Expression of Cyclin-D1 in Astrocytes Varies During Aging.
ABSTRACT: D-Cyclins control progression through the G1 phase and the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. In the adult brain, they regulate neurogenesis which is limited to the sub-granular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG) and to the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles. Yet, D-cyclins have also been detected in other parts of the adult brain in differentiated neurons that do not proliferate and rather die by apoptosis in response to cell cycle reactivation. Expression of D-cyclins in astrocytes has also been reported but published results, such as those concerning neurons, appear conflictual. We carried out this study in order to clarify the general pattern of D-cyclin expression in the mouse brain. By performing GFAP/cyclin-D1 double labeling experiments, we detected hypertrophic astrocytes expressing cyclin-D1 in their cytoplasmic processes. Their number increased with age in the hippocampus area but decreased with age in the SVZ. Clusters of astrocytes expressing cyclin-D1 were also detected in the cortical areas of old mice and around blood vessels of neurogenic areas. Other non-asteroidal small cells, probably stem cells, expressed both GFAP and nuclear cyclin-D1 in the neurogenic area of the DG and in the SVZ at a higher density in young mice than in old mice. Finally, cells expressing cyclin-D1 but not GFAP were also found scattered in the striatum and the CA1 region of the hippocampus, and at a high percentage in cortical layers of young and old mice. Our results suggest that astrocytes may control neuronal functions and proliferation by modulating, in normal or altered conditions such as aging or degenerative diseases, cyclin-D1 expression.
Project description:Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the main astrocytic intermediate filament (IF). GFAP splice isoforms show differential expression patterns in the human brain. GFAP? is preferentially expressed by neurogenic astrocytes in the subventricular zone (SVZ), whereas GFAP(+1) is found in a subset of astrocytes throughout the brain. In addition, the expression of these isoforms in human brain material of epilepsy, Alzheimer and glioma patients has been reported. Here, for the first time, we present a comprehensive study of GFAP isoform expression in both wild-type and Alzheimer Disease (AD) mouse models. In cortex, cerebellum, and striatum of wild-type mice, transcripts for Gfap-?, Gfap-?, Gfap-?, Gfap-?, Gfap-?, and a newly identified isoform Gfap-?, were detected. Their relative expression levels were similar in all regions studied. GFAP? showed a widespread expression whilst GFAP? distribution was prominent in the SVZ, rostral migratory stream (RMS), neurogenic astrocytes of the subgranular zone (SGZ), and subpial astrocytes. In contrast to the human SVZ, we could not establish an unambiguous GFAP? localization in proliferating cells of the mouse SVZ. In APPswePS1dE9 and 3xTgAD mice, plaque-associated reactive astrocytes had increased transcript levels of all detectable GFAP isoforms and low levels of a new GFAP isoform, Gfap-?Ex7. Reactive astrocytes in AD mice showed enhanced GFAP? and GFAP? immunolabeling, less frequently increased vimentin and nestin, but no GFAP? or GFAP(+1) staining. In conclusion, GFAP? protein is present in SVZ, RMS, and neurogenic astrocytes of the SGZ, but also outside neurogenic niches. Furthermore, differential GFAP isoform expression is not linked with aging or reactive gliosis. This evidence points to the conclusion that differential regulation of GFAP isoforms is not involved in the reorganization of the IF network in reactive gliosis or in neurogenesis in the mouse brain.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases neurogenesis in the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) and the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily cytokines are important regulators of adult neurogenesis, but their involvement in the regulation of this process after brain injury is unclear. We subjected adult mice to controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury, and isolated RNA from the SVZ and DG at different post-injury time points. qPCR array analysis showed that cortical injury caused significant alterations in the mRNA expression of components and targets of the TGF-?, BMP, and activin signaling pathways in the SVZ and DG after injury, suggesting that these pathways could regulate post-injury neurogenesis. In both neurogenic regions, the injury also induced expression of Runt-related transcription factor-1 (Runx1), which can interact with intracellular TGF-? Smad signaling pathways. CCI injury strongly induced Runx1 expression in activated and proliferating microglial cells throughout the neurogenic regions. Runx1 protein was also expressed in a subset of Nestin- and GFAP-expressing putative neural stem or progenitor cells in the DG and SVZ after injury. In the DG only, these Runx1+ progenitors proliferated. Our data suggest potential roles for Runx1 in the processes of microglial cell activation and proliferation and in neural stem cell proliferation after TBI.
Project description:The neurogenic niche of the subventricular zone (SVZ) in adult brain tissue takes the form of a pinwheel-like cytoarchitectural structure, with mono-ciliated astrocytes displaying neural stem cell (NSC) characteristics present in the core surrounded by ciliated ependymal cells. For the first time, we have demonstrated the formation of similar pinwheel structures in spinal cord and SVZ tissue-derived neurospheres cultured in vitro. To investigate whether the organization and integrity of these pinwheel structures depends on the appropriate organization of ciliated astrocytes and ependymal cells, we modified neurosphere cell arrangements via the application of the methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dc) or the antiviral drug ganciclovir (GCV) in transgenic mice expressing herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase from the GFAP promoter (GFAP-TK). Treatment of neurospheres with 5-aza-dc increased FoxJ1 expression, a crucial factor for ciliogenesis, by reducing methylation of the FoxJ1 CpG island. 5-aza-dc also increased the expression of the astrocyte marker GFAP and caused aberrant accumulation of ciliated astrocytes. However, the ablation of dividing astrocytes within neurospheres by GCV treatment led to an increase in the accumulation of ciliated ependymal cells, as evidenced by the increased expression of the ependymal cell markers Vimentin or CD24. While 5-aza-dc and GCV treatment differentially affected cell arrangement, both compounds significantly diminished the number of pinwheel structures present in neurospheres. Thus, we suggest that the ratio of ciliated astrocytes to ependymal cells plays a crucial role in the correct formation of the pinwheel structures in spinal cord tissue-derived neurospheres in vitro.
Project description:The ability to prospectively isolate adult neural stem cells and their progeny is crucial to study their biology and therapeutic potential. Stem cells in adult mammalian neurogenic niches are a subset of astrocytes. A major limitation in the field has been the inability to distinguish stem cell astrocytes from niche astrocytes. Here, we show that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive subventricular-zone (SVZ) astrocytes are activated stem cells that are eliminated by antimitotic treatment. We developed a simple strategy to simultaneously purify cells at different stages of the adult SVZ stem cell lineage by using FACS. This method combines the use of fluorescent EGF ligand, CD24, and GFP expression in GFAP::GFP transgenic mice and allows the simultaneous purification of activated stem cell astrocytes (GFP(+)EGFR(+)CD24(-)), niche astrocytes (GFP(+)EGFR(-)CD24(-)), transit amplifying cells (GFP(-)EGFR(+)CD24(-)), and neuroblasts (GFP(-)EGFR(-)CD24(low)). One in three EGFR(+) astrocytes gives rise to neurospheres in vitro, a 20-fold enrichment over unsorted cells. Importantly, these cells constitute the neurosphere-forming population among SVZ astrocytes. This approach will be of great utility for future functional and molecular studies of the SVZ stem cell lineage.
Project description:Neural stem cells (NSCs) are retained in the adult ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), a specialized neurogenic niche with a unique cellular architecture. It currently remains unclear whether or how NSCs utilize basement membranes (BMs) in this niche. Here, we examine the molecular compositions and functions of BMs in the adult mouse V-SVZ. Whole-mount V-SVZ immunostaining revealed that fractones, which are fingerlike processes of extravascular BMs, are speckled BMs unconnected to the vasculature, and differ in their molecular composition from vascular BMs. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes and NSCs produce and adhere to speckled BMs. Furthermore, Gfap-Cre-mediated Lamc1flox(E1605Q) knockin mice, in which integrin-binding activities of laminins are specifically nullified in GFAP-positive cells, exhibit a decreased number and size of speckled BMs and reduced in vitro neurosphere-forming activity. Our results reveal niche activities of fractones/speckled BMs for NSCs and provide molecular insights into how laminin-integrin interactions regulate NSCs in vivo.
Project description:Neural stem cells (NSCs) generate new neurons throughout life in two distinct areas of the mammalian brain: the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral ventricles and the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). How gene expression signatures differ among NSCs and immature neurons within and between these adult neurogenic regions is unknown. We isolated NSCs and their progeny using transgenic mice expressing GFP under the control of the Sox2 promoter (labeling NSCs) and transgenic mice expressing DsRed under the control of the doublecortin (Dcx) promoter (labeling immature neurons). Comparison of the transcriptomes of SOX2+ cells derived from both neurogenic areas revealed that NSCs are highly similar but that functionally significant differences in gene expression exist: IGF2, which is expressed only in SOX2+ cells in the DG but not in the SVZ, is required for proliferation of DG-derived but not SVZ-derived NSCs. Gene expression profiles strongly diverged in immature neurons, and we provide evidence that ephrinB3, which was up-regulated only in the DG but not in the SVZ during neuronal differentiation, regulates the survival of newborn granule cells. Thus, the data provided here show that stem cell populations in the adult DG and SVZ are similar but have unique properties that manifest themselves later during neural differentiation, resulting in distinct neuronal populations Hippocampi and SVZ from 6 week old DCX-DsRed and Sox2-GFP Reporter mice were dissected and cell sorted using FACS. cDNA were generated and analysed using Agilent Platform.
Project description:In mice and in young adult humans, the subventricular zone (SVZ) contains multipotent, dividing astrocytes, some of which, when cultured, produce neurospheres that differentiate into neurons and glia. It is unknown whether the SVZ of very old humans has this capacity. Here, we report that neural stem/progenitor cells can also be cultured from rapid autopsy samples of SVZ from elderly human subjects, including patients with age-related neurologic disorders. Histological sections of SVZ from these cases showed a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive ribbon of astrocytes similar to the astrocyte ribbon in human periventricular white matter biopsies that is reported to be a rich source of neural progenitors. Cultures of the SVZ contained 1) neurospheres with a core of Musashi-1-, nestin-, and nucleostemin-immunopositive cells as well as more differentiated GFAP-positive astrocytes; 2) SMI-311-, MAP2a/b-, and beta-tubulin(III)-positive neurons; and 3) galactocerebroside-positive oligodendrocytes. Neurospheres continued to generate differentiated progeny for months after primary culturing, in some cases nearly 2 years postinitial plating. Patch clamp studies of differentiated SVZ cells expressing neuron-specific antigens revealed voltage-dependent, tetrodotoxin-sensitive, inward Na+ currents and voltage-dependent, delayed, slowly inactivating K+ currents, electrophysiologic characteristics of neurons. A subpopulation of these cells also exhibited responses consistent with the kinetics and pharmacology of the h-current. However, although these cells displayed some aspects of neuronal function, they remained immature, insofar as they did not fire action potentials. These studies suggest that human neural progenitor activity may remain viable throughout much of the life span, even in the face of severe neurodegenerative disease.
Project description:Neural stem cells (NSCs) generate new neurons throughout life in two distinct areas of the mammalian brain: the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral ventricles and the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). How gene expression signatures differ among NSCs and immature neurons within and between these adult neurogenic regions is unknown. We isolated NSCs and their progeny using transgenic mice expressing GFP under the control of the Sox2 promoter (labeling NSCs) and transgenic mice expressing DsRed under the control of the doublecortin (Dcx) promoter (labeling immature neurons). Comparison of the transcriptomes of SOX2+ cells derived from both neurogenic areas revealed that NSCs are highly similar but that functionally significant differences in gene expression exist: IGF2, which is expressed only in SOX2+ cells in the DG but not in the SVZ, is required for proliferation of DG-derived but not SVZ-derived NSCs. Gene expression profiles strongly diverged in immature neurons, and we provide evidence that ephrinB3, which was up-regulated only in the DG but not in the SVZ during neuronal differentiation, regulates the survival of newborn granule cells. Thus, the data provided here show that stem cell populations in the adult DG and SVZ are similar but have unique properties that manifest themselves later during neural differentiation, resulting in distinct neuronal populations Overall design: Hippocampi and SVZ from 6 week old DCX-DsRed and Sox2-GFP Reporter mice were dissected and cell sorted using FACS. cDNA were generated and analysed using Agilent Platform.
Project description:Neurogenesis persists in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) of the mammalian brain. During aging, the SVZ neurogenic capacity undergoes a progressive decline, which is attributed to a decrease in the population of neural stem cells (NSCs). However, the behavior of the NSCs that remain in the aged brain is not fully understood. Here we performed a comparative ultrastructural study of the SVZ niche of 2-month-old and 24-month-old male C57BL/6 mice, focusing on the NSC population. Using thymidine-labeling, we showed that residual NSCs in the aged SVZ divide less frequently than those in young mice. We also provided evidence that ependymal cells are not newly generated during senescence, as others studies suggest. Remarkably, both astrocytes and ependymal cells accumulated a high number of intermediate filaments and dense bodies during aging, resembling reactive cells. A better understanding of the changes occurring in the neurogenic niche during aging will allow us to develop new strategies for fighting neurological disorders linked to senescence.
Project description:In the healthy adult brain, neurogenesis normally occurs in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Cerebral ischemia enhances neurogenesis in neurogenic and non-neurogenic regions of the ischemic brain of adult rodents. This study demonstrated that post-insult treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate (SB), stimulated the incorporation of bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in the SVZ, DG, striatum, and frontal cortex in the ischemic brain of rats subjected to permanent cerebral ischemia. SB treatment also increased the number of cells expressing polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule, nestin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in various brain regions after cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, extensive co-localization of BrdU and polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule was observed in multiple regions after ischemia, and SB treatment up-regulated protein levels of BDNF, phospho-CREB, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Intraventricular injection of K252a, a tyrosine kinase B receptor antagonist, markedly reduced SB-induced cell proliferation detected by BrdU and Ki67 in the ipsilateral SVZ, DG, and other brain regions, blocked SB-induced nestin expression and CREB activation, and attenuated the long-lasting behavioral benefits of SB. Together, these results suggest that histone deacetylase inhibitor-induced cell proliferation, migration and differentiation require BDNF-tyrosine kinase B signaling and may contribute to long-term beneficial effects of SB after ischemic injury.