The neighborhood environment and obesity: Understanding variation by race/ethnicity.
ABSTRACT: Neighborhood characteristics have been associated with obesity, but less is known whether relationships vary by race/ethnicity. This study examined the relationship between soda consumption - a behavior strongly associated with obesity - and weight status with neighborhood sociodemographic, social, and built environments by race/ethnicity. We merged data on adults from the 2011-2013 California Health Interview Survey, U.S. Census data, and InfoUSA (n=62,396). Dependent variables were soda consumption and weight status outcomes (body mass index and obesity status). Main independent variables were measures of three neighborhood environments: social (social cohesion and safety), sociodemographic (neighborhood socioeconomic status, educational attainment, percent Asian, percent Hispanic, and percent black), and built environments (number of grocery stores, convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and gyms in neighborhood). We fit multi-level linear and logistic regression models, stratified by individual race/ethnicity (NH (non-Hispanic) Whites, NH African Americans, Hispanics, and NH Asians) controlling for individual-level characteristics, to estimate neighborhood contextual effects on study outcomes. Lower neighborhood educational attainment was associated with higher odds of obesity and soda consumption in all racial/ethnic groups. We found fewer associations between study outcomes and the neighborhood, especially the built environment, among NH African Americans and NH Asians. While improvements to neighborhood environment may be promising to reduce obesity, null associations among minority subgroups suggest that changes, particularly to the built environment, may alone be insufficient to address obesity in these groups.
Project description:The relationships between neighborhood factors (i.e., neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) and ethnic enclave) and histologic subtypes of lung cancer for racial/ethnic groups, particularly Hispanics and Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs), are poorly understood.We conducted a population-based study of 75,631 Californians diagnosed with lung cancer from 2008 through2012. We report incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for lung cancer histologic cell-types by nSES among racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic (NH) Whites, NH Blacks, Hispanics and AAPIs) and according to Hispanic or Asian neighborhood ethnic enclave status among Hispanics and AAPIs, respectively. In addition, we examined incidence jointly by nSES and ethnic enclave.Patterns of lung cancer incidence by nSES and ethnic enclave differed across race/ethnicity, sex, and histologic cell-type. For adenocarcinoma, Hispanic males and females, residing in both low nSES and high nSES neighborhoods that were low enclave, had higher incidence rates compared to those residing in low nSES, high enclave neighborhoods; males (IRR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.04-1.32] and IRR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.02-1.29], respectively) and females (IRR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.15-1.44] and IRR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.36-1.67], respectively). However, AAPI males residing in both low and high SES neighborhoods that were also low enclave had lower adenocarcinoma incidence.Neighborhood factors differentially influence the incidence of lung cancer histologic cell-types with heterogeneity in these associations by race/ethnicity and sex. For Hispanic males and females and AAPI males, neighborhood ethnic enclave status is strongly associated with lung adenocarcinoma incidence.
Project description:While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake.We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties.Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in the price of soda was associated with a decrease of 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week.Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity.
Project description:Using the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS-2; n = 1610), we explore the link between Mexican immigrant acculturation, diet, exercise and obesity. We distinguish Mexican immigrants and 2nd generation Mexicans from 3rd+ generation whites, blacks and Mexicans. First, we examine variation in social and linguistic measures by race/ethnicity, duration of residence and immigrant generation. Second, we consider the association between acculturation, diet and exercise. Third, we evaluate the degree to which acculturation, diet, exercise, and socioeconomic status explain the association between race/ethnicity, immigrant exposure to the US (duration since immigration/generation), and adult obesity. Among immigrants, we find a clear relationship between acculturation measures, exposure to the US, and obesity-related behaviors (diet and exercise). However, the acculturation measures do not clearly account for the link between adult obesity, immigrant duration and generation, and race/ethnicity.
Project description:Obesity is an increasingly prevalent condition among older adults, yet relatively little is known about how built environment variables may be associated with obesity in older age groups. This is particularly the case for more vulnerable older adults already showing functional limitations associated with subsequent disability.The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) trial dataset (n = 1600) was used to explore the associations between perceived built environment variables and baseline obesity levels. Age-stratified recursive partitioning methods were applied to identify distinct subgroups with varying obesity prevalence.Among participants aged 70-78 years, four distinct subgroups, defined by combinations of perceived environment and race-ethnicity variables, were identified. The subgroups with the lowest obesity prevalence (45.5-59.4%) consisted of participants who reported living in neighborhoods with higher residential density. Among participants aged 79-89 years, the subgroup (of three distinct subgroups identified) with the lowest obesity prevalence (19.4%) consisted of non-African American/Black participants who reported living in neighborhoods with friends or acquaintances similar in demographic characteristics to themselves. Overall support for the partitioned subgroupings was obtained using mixed model regression analysis.The results suggest that, in combination with race/ethnicity, features of the perceived neighborhood built and social environments differentiated distinct groups of vulnerable older adults from different age strata that differed in obesity prevalence. Pending further verification, the results may help to inform subsequent targeting of such subgroups for further investigation.Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier = NCT01072500.
Project description:Taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages have been proposed to combat obesity. Using data on state sales taxes for soda and individual-level data on children, we examine whether small taxes are likely to change consumption and weight gain or whether larger tax increases would be needed. We find that existing taxes on soda, which are typically not much higher than 4 percent in grocery stores, do not substantially affect overall levels of soda consumption or obesity rates. We do find, however, that subgroups of at-risk children--children who are already overweight, come from low-income families, or are African American--may be more sensitive than others to soda taxes, especially when soda is available at school. A greater impact of these small taxes could come from the dedication of the revenues they generate to other obesity prevention efforts rather than through their direct effect on consumption.
Project description:Racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of diagnosed hypertension are persistent but may be partially explained by racial/ethnic differences in weight category and neighborhood socioeconomic status. The authors compared hypertension prevalence rates among 4 060 585 adults with overweight or obesity across 10 healthcare systems by weight category and neighborhood education level in geographically and racially diverse individuals. Data were obtained from electronic health records. Hypertension was defined as at least two outpatient visits or one inpatient hospitalization with a coded diagnosis. Logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, and site, with two-way interactions between race/ethnicity and weight category or neighborhood education, was used to examine the association between hypertension and race/ethnicity, with whites as the reference. Results documented that odds ratios for hypertension prevalence were greater for blacks, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Asians, and Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders compared with whites and lower for Hispanics in similar weight categories and neighborhood education levels. Although two-way interactions were statistically significant, the magnitude of the odds of hypertension compared with whites did not substantially vary across weight or neighborhood education. Hypertension odds were almost double relative to whites for blacks and Native Hawaiians/other Pacific Islanders across most weight categories and all neighborhood education levels. Odds of hypertension were about 50% greater for Asians relative to whites across weight categories. Results suggest that other factors might be associated with racial/ethnic disparities in hypertension. More research is needed to understand the many factors that may contribute to variation in diagnosed hypertension across racial/ethnic groups with overweight or obesity.
Project description:We examined the effects of race/ethnicity and neighborhood, a proxy of socioeconomic status, on cancer incidence in New York City neighborhoods: East Harlem (EH), Central Harlem (CH), and Upper East Side (UES). In this ecological study, Community Health Survey data (2002-2006) and New York State Cancer Registry incidence data (2007-2011) were stratified by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood. Logistic regression models were fitted to each cancer incidence rate with race/ethnicity, neighborhood, and Community Health Survey-derived risk factors as predictor variables. Neighborhood was significantly associated with all cancers and 14 out of 25 major cancers. EH and CH residence conferred a higher risk of all cancers compared with UES (OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.07-1.68; and OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.12-1.72, respectively). The prevalence of diabetes and tobacco smoking were the largest contributors toward high cancer rates. Despite juxtaposition and similar proximity to medical centers, cancer incidence disparities persist among EH, CH, and UES neighborhoods. Targeted, neighborhood-specific outreach may aid in reducing cancer incidence rates.
Project description:The neighborhoods in which children live, play, and eat provide an environmental context that may influence obesity risk and ameliorate or exacerbate health disparities. The current study examines whether neighborhood characteristics predict obesity in a prospective cohort of girls.Participants were 174 girls (aged 8-10 years at baseline), a subset from the Cohort Study of Young Girls' Nutrition, Environment, and Transitions. Trained observers completed street audits within a 0.25-mile radius around each girl's residence. Four scales (food and service retail, recreation, walkability, and physical disorder) were created from 40 observed neighborhood features. BMI was calculated from clinically measured height and weight. Obesity was defined as BMI-for-age ? 95%. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to examine neighborhood influences on obesity risk over 4 years of follow-up, controlling for race/ethnicity, pubertal status, and baseline BMI. Fully adjusted models also controlled for household income, parent education, and a census tract measure of neighborhood socioeconomic status.A 1-SD increase on the food and service retail scale was associated with a 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.42 to 3.61; P < .001) increased odds of being obese. A 1-SD increase in physical disorder was associated with a 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 4.44; P = .005) increased odds of being obese. Other neighborhood scales were not associated with risk for obesity.Neighborhood food and retail environment and physical disorder around a girl's home predict risk for obesity across the transition from late childhood to adolescence.
Project description:Sodas are widely sold in vending machines and other school venues in the United States, particularly in high school. Research suggests that policy changes have reduced soda access, but the impact of reduced access on consumption is unclear. This study was designed to identify student, environmental, or policy characteristics that modify the associations between school vending machines and student dietary behaviors.Data on school vending machine access and student diet were obtained as part of the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS) and linked to state-level data on soda taxes, restaurant taxes, and state laws governing the sale of soda in schools. Regression models were used to: 1) estimate associations between vending machine access and soda consumption, fast food consumption, and lunch source, and 2) determine if associations were modified by state soda taxes, restaurant taxes, laws banning in-school soda sales, or student characteristics (race/ethnicity, sex, home food access, weight loss behaviors.).Contrary to the hypothesis, students tended to consume 0.53 fewer servings of soda/week (95% CI: -1.17, 0.11) and consume fast food on 0.24 fewer days/week (95% CI: -0.44, -0.05) if they had in-school access to vending machines. They were also less likely to consume soda daily (23.9% vs. 27.9%, average difference? =? -4.02, 95% CI: -7.28, -0.76). However, these inverse associations were observed primarily among states with lower soda and restaurant tax rates (relative to general food tax rates) and states that did not ban in-school soda sales. Associations did not vary by any student characteristics except for weight loss behaviors.Isolated changes to the school food environment may have unintended consequences unless policymakers incorporate other initiatives designed to discourage overall soda consumption.