The PYHIN Protein p205 Regulates the Inflammasome by Controlling Asc Expression.
ABSTRACT: Members of the IFN-inducible PYHIN protein family, such as absent in melanoma-2 and IFN-?-inducible protein (IFI)16, bind dsDNA and form caspase-1-activating inflammasomes that are important in immunity to cytosolic bacteria, DNA viruses, or HIV. IFI16 has also been shown to regulate transcription of type I IFNs during HSV infection. The role of other members of the PYHIN protein family in the regulation of immune responses is much less clear. In this study, we identified an immune-regulatory function for a member of the murine PYHIN protein family, p205 (also called Ifi205). Examination of immune responses induced by dsDNA and other microbial ligands in bone marrow-derived macrophages lacking p205 revealed that inflammasome activation by dsDNA, as well as ligands that engage the NLRP3 inflammasome, was severely compromised in these cells. Further analysis revealed that p205-knockdown cells showed reduced expression of apoptosis-associated speck-like molecule containing CARD domain (Asc) at the protein and RNA levels. p205 knockdown resulted in reduced binding of actively transcribing RNA polymerase II to the endogenous Asc gene, resulting in decreased transcription and processing of Asc pre-mRNA. Deletion of p205 in B16 melanoma cells using CRISPR/Cas9 showed a similar loss of Asc expression. Ectopic expression of p205 induced expression of an Asc promoter-luciferase reporter gene. Together, these findings suggest that p205 controls expression of Asc mRNA to regulate inflammasome responses. These findings expand on our understanding of immune-regulatory roles for the PYHIN protein family.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Proteins of the mammalian PYHIN (IFI200/HIN-200) family are involved in defence against infection through recognition of foreign DNA. The family member absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) binds cytosolic DNA via its HIN domain and initiates inflammasome formation via its pyrin domain. AIM2 lies within a cluster of related genes, many of which are uncharacterised in mouse. To better understand the evolution, orthology and function of these genes, we have documented the range of PYHIN genes present in representative mammalian species, and undertaken phylogenetic and expression analyses. RESULTS: No PYHIN genes are evident in non-mammals or monotremes, with a single member found in each of three marsupial genomes. Placental mammals show variable family expansions, from one gene in cow to four in human and 14 in mouse. A single HIN domain appears to have evolved in the common ancestor of marsupials and placental mammals, and duplicated to give rise to three distinct forms (HIN-A, -B and -C) in the placental mammal ancestor. Phylogenetic analyses showed that AIM2 HIN-C and pyrin domains clearly diverge from the rest of the family, and it is the only PYHIN protein with orthology across many species. Interestingly, although AIM2 is important in defence against some bacteria and viruses in mice, AIM2 is a pseudogene in cow, sheep, llama, dolphin, dog and elephant. The other 13 mouse genes have arisen by duplication and rearrangement within the lineage, which has allowed some diversification in expression patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The role of AIM2 in forming the inflammasome is relatively well understood, but molecular interactions of other PYHIN proteins involved in defence against foreign DNA remain to be defined. The non-AIM2 PYHIN protein sequences are very distinct from AIM2, suggesting they vary in effector mechanism in response to foreign DNA, and may bind different DNA structures. The PYHIN family has highly varied gene composition between mammalian species due to lineage-specific duplication and loss, which probably indicates different adaptations for fighting infectious disease. Non-genomic DNA can indicate infection, or a mutagenic threat. We hypothesise that defence of the genome against endogenous retroelements has been an additional evolutionary driver for PYHIN proteins.
Project description:Recent genomic analysis of two bat species (Pteropus alecto and Myotis davidii) revealed the absence of the PYHIN gene family. This family is recognized as important immune sensors of intracellular self and foreign DNA and activators of the inflammasome and/or interferon pathways. Further assessment of a wider range of bat genomes was necessary to determine if this is a universal pattern for this large mammalian group. Here we expanded genomic analysis of this gene family to include ten bat species. We confirmed the complete loss of this gene family, with only a truncated AIM2 remaining in one species (Pteronotus parnellii). Divergence of the PYHIN gene loci between the bat lineages infers different loss-of-function histories during bat evolution. While all other major groups of placental mammals have at least one gene member, only bats have lost the entire family. This removal of inflammasome DNA sensors may indicate an important adaptation that is flight-induced and related, at least in part, to pathogen-host co-existence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:ALRs (AIM2-like Receptors) are germline encoded PRRs that belong to PYHIN gene family of cytokines, which are having signature N-terminal PYD (Pyrin, PAAD or DAPIN) domain and C-terminal HIN-200 (hematopoietic, interferon-inducible nuclear protein with 200 amino acid repeat) domain joined by a linker region. The positively charged HIN-200 domain senses and binds with negatively charged phosphate groups of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) purely through electrostatic attractions. On the other hand, PYD domain interacts homotypically with a PYD domain of other mediators to pass the signals to effector molecules downwards the pathways for inflammatory responses. There is remarkable inter-specific diversity in the numbers of functional PYHIN genes e.g. one in cow, five in human, thirteen in mice etc., while there is a unique loss of PYHIN genes in the bat genomes which was revealed by Ahn et al. (2016) by studying genomes of ten different bat species belonging to sub-orders yinpterochiroptera and yangochiroptera. The conflicts between host and pathogen interfaces are compared with "Red queen's arms race" which is also described as binding seeking dynamics and binding avoidance dynamics. As a result of this never-ending rivalry, eukaryotes developed PRRs as antiviral mechanism while viruses developed counter mechanisms to evade host immune defense. The PYHIN receptors are directly engaged with pathogenic molecules, so these should have evolved under the influence of selection pressures. In the current study, we investigated the nature of selection pressure on different domain types of IFI16-like (IFI16-L) PYHIN genes in ruminants. RESULTS:Three transcript variants of the IFI16-like gene were found in PBMCs of ruminant animals-water buffalo, zebu cattle, goat, and sheep. The IFI16-like gene has one N-terminal PYD domain and one C-terminal HIN-200 domain, separated by an inter-domain linker region. HIN domain and inter-domain region are positively selected while the PYD domain is under the influence of purifying selection. CONCLUSION:Herein, we conclude that the nature of selection pressure varies on different parts (PYD domain, HIN domain, and inter-domain linker region) of IFI16-like PYHIN genes in the ruminants. This data can be useful to predict the molecular determinants of pathogen interactions.
Project description:Members of the family of pyrin and HIN domain containing (PYHIN) proteins play an emerging role in innate immunity. While absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) acts a cytosolic sensor of non-self DNA and plays a key role in inflammasome assembly, the ?-interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) restricts retroviral gene expression by sequestering the transcription factor Sp1. Here, we show that the remaining two human PYHIN proteins, i.e. myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) and pyrin and HIN domain family member 1 (PYHIN1 or IFIX) share this antiretroviral function of IFI16. On average, knock-down of each of these three nuclear PYHIN proteins increased infectious HIV-1 yield from human macrophages by more than an order of magnitude. Similarly, knock-down of IFI16 strongly increased virus transcription and production in primary CD4+ T cells. The N-terminal pyrin domain (PYD) plus linker region containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) were generally required and sufficient for Sp1 sequestration and anti-HIV-1 activity of IFI16, MNDA and PYHIN1. Replacement of the linker region of AIM2 by the NLS-containing linker of IFI16 resulted in a predominantly nuclear localization and conferred direct antiviral activity to AIM2 while attenuating its ability to form inflammasomes. The reverse change caused nuclear-to-cytoplasmic relocalization of IFI16 and impaired its antiretroviral activity but did not result in inflammasome assembly. We further show that the Zn-finger domain of Sp1 is critical for the interaction with IFI16 supporting that pyrin domains compete with DNA for Sp1 binding. Finally, we found that human PYHIN proteins also inhibit Hepatitis B virus and simian vacuolating virus 40 as well as the LINE-1 retrotransposon. Altogether, our data show that IFI16, PYHIN1 and MNDA restrict HIV-1 and other viral pathogens by interfering with Sp1-dependent gene expression and support an important role of nuclear PYHIN proteins in innate antiviral immunity.
Project description:The innate immune system senses nucleic acids by germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors. RNA is sensed by Toll-like receptor members TLR3, TLR7 and TLR8, or by the RNA helicases RIG-I (also known as DDX58) and MDA-5 (IFIH1). Little is known about sensors for cytoplasmic DNA that trigger antiviral and/or inflammatory responses. The best characterized of these responses involves activation of the TANK-binding kinase (TBK1)-interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) signalling axis to trigger transcriptional induction of type I interferon genes. A second, less well-defined pathway leads to the activation of an 'inflammasome' that, via caspase-1, controls the catalytic cleavage of the pro-forms of the cytokines IL1beta and IL18 (refs 6, 7). Using mouse and human cells, here we identify the PYHIN (pyrin and HIN domain-containing protein) family member absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) as a receptor for cytosolic DNA, which regulates caspase-1. The HIN200 domain of AIM2 binds to DNA, whereas the pyrin domain (but not that of the other PYHIN family members) associates with the adaptor molecule ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain) to activate both NF-kappaB and caspase-1. Knockdown of Aim2 abrogates caspase-1 activation in response to cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA and the double-stranded DNA vaccinia virus. Collectively, these observations identify AIM2 as a new receptor for cytoplasmic DNA, which forms an inflammasome with the ligand and ASC to activate caspase-1.
Project description:Inflammasomes mediate inflammatory and cell death responses to pathogens and cellular stress signals via activation of procaspases-1 and -8. During inflammasome assembly, activated receptors of the NLR or PYHIN family recruit the adaptor protein ASC and initiate polymerization of its pyrin domain (PYD) into filaments. We show that ASC filaments in turn nucleate procaspase-8 death effector domain (DED) filaments in vitro and in vivo. Interaction between ASC PYD and procaspase-8 tandem DEDs optimally required both DEDs and represents an unusual heterotypic interaction between domains of the death fold superfamily. Analysis of ASC PYD mutants showed that interaction surfaces that mediate procaspase-8 interaction overlap with those required for ASC self-association and interaction with the PYDs of inflammasome initiators. Our data indicate that multiple types of death fold domain filaments form at inflammasomes and that PYD/DED and homotypic PYD interaction modes are similar. Interestingly, we observed condensation of procaspase-8 filaments containing the catalytic domain, suggesting that procaspase-8 interactions within and/or between filaments may be involved in caspase-8 activation. Procaspase-8 filaments may also be relevant to apoptosis induced by death receptors.
Project description:The human PYHIN proteins, AIM2, IFI16, IFIX, and MNDA, are critical regulators of immune response, transcription, apoptosis, and cell cycle. However, their protein interactions and underlying mechanisms remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we provide the interaction network for all PYHIN proteins and define a function in sensing of viral DNA for the previously uncharacterized IFIX protein. By designing a cell-based inducible system and integrating microscopy, immunoaffinity capture, quantitative mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics, we identify over 300 PYHIN interactions reflective of diverse functions, including DNA damage response, transcription regulation, intracellular signaling, and antiviral response. In view of the IFIX interaction with antiviral factors, including nuclear PML bodies, we further characterize IFIX and demonstrate its function in restricting herpesvirus replication. We discover that IFIX detects viral DNA in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, binding foreign DNA via its HIN domain in a sequence-non-specific manner. Furthermore, IFIX contributes to the induction of interferon response. Our results highlight the value of integrative proteomics in deducing protein function and establish IFIX as an antiviral DNA sensor important for mounting immune responses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:AIM2 binds dsDNA and associates with ASC through their PYDs to form an inflammasome. RESULTS:The AIM2 PYD structure illustrates distinct charge distribution and a unique hydrophobic patch. CONCLUSION:The AIM2 PYD may bind the ASC PYD and the AIM2 HIN domain through overlapping surface. SIGNIFICANCE:These findings provide insights into the mechanisms of AIM2 autoinhibition and inflammasome assembly. Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a cytosolic double-stranded (dsDNA) sensor essential for innate immune responses against DNA viruses and bacteria such as Francisella and Listeria. Upon dsDNA engagement, the AIM2 amino-terminal pyrin domain (PYD) is responsible for downstream signaling to the adapter protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) through homotypic PYD-PYD interactions and the assembly of an inflammasome. Toward a better understanding of the AIM2 signaling mechanism, we determined the crystal structure of the human AIM2 PYD. The structure reveals a death domain fold with a short α3 helix that is buttressed by a highly conserved lysine residue at the α2 helix, which may stabilize the α3 helix for potential interaction with partner domains. The surface of the AIM2 PYD exhibits distinct charge distribution with highly acidic α1-α2 helices and highly basic α5-α6 helices. A prominent solvent-exposed hydrophobic patch formed by residues Phe-27 and Phe-28 at the α2 helix resembles a similar surface involved in the death effector domain homotypic interactions. Docking studies suggest that the AIM2 PYD may bind the AIM2 hematopoietic interferon-inducible nuclear (HIN) domain or ASC PYD using overlapping surface near the α2 helix. This may ensure that AIM2 interacts with the downstream adapter ASC only upon release of the autoinhibition by the dsDNA ligand. Our work thus unveils novel structural features of the AIM2 PYD and provides insights into the potential mechanisms of the PYD-HIN and PYD-PYD interactions important for AIM2 autoinhibition and inflammasome assembly.
Project description:The interferon (IFN)-inducible p200-protein family includes structurally related murine (for example, p202a, p202b, p204, and Aim2) and human (for example, AIM2 and IFI16) proteins. All proteins in the family share a partially conserved repeat of 200-amino acid residues (also called HIN-200 domain) in the C-terminus. Additionally, most proteins (except the p202a and p202b proteins) also share a protein-protein interaction pyrin domain (PYD) in the N-terminus. The HIN-200 domain contains two consecutive oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide binding folds (OB-folds) to bind double stranded DNA (dsDNA). The PYD domain in proteins allows interactions with the family members and an adaptor protein ASC. Upon sensing cytosolic dsDNA, Aim2, p204, and AIM2 proteins recruit ASC protein to form an inflammasome, resulting in increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. However, IFI16 protein can sense cytosolic as well as nuclear dsDNA. Interestingly, the IFI16 protein contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Accordingly, the initial studies had indicated that the endogenous IFI16 protein is detected in the nucleus and within the nucleus in the nucleolus. However, several recent reports suggest that subcellular localization of IFI16 protein in nuclear versus cytoplasmic (or both) compartment depends on cell type. Given that the IFI16 protein can sense cytosolic as well as nuclear dsDNA and can initiate different innate immune responses (production of IFN-β versus proinflammatory cytokines), here we evaluate the experimental evidence for the regulation of subcellular localization of IFI16 protein in various cell types. We conclude that further studies are needed to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate the subcellular localization of IFI16 protein.
Project description:In the last decades, the human papillomavirus (HPV) emerged as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), especially in the oropharynx. The role of two intracellular DNA sensors, which belong to the PYHIN family (interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) and absent in melanoma 2 protein (AIM2)), has been analyzed in relation to HPV infection and head and neck carcinogenesis. In particular, IFI16 and AIM2 expression depends on HPV infection in HNSCC. They represent viral restriction factors and are key components of the intrinsic immunity activated against different viruses, including HPV. This review analyzed and summarized the recent findings about the role of PYHIN proteins in HPV+ and HPV- HNSCC.