Phylogeny and polymorphism in the long control regions E6, E7, and L1 of HPV Type 56 in women from southwest China.
ABSTRACT: Globally, human papillomavirus (HPV)?56 accounts for a small proportion of all high?risk HPV types; however, HPV?56 is detected at a higher rate in Asia, particularly in southwest China. The present study analyzed polymorphisms, intratypic variants, and genetic variability in the long control regions (LCR), E6, E7, and L1 of HPV?56 (n=75). The LCRs, E6, E7 and L1 were sequenced using a polymerase chain reaction and the sequences were submitted to GenBank. Maximum?likelihood trees were constructed using Kimura's two?parameter model, followed by secondary structure analysis and protein damaging prediction. Additionally, in order to assess the effect of variations in the LCR on putative binding sites for cellular proteins, MATCH server was used. Finally, the selection pressures of the E6?E7 and L1 genes were estimated. A total of 18 point substitutions, a 42?bp deletion and a 19?bp deletion of LCR were identified. Some of those mutations are embedded in the putative binding sites for transcription factors. 18 single nucleotide changes occurred in the E6?E7 sequence, 11/18 were non?synonymous substitutions and 7/18 were synonymous mutations. A total 24 single nucleotide changes were identified in the L1 sequence, 6/24 being non?synonymous mutations and 18/24 synonymous mutations. Selective pressure analysis predicted that the majority of mutations of HPV?56 E6, E7 and L1 were of positive selection. The phylogenetic tree demonstrated that the isolates distributed in two lineages. Data on the prevalence and genetic variation of HPV?56 types in southwest China may aid future studies on viral molecular mechanisms and contribute to future investigations of diagnostic probes and therapeutic vaccines.
Project description:BACKGROUD:Variations in HPV LCR/E6/E7 have been shown to be associated with the viral persistence and cervical cancer development. So far, there are few reports about the polymorphisms of the HPV-58 LCR/E6/E7 sequences in Southwest China. This study aims to characterize the gene polymorphisms of the HPV-58 LCR/E6/E7 sequences in women of Southwest China, and assess the effects of variations on the immune recognition of viral E6 and E7 antigens. METHODS:Twelve LCR/E6/E7 of the HPV-58 isolates were amplified and sequenced. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed by MEGA 7.0, followed by the secondary structure prediction of the related proteins using PSIPRED v3.3. The selection pressure acting on the HPV-58 E6 and E7 coding regions was estimated by Bayes empirical Bayes analysis of PAML 4.8. Meanwhile, the MHC class-I and II binding peptides were predicted by the ProPred-I server and ProPred server. The transcription factor binding sites in the HPV-58 LCR were analyzed using the JASPAR database. RESULTS:Twenty nine SNPs (20 in the LCR, 3 in the E6, 6 in the E7) were identified at 27 nucleotide sites across the HPV-58 LCR/E6/E7. From the most variable to the least variable, the nucleotide variations were LCR?>?E7?>?E6. The combinations of all the SNPs resulted in 11 unique sequences, which were clustered into the A lineage (7 belong to A1, 2 belong to A2, and 2 belong to A3). An insertion (TGTCAGTTTCCT) was found between the nucleotide sites 7280 and 7281 in 2 variants, and a deletion (TTTAT) was found between 7429 and 7433 in 1 variant. The most common non-synonymous substitution V77A in the E7 was observed in the sequences encoding the ?-helix. 63G in the E7 was determined to be the only one positively selected site in the HPV-58 E6/E7 sequences. Six non-synonymous amino acid substitutions (including S71F and K93 N in the E6, and T20I, G41R, G63S/D, and V77A in the E7) were affecting multiple putative epitopes for both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. In the LCR, C7265G and C7266T were the most variable sites and were the potential binding sites for the transcription factor SOX10. CONCLUSION:These results provide an insight into the intrinsic geographical relatedness and biological differences of the HPV-58 variants, and contribute to further research on the HPV-58 epidemiology, carcinogenesis, and therapeutic vaccine development.
Project description:Intratypic variations of HPV-18 are known to differ in the persistence of the infection, frequency of carcinogenesis and the progression of precursor lesions to advanced cervical cancer. This study was designed to analyze sequence variations of HPV-18 isolates in order to discover novel HPV-18 variants and to evaluate the variations among infected women in southwest China. Cervical biopsies from 56 HPV-18-positive women with cervical neoplasia were assayed by PCR amplification and sequencing of all eight genes (E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, E7, L1, L2) of the HPV-18 genome. The most frequently observed variation was a C to G transversion at nucleotide 287 of E6, which was found in 48.2% of samples. Analysis of E7 revealed only one specimen as having sequence variations. In addition, we have identified several novel variations: A551C in E6, G6906A in L1, and C4915T and C5147A in L2. The mutations in E6 and L2 are silent, while the E7 mutation results in a single amino acid change. This study complements and expands on previous descriptions of HPV-18 variants. The sequence variation data presented here provides a foundation for future research on HPV-induced oncogenesis and may prove valuable for developing diagnostic probes and in the design of HPV vaccines for targeted populations.
Project description:High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), particularly HPV types 16 and 18 (HPV-16 and HPV-18, respectively), play a cardinal role in the etiology of cervical cancer. The most prevalent type, HPV-16, shows intratypic sequence variants that are known to differ in oncogenic potential and geographic distribution. This study was designed to analyze sequence variations in E6, E7, and L1 genes and the LCR (for long control region) of HPV-16 in cervical cancer patients to identify the most prevalent and novel HPV-16 variants and to correlate them with the severity of the disease. Cervical biopsies from 60 HPV-16-positive cancer cases were analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing. The most frequently observed variations were T350G (100%) in E6, T789C (87.5%) in E7, A6695C (54.5%) in L1, and G7521A (91.1%) in the LCR. In addition, only one novel variant (T527A) in E6 and four new variants each in L1 (A6667C, A6691G, C6906T, and A6924C) and in the LCR (C13T, A7636C, C7678T, and G7799A) were identified. While E7 was found to be highly conserved, the variant 350G of E6 was the most prevalent in all of the histopathological grades. The majority of LCR variants were found at the YY1 transcription factor binding sites. Interestingly, a complete absence of the Asian lineage and a high prevalence of European lineages in E6, E7, L1, and the LCR (85, 86.7, 67.7, and 63.3%, respectively) indicate a possible epidemiological linkage between Europe and India with regard to the dissemination of HPV-16 infections in India.
Project description:Cancer of the cervix is associated with infection by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). The gene variants differ in immune responses and oncogenic potential. The E6 and E7 proteins encoded by high-risk HPV play a key role in cellular transformation. HPV-33 and HPV-58 types are highly prevalent among Chinese women. To study the gene intratypic variations, polymorphisms and positive selections of HPV-33 and HPV-58 E6/E7 in southwest China, HPV-33 (E6, E7: n = 216) and HPV-58 (E6, E7: n = 405) E6 and E7 genes were sequenced and compared to others submitted to GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by Maximum-likelihood and the Kimura 2-parameters methods by MEGA 6 (Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0). The diversity of secondary structure was analyzed by PSIPred software. The selection pressures acting on the E6/E7 genes were estimated by PAML 4.8 (Phylogenetic Analyses by Maximun Likelihood version4.8) software. The positive sites of HPV-33 and HPV-58 E6/E7 were contrasted by ClustalX 2.1. Among 216 HPV-33 E6 sequences, 8 single nucleotide mutations were observed with 6/8 non-synonymous and 2/8 synonymous mutations. The 216 HPV-33 E7 sequences showed 3 single nucleotide mutations that were non-synonymous. The 405 HPV-58 E6 sequences revealed 8 single nucleotide mutations with 4/8 non-synonymous and 4/8 synonymous mutations. Among 405 HPV-58 E7 sequences, 13 single nucleotide mutations were observed with 10/13 non-synonymous mutations and 3/13 synonymous mutations. The selective pressure analysis showed that all HPV-33 and 4/6 HPV-58 E6/E7 major non-synonymous mutations were sites of positive selection. All variations were observed in sites belonging to major histocompatibility complex and/or B-cell predicted epitopes. K93N and R145 (I/N) were observed in both HPV-33 and HPV-58 E6.
Project description:Human papillomavirus (HPV) 52 is an oncogenic HPV type prevalent in Asia. The aim of the study was to analyze HPV 52 genetic variations in women from Northeast China. To explore the intratypic variants of HPV 52, the genomic regions of L1, E6, E7 and long control region (LCR) of HPV 52, which have been identified in women from Northeast China by HPV GenoArray test, were analyzed. Twenty-five mutations were identified in the regions examined. Of the mutations found in the L1 gene, three novel nonsynonymous mutations of C5640T, A5641T and G5642A were located within the region that encodes the binding domain of neutralizing antibodies against HPV 52. Although four variations were identified in HPV 52 E6 and E7 genes, no significant association was found between the mutations and the cytological lesion of the patients. Eight mutations, including a novel CTT7681?7683 deletion, found in the LCR of HPV 52 encompassed the known transcription binding sites, which may possibly affect the transcription of the oncogenic genes of E6 and E7. The most prevalent HPV 52 variant in women from northeastern China belongs to clade L1-LN-A. The genetic variations of HPV 52, including three novel nonsynonymous mutations of C5640T, A5641T and G5642A in the L1 gene and a novel CTT7681?7683 deletion in the LCR, were first documented in strains from women in Northeast China. The statistical result showed no associations between the variants and the severities of the infected women. These findings provide new data regarding gene variations of HPV 52.
Project description:High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is not a sufficient condition for cervical cancer development because most infections are benign and naturally cleared. Epidemiological studies revealed that tobacco smoking is a cofactor with HR-HPV for cervical cancer initiation and progression, even though the mechanism by which tobacco smoke cooperates with HR-HPV in this malignancy is poorly understood. As HR-HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins overexpressed in cervical carcinomas colocalize with cigarette smoke components (CSC), in this study we addressed the signaling pathways involved in a potential interaction between both carcinogenic agents. Cervical cancer-derived cell lines, CaSki (HPV16; 500 copies per cell) and SiHa (HPV16; 2 copies per cell), were acutely exposed to CSC at various non-toxic concentrations and we found that E6 and E7 levels were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Using a reporter construct containing the luciferase gene under the control of the full HPV16 long control region (LCR), we also found that p97 promoter activity is dependent on CSC. Non-synonymous mutations in the LCR-resident TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate)-response elements (TRE) had significantly decreased p97 promoter activation. Phosphoproteomic arrays and specific inhibitors revealed that CSC-mediated E6/E7 overexpression is at least in part reliant on EGFR phosphorylation. In addition, we showed that the PI3K/Akt pathway is crucial for CSC-induced E6/E7 overexpression. Finally, we demonstrated that HPV16 E6/E7 overexpression is mediated by JUN. overexpression, c-Jun phosphorylation and recruitment of this transcription factor to TRE sites in the HPV16 LCR. We conclude that acute exposure to tobacco smoke activates the transcription of HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes through p97 promoter activation, which involves the EGFR/PI3K/Akt/C-Jun signaling pathway activation in cervical cancer cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus type-6 (HPV6) is the major etiological agent of anogenital warts both men and women. The present study aimed to characterize the genetic diversity among HPV6 in Southwest China, and to investigate the origin of, selective pressure experienced by, and impact of the resultantly identified genetic variants on the HPV6 secondary structure. METHODS:Phylogenetic trees were constructed by Maximum-likelihood and the Kimura 2-parameters methods by Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0. The diversity of secondary structure was analyzed by PSIPred software. The selection pressures acting on the E6/E7 genes were estimated by Phylogenetic Analyses by Maximum Likelihood version 4.8 software. RESULTS:HPV6 was the most prevalent low risk HPV type in southwest China. In total, 143 E6 and E7 gene sequences of HPV6 isolated from patients were sequenced and compared to GenBank HPV6 reference sequence X00203. The results of these analyses revealed that both the HPV6 E6 and E7 were highly conserved within the analyzed patient samples, and comprised only 3 types of variant sequence, respectively. Furthermore, the analysis of HPV6 E6 and E7 sequences revealed seven/five single-nucleotide mutations, two/four and five/one of which were non-synonymous and synonymous, respectively. The phylogenetic analyses of the E6 and E7 sequences indicated that they belonged to sub-lineage A1 and sub-lineage B1, whereas the selective pressure analyses showed that only the E7 mutation sites 4R, 34E, and 52F were positive selection. CONCLUSIONS:HPV6 (detection rate?=?13.10%) was very prevalent in southwest China, both the HPV6 E6 and E7 sequences were highly conserved within the analyzed patient samples in southwest China, indicating that the low risk HPV6 can adapt to the environment well without much evolution.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The molecular epidemiological studies showed that some variants of HPV-16, distributed geographically, would present a higher risk of causing cervical cancer. This study aimed to analyze nucleotide changes of HPV-16 E6 and E7 genomic regions from infected Southwestern Congolese women. METHODS:DNA of twenty HPV-16 isolates was analyzed by amplifying the E6 and E7 genes using type-specific primers PCR and direct sequencing. The sequences obtained were aligned with the HPV-16 GenBank reference sequences. RESULTS:Thirteen (65.0%) out of 20 DNA-samples were successfully amplified. Genetic analysis revealed 18 and 4 nucleotide changes in E6 and E7 genomic regions respectively. The most frequently observed nucleotide variations were the missense C143G, G145T and C335T in E6 (100%), leading to the non-synonymous amino acid variation Q14D and H78Y. E7 genomic region was found to be highly conserved with two most common T789C and T795G (100%) silent variations. All HPV-16 variants identified belonged to the African lineage: 7 (53.8%) belonged to Af-1 lineage and 6 (46.1%) to Af-2 lineage. The missense mutation G622A (D21N) in the E7 region seems to be described for the first time in this study. CONCLUSION:This study reported for the first time the distribution of HPV-16 E6 and E7 genetic variants in infected women from southwest Congo. The findings confirmed almost ascendancy of the African lineage in our study population.
Project description:Sero-epidemiological studies of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been undertaken over the last two decades. In this study, the prevalences of nine serum antibodies (anti-E6, E7 and L1 antibodies of HPV types 16, 18, and 58) were evaluated in normal (control) Korean women and women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I, CIN II, CIN III, and cervical cancer. The frequencies of all types of anti-HPV antibodies were higher in the CIN stages and cervical cancer than in normal women, and those of anti-HPV16 E6 and E7, anti-HPV18 E6 and E7, and anti-HPV58 E7 antibodies were higher in the cervical cancer group than in the CIN stages. The frequencies of antibodies against HPV16, 18, and 58 E7 tended to increase with increasing severity of cervical lesions. However, there were few differences in the frequencies of antibodies against the L1 antigens of HPV16, 18 and 58 in cervical cancer versus CIN stages. The anti-HPV antibodies were detected in 26.5% of normal, 46.3% of CIN I, 62.5% of CIN II, 51.6% of CIN III, and 75% of cancers when any of the nine antigens was used as a criterion. Correlations between HPV DNA positivity and seropositivity for anti-HPV E6, E7, or L1 antibodies were found only in HPV16 DNA-positive cervical cancers for anti-HPV16 E6 and L1 antibodies. In addition, strong positive correlations in seropositivity were found between anti-HPV16 E7 and anti-HPV58 E7 antibodies, and between anti-HPV18 E6 and anti-HPV58 E6 antibodies. These findings should advance global profiling of the seroprevalences of antibodies against HPV antigens.
Project description:A divergent human papillomavirus (HPV), isolated from a lung lesion of a patient with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, was fully cloned, sequenced, and genetically characterized. DNA analysis revealed that the HPV contained a 10.4-kb genome, with a duplication of 2,493 bp that includes partial L1-long control region (LCR)-E6-E7-partial E1 sequences.