Project description:Src kinase is elevated in breast tumors that are ER/PR negative and do not overexpress HER2, but clinical trials with Src inhibitors have shown little activity. The present study evaluated preclinical efficacy of a novel peptidomimetic compound, KX-01 (KX2-391), that exhibits dual action as an Src and pretubulin inhibitor. KX-01 was evaluated as a single-agent and in combination with paclitaxel in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-157, and MDA-MB-468 human ER/PR/HER2-negative breast cancer cells. Treatments were evaluated by growth/apoptosis, isobologram analysis, migration/invasion assays, tumor xenograft volume, metastasis, and measurement of Src, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), microtubules, Ki67, and microvessel density. KX-01 inhibited cell growth in vitro and in combination with paclitaxel resulted in synergistic growth inhibition. KX-01 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 tumor xenografts (1 and 5 mg/kg, twice daily). KX-01 inhibited activity of Src and downstream mediator FAK in tumors that was coincident with reduced proliferation and angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. KX01 also resulted in microtubule disruption in tumors. Combination of KX-01 with paclitaxel resulted in significant regression of MDA-MB-231 tumors and reduced metastasis to mouse lung and liver. KX-01 is a potently active Src/pretubulin inhibitor that inhibits breast tumor growth and metastasis. As ER/PR/HER2-negative patients are candidates for paclitaxel therapy, combination with KX-01 may potentiate antitumor efficacy in management of this aggressive breast cancer subtype.
Project description:KX-01 is a novel dual inhibitor of Src and tubulin. Unlike previous Src inhibitors that failed to show clinical benefit during treatment of breast cancer, KX-01 can potentially overcome the therapeutic limitations of current Src inhibitors through inhibition of both Src and tubulin. The present study further evaluates the activity and mechanism of KX-01 in vitro and in vivo.The antitumor effect of KX-01 in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines was determined by MTT assay. Wound healing and immunofluorescence assays were performed to evaluate the action mechanisms of KX-01. Changes in the cell cycle and molecular changes induced by KX-01 were also evaluated. A MDA-MB-231 mouse xenograft model was used to demonstrate the in vivo effects.KX-01 effectively inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell lines. The expression of phospho-Src and proliferative-signaling molecules were down-regulated in KX-01-sensitive TNBC cell lines. In addition, migration inhibition was observed by wound healing assay. KX-01-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and increased the aneuploid cell population in KX-01-sensitive cell lines. Multi-nucleated cells were significantly increased after KX-01 treatment. Furthermore, KX-01 effectively delayed tumor growth in a MDA-MB-231 mouse xenograft model.KX-01 effectively inhibited cell growth and migration of TNBC cells. Moreover, this study demonstrated that KX-01 showed antitumor effects through the inhibition of Src signaling and the induction of mitotic catastrophe. The antitumor effects of KX-01 were also demonstrated in vivo using a mouse xenograft model.
Project description:BACKGROUND:At least 50% of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR, which paved the way for clinical trials investigating its blockade. Outcomes remained dismal stemming from mechanisms of resistance particularly the nuclear cycling of EGFR, which is enhanced by Src activation. Attenuation of Src reversed nuclear translocation, restoring EGFR to the cell surface. Herein, we hypothesize that changes in cellular distribution of EGFR upon Src inhibition with dasatinib can be annotated through the EGFR immunopositron emission tomography (immunoPET) radiotracer, [89Zr]Zr-cetuximab. METHODS:Nuclear and non-nuclear EGFR levels of dasatinib-treated vs. untreated MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells were analyzed via immunoblots. Both treated and untreated cells were exposed to [89Zr]Zr-cetuximab to assess binding at 4?°C and 37?°C. EGFR-positive MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and a patient-derived xenograft were treated with dasatinib or vehicle followed by cetuximab PET imaging to compare EGFR levels. After imaging, the treated mice were separated into two groups: one cohort continued with dasatinib with the addition of cetuximab while the other cohort received dasatinib alone. Correlations between the radiotracer uptake vs. changes in tumor growth and EGFR expression from immunoblots were analyzed. RESULTS:Treated cells displayed higher binding of [89Zr]Zr-cetuximab to the cell membrane at 4?°C and with greater internalized activity at 37?°C vs. untreated cells. In all tumor models, higher accumulation of the radiotracer in dasatinib-treated groups was observed compared to untreated tumors. Treated tumors displayed significantly decreased pSrc (Y416) with retained total Src levels compared to control. In MDA-MB-468 and PDX tumors, the analysis of cetuximab PET vs. changes in tumor volume showed an inverse relationship where high tracer uptake in the tumor demonstrated minimal tumor volume progression. Furthermore, combined cetuximab and dasatinib treatment showed better tumor regression compared to control and dasatinib-only-treated groups. No benefit was achieved in MDA-MB-231 xenografts with the addition of cetuximab, likely due to its KRAS-mutated status. CONCLUSIONS:Cetuximab PET can monitor effects of dasatinib on EGFR cellular distribution and potentially inform treatment response in wild-type KRAS TNBC.
Project description:Proinflammatory signaling pathways are commonly up-regulated in breast cancer. In estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) have been described as independent predictors of disease outcome. We further explore these findings by investigating the impact of their coexpression on breast cancer survival. Elevated coexpression of NOS2/COX2 proteins is a strong predictor of poor survival among ER- patients (hazard ratio: 21). Furthermore, we found that the key products of NOS2 and COX2, NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), respectively, promote feed-forward NOS2/COX2 crosstalk in both MDA-MB-468 (basal-like) and MDA-MB-231 (mesenchymal-like) TNBC cell lines in which NO induced COX2 and PGE2 induced NOS2 proteins. COX2 induction by NO involved TRAF2 activation that occurred in a TNF?-dependent manner in MDA-MB-468 cells. In contrast, NO-mediated TRAF2 activation in the more aggressive MDA-MB-231 cells was TNF? independent but involved the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Inhibition of NOS2 and COX2 using amino-guanidine and aspirin/indomethacin yielded an additive reduction in the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumor xenografts. These findings support a role of NOS2/COX2 crosstalk during disease progression of aggressive cancer phenotypes and offer insight into therapeutic applications for better survival of patients with ER- and TNBC disease.
Project description:Nearly 40 000 women die annually from breast cancer in the United States. Clinically available targeted breast cancer therapy is largely ineffective in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), characterized by tumors that lack expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2). TNBC is associated with a poor prognosis. Previous reports show that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) partial agonist 2-(4-amino-3-methylphenyl)-5-fluorobenzothiazole (5F 203) selectively inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells, including those of the TNBC subtype. We previously demonstrated that 5F 203 induced the expression of putative tumor suppressor gene cytoglobin (CYGB) in breast cancer cells. In the current study, we determined that 5F 203 induces apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in MDA-MB-468 TNBC cells and in T47D ER+ PR + Her2 - breast cancer cells. We also show that caspases and CYGB promote 5F 203-mediated apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 cells. 5F 203 induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and cathepsin B release in MDA-MB-468 and T47D cells. In addition, silencing CYGB attenuated the ability of 5F 203 to induce caspase-3/-7 activation, proapoptotic gene expression, LMP, and cathepsin B release in MDA-MB-468 cells. Moreover, 5F 203 induced CYGB protein expression, proapoptotic protein expression, and caspase-3 cleavage in MDA-MB-468 cells and in MDA-MB-468 xenograft tumors grown orthotopically in athymic mice. These data provide a basis for the development of AhR ligands with the potential to restore CYGB expression as a novel strategy to treat TNBC.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive and heterogeneous subgroup of breast tumors clinically defined by the lack of estrogen, progesterone and HER2 receptors, limiting the use of the targeted therapies employed in other breast malignancies. Recent evidence indicates that c-MYC is a key driver of TNBC. The BET-bromodomain inhibitor OTX015 (MK-8628) has potent antiproliferative activity accompanied by c-MYC down-regulation in several tumor types, and has demonstrated synergism with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in different models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of OTX015 as single agent and in combination with everolimus in TNBC models. OTX015 was assayed in three human TNBC-derived cell lines, HCC1937, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, all showing antiproliferative activity after 72 h (GI50 = 75-650 nM). This was accompanied by cell cycle arrest and decreased expression of cancer stem cells markers. However, c-MYC protein and mRNA levels were only down-regulated in MDA-MB-468 cells. Gene set enrichment analysis showed up-regulation of genes involved in epigenetic control of transcription, chromatin and the cell cycle, and down-regulation of stemness-related genes. In vitro, combination with everolimus was additive in HCC1937 and MDA-MB-231 cells, but antagonistic in MDA-MB-468 cells. In MDA-MB-231 murine xenografts, tumor mass was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by OTX015 with respect to vehicle-treated animals (best T/C = 40.7%). Although everolimus alone was not active, the combination was more effective than OTX015 alone (best T/C = 20.7%). This work supports current clinical trials with OTX015 in TNBC (NCT02259114).
Project description:We tested the efficacy of lapatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor which interrupts the HER2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways, in a panel of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells, and examined the drug mechanism. Lapatinib showed an anti-proliferative effect in HCC 1937, MDA-MB-468, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Lapatinib induced significant apoptosis and inhibited CIP2A and p-Akt in a dose and time-dependent manner in the three TNBC cell lines. Overexpression of CIP2A reduced lapatinib-induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 cells. In addition, lapatinib increased PP2A activity (in relation to CIP2A inhibition). Moreover, lapatinib-induced apoptosis and p-Akt downregulation was attenuated by PP2A antagonist okadaic acid. Furthermore, lapatinib indirectly decreased CIP2A transcription by disturbing the binding of Elk1 to the CIP2A promoter. Importantly, lapatinib showed anti-tumor activity in mice bearing MDA-MB-468 xenograft tumors, and suppressed CIP2A as well as p-Akt in these xenografted tumors. In summary, inhibition of CIP2A determines the effects of lapatinib-induced apoptosis in TNBC cells. In addition to being a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of HER2 and EGFR, lapatinib also inhibits CIP2A/PP2A/p-Akt signaling in TNBC cells.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor clinical outcomes. YD277 is a novel small molecule derived from ML264, a KLF5 inhibitor that elicits cytotoxic effects in colon cancer cell lines. Our previous studies suggest that Krüpple-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a promising therapeutic target for TNBC. In this study, we demonstrated that YD277 significantly induced G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 TNBC cells, independent of KLF5 inhibition. YD277 also reduced the protein expression levels of Cyclin D1, Bcl2 and Bclxl and promoted the expression of p21 and p27. Moreover, the pro-apoptotic activity of YD277 in TNBC was mediated by the transcription of IRE1?, a key molecule in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. Finally, YD277 (15 mg/kg) significantly suppressed the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumor xenografts in nude mice. These findings indicate that YD277 is a promising chemotherapeutic candidate for TNBC.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: In general, genomic signatures of breast cancer subtypes have little or no overlap owing to the heterogeneous genetic backgrounds of study samples. Thus, obtaining a reliable signature in the context of isogenic nature of the cells has been challenging and the precise contribution of isogenic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) versus non-TNBC remains poorly defined. METHODS: We established isogenic stable cell lines representing TNBC and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 positive (HER2+) breast cancers by introducing HER2 in TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468. We examined protein level expression and functionality of the transfected receptor by treatment with an antagonist of HER2. Using microarray profiling, we obtained a comprehensive gene list of differentially expressed between TNBC and HER2+ clones. We identified and validated underlying isogenic components using qPCR and also compared results with expression data from patients with similar breast cancer subtypes. RESULTS: We identified 544 and 1087 statistically significant differentially expressed genes between isogenic TNBC and HER2+ samples in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 backgrounds respectively and a shared signature of 49 genes. By comparing results from MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 backgrounds with two patient microarray datasets, we identified 17 and 22 common genes with same expression trend respectively. Additionally, we identified 56 and 78 genes from MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 comparisons respectively present in our published RNA-seq data. CONCLUSIONS: Using our unique model system, we have identified an isogenic gene expression signature between TNBC and HER2+ breast cancer. A portion of our results was also verified in patient data samples, indicating an existence of isogenic element associated with HER2 status between genetically heterogeneous breast cancer samples. These findings may potentially contribute to the development of molecular platform that would be valuable for diagnostic and therapeutic decision for TNBC and in distinguishing it from HER2+ subtype.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 15% of overall breast cancer. A lack of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 receptor) makes TNBC more aggressive and metastatic. Wnt signaling is one of the important pathways in the cellular process; in TNBC it is aberrantly regulated, which leads to the progression and metastasis. In this study, we designed a therapeutic strategy using a combination of a low dose of paclitaxel and a Wnt signaling inhibitor (XAV939), and examined the effect of the paclitaxel-combined XAV939 treatment on diverse breast cancer lines including TNBC cell lines (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and BT549) and ER+ve cell lines (MCF-7 and T-47D). The combination treatment of paclitaxel (20 nM) and XAV939 (10 µM) exerted a comparable therapeutic effect on MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, BT549, MCF-7, and T-47D cell lines, relative to paclitaxel with a high dose (200 nM). The paclitaxel-combined XAV939 treatment induced apoptosis by suppressing Bcl-2 and by increasing the cleavage of caspases-3 and PARP. In addition, the in vivo results of the paclitaxel-combined XAV939 treatment in a mice model with the MDA-MB-231 xenograft further confirmed its therapeutic effect. Furthermore, the paclitaxel-combined XAV939 treatment reduced the expression of β-catenin, a key molecule in the Wnt pathway, which led to suppression of the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and angiogenic proteins both at mRNA and protein levels. The expression level of E-cadherin was raised, which potentially indicates the inhibition of EMT. Importantly, the breast tumor induced by pristane was significantly reduced by the paclitaxel-combined XAV939 treatment. Overall, the paclitaxel-combined XAV939 regimen was found to induce apoptosis and to inhibit Wnt signaling, resulting in the suppression of EMT and angiogenesis. For the first time, we report that our combination approach using a low dose of paclitaxel and XAV939 could be conducive to treating TNBC and an external carcinogen-induced breast cancer.