisms in tomato, with the stress compromising SA-and JA-mediated defense-related gene expression during P. capsici infection.
Project description:To investigate the putative crosstalk between JA and ABA in Solanum lycopersicum plants in response to drought, suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2, JA-deficient) and flacca (flc, ABA-deficient) mutants together with the naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) transgenic (SA-deficient) line were used. Hormone profiling and gene expression of key enzymes in ABA, JA and SA biosynthesis were analyzed during early stages of drought. ABA accumulation was comparable in spr2 and wild type (WT) plants whereas expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (NCED1) and NCED2 was different, implying a compensation mechanism between NCED genes and an organ-specific regulation of NCED1 expression. JA levels and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3 (OPR3) expression in flc plants suggest that ABA regulates the induction of the OPR3 gene in roots. By contrast, ABA treatment to flc plants leads to a reduction of JA and SA contents. Furthermore, different pattern of SA accumulation (and expression of isochorismate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1) was observed between WT seedlings and mutants, suggesting that SA plays an important role on the early response of tomato plants to drought and also that JA and ABA modulate its biosynthesis. Finally, hormone profiling in spr2 and NahG plants indicate a crosstalk between JA and SA that could enhance tolerance of tomato to water stress.
Project description:Plant hormones are the key regulators of adaptive stress response. Abiotic stresses such as drought and salt are known to affect the growth and productivity of plants. It is well known that the levels of plant hormones such as zeatin (ZA), abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and brassinolide (BR) fluctuate upon abiotic stress exposure. At present, there is not any single suitable liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for simultaneous analysis of BR and other plant hormones involved in abiotic stresses. In the present study, we developed a simple, sensitive, and rapid method for simultaneous analysis of five major plant hormones, ZA, ABA, JA, SA, and BR, which are directly or indirectly involved in drought and salt stresses. The optimized extraction procedure was simple and easy to use for simultaneous measurement of these plant hormones in Arabidopsis thaliana. The developed method is highly reproducible and can be adapted for simultaneous measurement of changes in plant hormones (ZA, ABA, JA, SA, and BR) in response to abiotic stresses in plants like A. thaliana and tomato.
Project description:Jasmonates (JAs) together with jasmonic acid and its offshoots are lipid-derived endogenous hormones that play key roles in both developmental processes and different defense responses in plants. JAs have been studied intensively in the past decades for their substantial roles in plant defense comebacks against diverse environmental stresses among model plants. However, the role of this phytohormone has been poorly investigated in the monocotyledonous species against abiotic stresses. In this study, a JA biosynthesis mutant opr7opr8 was used for the investigation of JA roles in the salt stress responses of maize seedlings, whose roots were exposed to 0 to 300 mM NaCl. Foliar stomatal observation showed that opr7opr8 had a larger stomatal aperture than wild type (WT) (B73) under salinity stress, indicating that JA positively regulates guard cell movement under salt stress. The results regarding chlorophyll content and leaf senescence showed that opr7opr8 exhibited delayed leaf senescence under salt stress as compared to WT, indicating that JA plays a role in salt-inducing cell death and subsequent leaf senescence. Moreover, the morphological parameters, including the length of the shoots and roots, and the fresh and dry weights of the shoots and roots, showed that after 7 days of salt treatment, opr7opr8 had heavier and longer shoots than WT but slighter and shorter roots than WT. In addition, ion analysis showed that opr7opr8 accumulated less sodium but more potassium in the leaves than WT but more sodium and less potassium in the roots than WT, suggesting that JA deficiency causes higher salt stress to the roots but less stress to the leaves of the seedlings. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis showed that opr7opr8 produced less H2O2 than WT in the leaves but more H2O2 in the roots under salt treatment, and correspondingly, ROS-scavenging enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) showed a similar variation, i.e., opr7opr8 has lower enzymatic activities in the shoots but higher activities in the roots than WT under salt treatment. For osmotic adjustment, opr7opr8 produced less proline in the shoots at 100 and 300 mM NaCl treatments but more in the roots than the WT roots under all salt treatments. In addition, the gene expression for abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis under salt stress was investigated. Results showed that the expression levels of four key enzymes of ABA biosynthesis, ZEP1, NCED5, AO1, and VP10, were significantly downregulated in the shoots as compared to WT under salt treatment. Putting all the data together, we concluded that JA-deficiency in maize seedlings reduced the salt-stress responses in the shoots but exaggerated the responses in the roots. In addition, endogenous JA acted as a positive regulator for the transportation of sodium ions from the roots to the shoots because the mutant opr7opr8 had a higher level of sodium in the roots but a significantly lower level in the shoots than WT. Furthermore, JA may act as a positive regulator for ABA biosynthesis in the leaves under salt stress.
Project description:Interaction between plants and their environment is changing as a consequence of the climate change and global warming, increasing the performance and dispersal of some pest species which become invasive species. Tetranychus evansi also known as the tomato red spider mite, is an invasive species which has been reported to increase its performance when feeding in the tomato cultivar Moneymaker (MM) under water deficit conditions. In order to clarify the underlying molecular events involved, we examined early plant molecular changes occurring on MM during T. evansi infestation alone or in combination with moderate drought stress. Hormonal profiling of MM plants showed an increase in abscisic acid (ABA) levels in drought-stressed plants while salicylic acid (SA) levels were higher in drought-stressed plants infested with T. evansi, indicating that SA is involved in the regulation of plant responses to this stress combination. Changes in the expression of ABA-dependent DREB2, NCED1, and RAB18 genes confirmed the presence of drought-dependent molecular responses in tomato plants and indicated that these responses could be modulated by the tomato red spider mite. Tomato metabolic profiling identified 42 differentially altered compounds produced by T. evansi attack, moderate drought stress, and/or their combination, reinforcing the idea of putative manipulation of tomato plant responses by tomato red spider mite. Altogether, these results indicate that the tomato red spider mite acts modulating plant responses to moderate drought stress by interfering with the ABA and SA hormonal responses, providing new insights into the early events occurring on plant biotic and abiotic stress interaction.
Project description:Bacterial wilt is a devastating disease of tomato caused by soilborne pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. Previous studies found that silicon (Si) can increase tomato resistance against R. solanacearum, but the exact molecular mechanism remains unclear. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology was used to investigate the dynamic changes of root transcriptome profiles between Si-treated (+Si) and untreated (-Si) tomato plants at 1, 3, and 7 days post-inoculation with R. solanacearum. The contents of salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), and jasmonic acid (JA) and the activity of defense-related enzymes in roots of tomato in different treatments were also determined. The burst of ET production in roots was delayed, and SA and JA contents were altered in Si treatment. The transcriptional response to R. solanacearum infection of the +Si plants was quicker than that of the untreated plants. The expression levels of differentially-expressed genes involved in pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), oxidation resistance, and water-deficit stress tolerance were upregulated in the Si-treated plants. Multiple hormone-related genes were differentially expressed in the Si-treated plants. Si-mediated resistance involves mechanisms other than SA- and JA/ET-mediated stress responses. We propose that Si-mediated tomato resistance to R. solanacearum is associated with activated PTI-related responses and enhanced disease resistance and tolerance via several signaling pathways. Such pathways are mediated by multiple hormones (e.g., SA, JA, ET, and auxin), leading to diminished adverse effects (e.g., senescence, water-deficit, salinity and oxidative stress) normally caused by R. solanacearum infection. This finding will provide an important basis to further characterize the role of Si in enhancing plant resistance against biotic stress.
Project description:Little is known about how water stress including drought and flooding modifies the ability of plants to resist simultaneous attack by insect feeding and transmission of insect-vectored pathogen. We analyzed insect population growth, feeding behaviors, virus transmission, and plant amino acid profiles and defense gene expression to characterize mechanisms underlying the interaction between water stress, soybean aphid and aphid-transmitted, Soybean mosaic virus, on soybean plants. Population growth of non-viruliferous aphids was reduced under drought stress and saturation, likely because the aphids spent less time feeding from the sieve element on these plants compared to well-watered plants. Water stress did not impact population growth of viruliferous aphids. However, virus incidence and transmission rate was lowest under drought stress and highest under saturated conditions since viruliferous aphids took the greatest amount time to puncture cells and transmit the virus under saturated conditions and lowest time under drought stress. Petiole exudates from drought-stressed plants had the highest level of total free amino acids including asparagine and valine that are critical for aphid performance. Aphids did not benefit from improved phloem sap quality as indicated by their lower densities on drought-stressed plants. Saturation, on the other hand, resulted in low amino acid content compared to all of the other treatments. Drought and saturation had significant and opposing effects on expression of marker genes involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Drought alone significantly increased expression of ABA marker genes, which likely led to suppression of salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-related genes. In contrast, ABA marker genes were down-regulated under saturation, while expression of SA- and JA-related genes was up-regulated. We propose that the apparent antagonism between ABA and SA/JA signaling pathways contributed to an increase in aphid densities under drought and their decrease under saturation. Taken together, our findings suggests that plant responses to water stress is complex involving changes in phloem amino acid composition and signaling pathways, which can impact aphid populations and virus transmission.
Project description:Salinity stress triggers changes in plant morphology, physiology and molecular responses which can subsequently influence plant-insect interactions; however, these consequences remain poorly understood. We analyzed plant biomass, insect population growth rates, feeding behaviors and plant gene expression to characterize the mechanisms of the underlying interactions between the rice plant and brown planthopper (BPH) under salinity stress. Plant bioassays showed that plant growth and vigor losses were higher in control and low salinity conditions compared to high salinity stressed TN1 (salt-planthopper susceptible cultivar) in response to BPH feeding. In contrast, the losses were higher in the high salinity treated TPX (salt-planthopper resistant cultivar). BPH population growth was reduced on TN1, but increased on TPX under high salinity condition compared to the control. This cultivar-specific effect was reflected in BPH feeding behaviors on the corresponding plants. Quantification of abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling transcripts indicated that salinity-induced down-regulation of ABA signaling increased SA-dependent defense in TN1. While, up-regulation of ABA related genes in salinity stressed TPX resulted in the decrease in SA-signaling genes. Thus, ABA and SA antagonism might be a key element in the interaction between BPH and salinity stress. Taken together, we concluded that plant-planthopper interactions are markedly shaped by salinity and might be cultivar specific.
Project description:Root colonization by selected Trichoderma isolates can activate in the plant a systemic defense response that is effective against a broad-spectrum of plant pathogens. Diverse plant hormones play pivotal roles in the regulation of the defense signaling network that leads to the induction of systemic resistance triggered by beneficial organisms [induced systemic resistance (ISR)]. Among them, jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways are generally essential for ISR. However, Trichoderma ISR (TISR) is believed to involve a wider variety of signaling routes, interconnected in a complex network of cross-communicating hormone pathways. Using tomato as a model, an integrative analysis of the main mechanisms involved in the systemic resistance induced by Trichoderma harzianum against the necrotrophic leaf pathogen Botrytis cinerea was performed. Root colonization by T. harzianum rendered the leaves more resistant to B. cinerea independently of major effects on plant nutrition. The analysis of disease development in shoots of tomato mutant lines impaired in the synthesis of the key defense-related hormones JA, ET, salicylic acid (SA), and abscisic acid (ABA), and the peptide prosystemin (PS) evidenced the requirement of intact JA, SA, and ABA signaling pathways for a functional TISR. Expression analysis of several hormone-related marker genes point to the role of priming for enhanced JA-dependent defense responses upon pathogen infection. Together, our results indicate that although TISR induced in tomato against necrotrophs is mainly based on boosted JA-dependent responses, the pathways regulated by the plant hormones SA- and ABA are also required for successful TISR development.
Project description:Abscisic acid (ABA) is a hormone that plays a vital role in mediating abiotic stress responses in plants. Salt exposure induces the synthesis of ABA through the cleavage of carotenoid precursors (xanthophylls), which are found at very low levels in roots. Here we show that de novo ABA biosynthesis in salt-treated Arabidopsis thaliana roots involves an organ-specific induction of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Upregulation of the genes encoding phytoene synthase (PSY) and other enzymes of the pathway producing ABA precursors was observed in roots but not in shoots after salt exposure. A pharmacological block of the carotenoid pathway substantially reduced ABA levels in stressed roots, confirming that an increase in carotenoid accumulation contributes to fuel hormone production after salt exposure. Treatment with exogenous ABA was also found to upregulate PSY expression only in roots, suggesting an organ-specific feedback regulation of the carotenoid pathway by ABA. Taken together, our results show that the presence of high concentrations of salt in the growth medium rapidly triggers a root-specific activation of the carotenoid pathway, probably to ensure a proper supply of ABA precursors required for a sustained production of the hormone.
Project description:The success of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a biological control agent relies on its ability to outgrow plant pathogens. It is also thought to interact with its plant host by inducing systemic resistance. In this study, the ability of B. amyloliquefaciens MBI600 to elicit defense (or other) responses in tomato seedlings and plants was assessed upon the expression of marker genes and transcriptomic analysis. Spray application of Serifel, a commercial formulation of MBI600, induced responses in a dose-dependent manner. Low dosage primed plant defense by activation of SA-responsive genes. Suggested dosage induced defense by mediating synergistic cross-talk between JA/ET and SA-signaling. Saturation of tomato roots or leaves with MBI600 elicitors activated JA/ET signaling at the expense of SA-mediated responses. The complex signaling network that is implicated in MBI600-tomato seedling interactions was mapped. MBI600 and flg22 (a bacterial flagellin peptide) elicitors induced, in a similar manner, biotic and abiotic stress responses by the coordinated activation of genes involved in JA/ET biosynthesis as well as hormone and redox signaling. This is the first study to suggest the activation of plant defense following the application of a commercial microbial formulation under conditions of greenhouse crop production.