Adipocyte-Derived Exosomal MiR-27a Induces Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle Through Repression of PPAR?.
ABSTRACT: The mechanism by which adipocyte-derived endocrine factors promote insulin resistance in skeletal muscle are not fully understood. MiR-27a is highly expressed in sera of obese individuals with prediabetes and T2DM, and mainly derived by adipose tissues. Thus, miR-27a secreted into circulation by adipose tissue may regulate insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Methods: The association between miR-27a and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle was determined in obese children, high-fat diet-induced miR-27a knockdown obese mice, db/db mice and C2C12 cells overexpressing miR-27a. The crosstalk mediated by exosomal miR-27a between adipose tissue and skeletal muscle was determined in C2C12 cells incubated with conditioned medium prepared from palmitate-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Results: We showed that serum miR-27a level correlated positively with obesity and insulin resistance in obese children, and that elevated serum miR-27a levels correlated with insulin resistance in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice, and with obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice. MiR-27a released from adipocytes of high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6J mice was associated with triglyceride accumulation. MiR-27a derived from these adipocytes induced insulin resistance in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells through miR-27a-mediated repression of PPAR? and its downstream genes involved in the development of obesity. Conclusions: These results identify a novel crosstalk signaling pathway between adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in the development of insulin resistance, and indicate that adipose tissue-derived miR-27a may play a key role in the development of obesity-triggered insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:High-fat diet (HFD) feeding in mice is characterized by accumulation of ?? T cells in adipose tissue. However, the contribution of ?? T cells to obesity-induced inflammation of skeletal muscle, a major organ of glucose uptake, is unknown. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of ?? T cells on insulin sensitivity and inflammatory state of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in obesity. Furthermore, we investigated whether CD4+IFN?+ (TH1) cells are involved in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction that accompanies obesity. METHODS:Mice lacking ?? T cells (T cell receptor beta chain-deficient [TCRb-/-] mice) were fed HFD for 12 weeks. Obesity-induced skeletal muscle and adipose tissue inflammation was assessed by flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR. To investigate the effect of TH1 cells on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic functions, we injected 5×10(5) TH1 cells or PBS weekly over 12 weeks into HFD-fed TCRb-/- mice. We also cultured C2C12 myofibers and 3T3-L1 adipocytes with TH1-conditioned medium. RESULTS:We showed that similar to adipose tissue, skeletal muscle of obese mice have higher ?? T cell content, including TH1 cells. TCRb-/- mice were protected against obesity-induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. We also demonstrated suppressed macrophage infiltration and reduced inflammatory cytokine expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of TCRb-/- mice on HFD compared to wild-type obese controls. Adoptive transfer of TH1 cells into HFD-fed TCRb-/- mice resulted in increased skeletal muscle and adipose tissue inflammation and impaired glucose metabolism. TH1 cells directly impaired functions of C2C12 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that reduced adipose tissue and skeletal muscle inflammation in obese TCRb-/- mice is partially attributable to the absence of TH1 cells. Our results suggest an important role of TH1 cells in regulating inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Skeletal muscle is mainly responsible for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Dysfunction in skeletal muscle metabolism especially during obesity contributes to the insulin resistance. Astaxanthin (AX), a natural antioxidant, has been shown to ameliorate hepatic insulin resistance in obese mice. However, its effects in skeletal muscle are poorly understood. The current study aimed to investigate the molecular target of AX in ameliorating skeletal muscle insulin resistance. METHODS:We fed 6-week-old male C57BL/6J mice with normal chow (NC) or NC supplemented with AX (NC+AX) and high-fat-diet (HFD) or HFD supplemented with AX for 24 weeks. We determined the effect of AX on various parameters including insulin sensitivity, glucose uptake, inflammation, kinase signaling, gene expression, and mitochondrial function in muscle. We also determined energy metabolism in intact C2C12 cells treated with AX using the Seahorse XFe96 Extracellular Flux Analyzer and assessed the effect of AX on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis. RESULTS:AX-treated HFD mice showed improved metabolic status with significant reduction in blood glucose, serum total triglycerides, and cholesterol (p< 0.05). AX-treated HFD mice also showed improved glucose metabolism by enhancing glucose incorporation into peripheral target tissues, such as the skeletal muscle, rather than by suppressing gluconeogenesis in the liver as shown by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study. AX activated AMPK in the skeletal muscle of the HFD mice and upregulated the expressions of transcriptional factors and coactivator, thereby inducing mitochondrial remodeling, including increased mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation component and free fatty acid metabolism. We also assessed the effects of AX on mitochondrial biogenesis in the siRNA-mediated AMPK-depleted C2C12 cells and showed that the effect of AX was lost in the genetically AMPK-depleted C2C12 cells. Collectively, AX treatment (i) significantly ameliorated insulin resistance and glucose intolerance through regulation of AMPK activation in the muscle, (ii) stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in the muscle, (iii) enhanced exercise tolerance and exercise-induced fatty acid metabolism, and (iv) exerted antiinflammatory effects via its antioxidant activity in adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS:We concluded that AX treatment stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis and significantly ameliorated insulin resistance through activation of AMPK pathway in the skeletal muscle.
Project description:Dissecting exercise-mimicking pathways that can replicate the benefits of exercise in obesity and diabetes may lead to promising treatments for metabolic disorders. Muscle estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERR?) is induced by exercise, and when over-expressed in the skeletal muscle mimics exercise by stimulating glycolytic-to-oxidative myofiber switch, mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis in lean mice. The objective of this study was to test whether muscle ERR? in obese mice mitigates weight gain and insulin resistance. To do so, ERR? was selectively over-expressed in the skeletal muscle of obese and diabetic db/db mice. Muscle ERR? over-expression successfully triggered glycolytic-to-oxidative myofiber switch, increased functional mitochondrial content and boosted vascular supply in the db/db mice. Despite aerobic remodeling, ERR? surprisingly failed to improve whole-body energy expenditure, block muscle accumulation of triglycerides, toxic diacylglycerols (DAG) and ceramides or suppress muscle PKC? sarcolemmal translocation in db/db mice. Consequently, muscle ERR? did not mitigate impaired muscle insulin signaling or insulin resistance in these mice. In conclusion, obesity and diabetes in db/db mice are not amenable to selective ERR?-directed programming of classic exercise-like effects in the skeletal muscle. Other biochemical pathways or integrated whole-body effects of exercise may be critical for resisting diabetes and obesity.
Project description:We previously demonstrated that low biosynthesis of ?-3 fatty acid-derived proresolution mediators, termed protectins, is associated with an impaired global resolution capacity, inflammation and insulin resistance in obese high-fat diet-fed mice. These findings prompted a more direct study of the therapeutic potential of protectins for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Herein we show that protectin DX (PDX) exerts an unanticipated glucoregulatory activity that is distinct from its anti-inflammatory actions. We found that PDX selectively stimulated the release of the prototypic myokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) from skeletal muscle and thereby initiated a myokine-liver signaling axis, which blunted hepatic glucose production via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-mediated transcriptional suppression of the gluconeogenic program. These effects of PDX were abrogated in Il6-null mice. PDX also activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); however, it did so in an IL-6-independent manner. Notably, we demonstrated that administration of PDX to obese diabetic db/db mice raises skeletal muscle IL-6 levels and substantially improves their insulin sensitivity without any impact on adipose tissue inflammation. Our findings thus support the development of PDX-based selective muscle IL-6 secretagogues as a new class of therapy for the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Skeletal muscle is the predominant site for glucose disposal and fatty acid consumption. Emerging evidence indicates that the crosstalk between adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is critical in maintaining insulin sensitivity and lipid homeostasis. The current study was designed to investigate whether myricanol improves insulin sensitivity and alleviates adiposity through modulating skeletal muscle-adipose tissue crosstalk. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:The therapeutic effect of myricanol was evaluated on palmitic acid (PA)-treated C2C12 myotubes and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The crosstalk between myotubes and adipocytes was evaluated using Transwell assay. The cellular lipid content was examined by Nile red staining. The mitochondrial content was assessed by MitoTracker Green staining and citrate synthase activity, and the mitochondrial function was examined by Seahorse assay. Expression of mitochondria-related and insulin signalling pathway proteins was analysed by Western blot, and the irisin level was determined by elisa kit. KEY RESULTS:Myricanol increased mitochondrial quantity and function through activating AMP-activated protein kinase, resulting in reduced lipid accumulation and enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, in PA-treated C2C12 myotubes. Furthermore, myricanol stimulated irisin production and secretion from myotubes to reduce lipid content in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In HFD-fed mice, myricanol treatment alleviated adiposity and insulin resistance through enhancing lipid utilization and irisin production in skeletal muscle and inducing browning of inguinal fat. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Myricanol modulates skeletal muscle-adipose tissue crosstalk, to stimulate browning of adipose tissue and improve insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle. Myricanol might be a potential candidate for treating insulin resistance and obesity.
Project description:microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate cellular processes by fine-tuning the levels of their target mRNAs. However, the regulatory elements determining cellular miRNA levels are not well studied. Previously, we had described an altered miRNA signature in the skeletal muscle of db/db mice. Here, we sought to explore the role of epigenetic mechanisms in altering these miRNAs. We show that histone deacetylase (HDAC) protein levels and activity are upregulated in the skeletal muscle of diabetic mice. In C2C12 cells, HDAC inhibition using suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) altered the levels of 24 miRNAs: 15 were downregulated and 9 were upregulated. miR-449a, an intronic miRNA localized within the Cdc20b gene, while being downregulated in the skeletal muscle of diabetic mice, was the most highly upregulated during HDAC inhibition. The host gene, Cdc20b, was also significantly upregulated during HDAC inhibition. Bioinformatics analyses identified a common promoter for both Cdc20b and miR-449a that harbors significant histone acetylation marks, suggesting the possibility of regulation by histone acetylation-deacetylation. These observations suggest an inverse correlation between miR-449a levels and HDAC activity, in both SAHA-treated skeletal muscle cells and db/db mice skeletal muscle. Further, in SAHA-treated C2C12 cells, we observed augmented occupancy of acetylated histones on the Cdc20b/miR-449a promoter, which possibly promotes their upregulation. In vivo injection of SAHA to db/db mice significantly restored skeletal muscle miR-449a levels. Our results provide insights into the potential regulatory role of epigenetic histone acetylation of the miR-449a promoter that may regulate its expression in the diabetic skeletal muscle.
Project description:Both thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are implicated in skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Icariin has been found to mimic insulin action in normal skeletal muscle C2C12 cells and display anti-diabetic properties in diet-induced obese mice. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be well-established. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that the protective effects of icariin on free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance were attributed to its regulation on TXNIP protein levels and ER stress in skeletal muscle cells. We found that TXNIP mediated the saturated fatty acid palmitate (PA)-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes. Icariin treatment significantly restored PA-reduced proteasome activity resulting in reduction of TXNIP protein and suppression of ER stress, as well as improvement of insulin sensitivity. Proteasome inhibition by its specific inhibitor MG132 obviously abolished the inhibitory effect of icariin on PA-induced insulin resistance. In addition, MG132 supplementation markedly abrogated the impacts of icariin on ER stress and TXNIP-mediated downstream events such as inflammation and STAT3 phosphorylation. These results clearly indicate that icariin improves PA-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance through a proteasome-dependent mechanism, by which icariin downregulats TXNIP levels and inhibits ER stress.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Considering the importance of mitochondrial dynamics in mitochondrial and cellular functions, we hypothesized that obesity and excess energy intake shift the balance of mitochondrial dynamics, further contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic deterioration in skeletal muscle. First, we revealed that excess palmitate (PA), but not hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, or elevated tumor necrosis factor alpha, induced mitochondrial fragmentation and increased mitochondrion-associated Drp1 and Fis1 in differentiated C2C12 muscle cells. This fragmentation was associated with increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial depolarization, loss of ATP production, and reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Drp1 attenuated PA-induced mitochondrial fragmentation, mitochondrial depolarization, and insulin resistance in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, we found smaller and shorter mitochondria and increased mitochondrial fission machinery in the skeletal muscle of mice with genetic obesity and those with diet-induced obesity. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission improved the muscle insulin signaling and systemic insulin sensitivity of obese mice. Our findings indicated that aberrant mitochondrial fission is causally associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Thus, disruption of mitochondrial dynamics may underlie the pathogenesis of muscle insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Project description:An increased number of macrophages in adipose tissue is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction in obese people. However, little is known about other immune cells in adipose tissue from obese people, and whether they contribute to insulin resistance. We investigated the characteristics of T cells in adipose tissue from metabolically abnormal insulin-resistant obese (MAO) subjects, metabolically normal insulin-sensitive obese (MNO) subjects, and lean subjects. Insulin sensitivity was determined by using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp procedure.We assessed plasma cytokine concentrations and subcutaneous adipose tissue CD4(+) T-cell populations in 9 lean, 12 MNO, and 13 MAO subjects. Skeletal muscle and liver samples were collected from 19 additional obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery to determine the presence of selected cytokine receptors.Adipose tissue from MAO subjects had 3- to 10-fold increases in numbers of CD4(+) T cells that produce interleukin (IL)-22 and IL-17 (a T-helper [Th] 17 and Th22 phenotype) compared with MNO and lean subjects. MAO subjects also had increased plasma concentrations of IL-22 and IL-6. Receptors for IL-17 and IL-22 were expressed in human liver and skeletal muscle samples. IL-17 and IL-22 inhibited uptake of glucose in skeletal muscle isolated from rats and reduced insulin sensitivity in cultured human hepatocytes.Adipose tissue from MAO individuals contains increased numbers of Th17 and Th22 cells, which produce cytokines that cause metabolic dysfunction in liver and muscle in vitro. Additional studies are needed to determine whether these alterations in adipose tissue T cells contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in obese people.
Project description:Insulin plays a major role in glucose metabolism and insulin-signaling defects are present in obesity and diabetes. CK2 is a pleiotropic protein kinase implicated in fundamental cellular pathways and abnormally elevated in tumors. Here we report that in human and murine adipocytes CK2-inhibition decreases the insulin-induced glucose-uptake by counteracting Akt-signaling and GLUT4-translocation to the plasma membrane. In mice CK2 acts on insulin-signaling in adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle and its acute inhibition impairs glucose tolerance. Notably, CK2 protein-level and activity are greatly up-regulated in white adipose tissue from ob/ob and db/db mice as well as from obese patients, regardless the severity of their insulin-resistance and the presence of pre-diabetes or overt type 2 diabetes. Weight loss obtained by both bariatric surgery or hypocaloric diet reverts CK2 hyper-activation to normal level. Our data suggest a central role of CK2 in insulin-sensitivity, glucose homeostasis and adipose tissue remodeling. CK2 up-regulation is identified as a hallmark of adipose tissue pathological expansion, suggesting a new potential therapeutic target for human obesity.