Evaluation of an individualized dose titration regimen of patiromer to prevent hyperkalaemia in patients with heart failure and chronic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT: AIMS:Hyperkalaemia risk precludes optimal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor use in patients with heart failure (HF), particularly those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Patiromer is a sodium-free, non-absorbed potassium (K+ )-binding polymer approved for the treatment of hyperkalaemia. In PEARL-HF, patiromer 25.2 g (fixed dose) prevented hyperkalaemia in HF patients with or without CKD initiating spironolactone. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a lower starting dose of patiromer (16.4 g/day) followed by individualized titration in preventing hyperkalaemia and hypokalaemia when initiating spironolactone. METHODS AND RESULTS:This open-label 8-week study enrolled 63 patients with CKD, serum K+ 4.3-5.1 mEq/L, and chronic HF, who, based on investigator opinion, should receive spironolactone. Eligible patients started spironolactone 25 mg/day and patiromer 16.8 g/day (divided into two doses), with patiromer titrated to maintain serum K+ 4.0-5.1 mEq/L. Mean (standard deviation) serum K+ was 4.78 (0.51) mEq/L at baseline; weekly values were 4.48-4.70 mEq/L during treatment. Serum K+ of 3.5-5.5 mEq/L at the end of study treatment (primary endpoint) was achieved by 57 (90.5%) patients; 53 (84.1%) had serum K+ 4.0-5.1 mEq/L. One patient (1.6%) developed hypokalaemia, and two patients (3.2%) developed hypomagnesaemia. Spironolactone was increased to 50 mg/day in all patients; 43 (68%) patients required one or more patiromer dose titration. Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 36 (57.1%) patients, with a low rate of discontinuations [four (6.3%) patients]. The most common AE was mild to moderate abdominal discomfort [four (6.3%) patients]. CONCLUSIONS:In this open-label study, patiromer 16.8 g/day followed by individualized titration maintained serum K+ within the target range in the majority of patients with HF and CKD, all of whom were uptitrated to spironolactone 50 mg/day, patiromer was well tolerated, with a low incidence of hyperkalaemia, hypokalaemia, and hypomagnesaemia.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>We evaluated the effects of patiromer, a potassium (K(+))-binding polymer, in a pre-specified analysis of hyperkalaemic patients with heart failure (HF) in the OPAL-HK trial.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) with serum K(+) levels ?5.1 mEq/L to <6.5 mEq/L (n = 243) received patiromer (4.2 g or 8.4 g BID initially) for 4 weeks (initial treatment phase); the primary efficacy endpoint was mean change in serum K(+) from baseline to week 4. Eligible patients (those with baseline K(+) ?5.5 mEq/L to <6.5 mEq/L and levels ?3.8 mEq/L to <5.1 mEq/L at the end of week 4) entered an 8-week randomized withdrawal phase and were randomly assigned to continue patiromer or switch to placebo; the primary efficacy endpoint was the between-group difference in median change in the serum K(+) over the first 4 weeks of that phase. One hundred and two patients (42%) had heart failure (HF). The mean [± standard error (SE)] change in serum K(+) from baseline to week 4 was -1.06 ± 0.05 mEq/L [95% confidence interval (CI), -1.16,-0.95; P < 0.001]; 76% (95% CI, 69,84) achieved serum K(+), 3.8 mEq/L to <5.1 mEq/L. In the randomized withdrawal phase, the median increase in serum K(+) from baseline of that phase was greater with placebo (n = 22) than patiromer (n = 27) (P < 0.001); recurrent hyperkalaemia (serum K(+), ?5.5 mEq/L) occurred in 52% on placebo and 8% on patiromer (P < 0.001). Mild-to-moderate constipation was the most common adverse event (11%); hypokalaemia occurred in 3%.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In patients with CKD and HF who were hyperkalaemic on RAASi, patiromer was well tolerated, decreased serum K(+), and, compared with placebo, reduced recurrent hyperkalaemia.
Project description:To evaluate efficacy and safety of RLY5016 (a non-absorbed, orally administered, potassium [K+]-binding polymer) on serum K+ levels in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) receiving standard therapy and spironolactone.One hundred and five patients with HF and a history of hyperkalaemia resulting in discontinuation of a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor/blocker and/or beta-adrenergic blocking agent or chronic kidney disease (CKD) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min were randomized to double-blind treatment with 30 g/day RLY5016 or placebo for 4 weeks. Spironolactone, initiated at 25 mg/day, was increased to 50 mg/day on Day 15 if K+ was ?5.1 mEq/L. Endpoints included the change from baseline in serum K+ at the end of treatment (primary); the proportion of patients with hyperkalaemia (K+ >5.5 mEq/L); and the proportion titrated to spironolactone 50 mg/day. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) and clinical laboratory tests. RLY5016 (n= 55) and placebo (n= 49) patients had similar baseline characteristics. At the end of treatment, compared with placebo, RLY5016 had significantly lowered serum K+ levels with a difference between groups of -0.45 mEq/L (P < 0.001); a lower incidence of hyperkalaemia (7.3% RLY5016 vs. 24.5% placebo, P= 0.015); and a higher proportion of patients on spironolactone 50 mg/day (91% RLY5016 vs. 74% placebo, P= 0.019). In patients with CKD (n= 66), the difference in K+ between groups was -0.52 mEq/L (P= 0.031), and the incidence of hyperkalaemia was 6.7% RLY5016 vs. 38.5% placebo (P= 0.041). Adverse events were mainly gastrointestinal, and mild or moderate in severity. Adverse events resulting in study withdrawal were similar (7% RLY5016, 6% placebo). There were no drug-related serious AEs. Hypokalaemia (K+ <3.5 mEq/L) occurred in 6% of RLY5016 patients vs. 0% of placebo patients (P= 0.094).RLY5016 prevented hyperkalaemia and was relatively well tolerated in patients with HF receiving standard therapy and spironolactone (25-50 mg/day).
Project description:AIMS:The AMBER trial demonstrated that concomitant use of patiromer enabled the more persistent use of spironolactone by reducing the risk of hyperkalaemia in patients with resistant hypertension and advanced chronic kidney disease. We report herein the pre-specified subgroup analysis in patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS:Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either placebo or patiromer (8.4 g once daily), in addition to open-label spironolactone (starting at 25?mg once daily) and their baseline blood pressure medications. Dose titrations were permitted after 1 week for patiromer/placebo and after 3?weeks for spironolactone. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference at week 12 in the proportion of patients on spironolactone. Efficacy endpoints and safety were assessed in all randomized patients (intention to treat). A total of 295 patients were enrolled, of whom 132 (45%) had HF. In the HF subgroup, 68.1% of patients receiving placebo remained on spironolactone at week 12, compared with 84.1% of patients receiving patiromer (P =?0.0504). The reason for discontinuation from spironolactone use was hyperkalaemia in the majority of both groups. There was no significant interaction between the subgroups with HF and without HF (P =?0.8085) for the primary endpoint. CONCLUSIONS:Consistent with the overall AMBER trial results, this pre-specified subgroup analysis in patients with HF, resistant hypertension and advanced chronic kidney disease demonstrated that patiromer enabled more persistent use of spironolactone by reducing the risk of hyperkalaemia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in resistant hypertension (RHTN), prior studies -evaluating mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists excluded patients with reduced kidney function due to risk of hyperkalemia. AMBER (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03071263) will evaluate if the potassium-binding polymer patiromer used concomitantly with spironolactone in patients with RHTN and CKD prevents hyperkalemia and allows more persistent spironolactone use for hypertension management. METHODS:Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group 12-week study of patiromer and spironolactone versus placebo and spironolactone in patients with uncontrolled RHTN and CKD. RHTN is defined as unattended systolic automated office blood pressure (AOBP) of -135-160 mm Hg during screening despite taking ?3 antihypertensives, including a diuretic, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker -(unless not tolerated or contraindicated). The CKD inclusion criterion is an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 25 to ?45 mL/min/1.73 m2. Screening serum potassium must be 4.3-5.1 mEq/L. The primary efficacy endpoint is the between-group difference (spironolactone plus patiromer versus spironolactone plus placebo) in the proportion of patients remaining on spironolactone at Week 12. RESULTS:Baseline characteristics have been analyzed as of March 2018 for 146 (of a targeted 290) patients. Mean (SD) baseline age is 69.3 (10.9) years; 52.1% are male, 99.3% White, and 47.3% have diabetes. Mean (SD) baseline serum potassium is 4.68 (0.25) mEq/L, systolic AOBP is 144.3 (6.8) mm Hg, eGFR is 35.7 (7.7) mL/min/1.73 m2. CONCLUSION:AMBER will define the ability of patiromer to facilitate the use of spironolactone, an effective antihypertensive therapy for patients with RHTN and CKD.
Project description:AIMS:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in heart failure (HF) increases the risk of hyperkalaemia (HK), limiting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) use. Patiromer is a sodium-free, non-absorbed potassium binder approved for HK treatment. We retrospectively evaluated patiromer's long-term safety and efficacy in HF patients from AMETHYST-DN. METHODS AND RESULTS:Patients with Type 2 diabetes, CKD, and HK [baseline serum potassium >5.0-5.5 mmol/L (mild) or >5.5-<6.0 mmol/L (moderate)], with or without HF (New York Heart Association Class I and II, by investigator judgement), on ACE-I/ARB, were randomized to patiromer 8.4-33.6 g to start, divided twice daily. Overall, 105/304 (35%) patients had HF (75%, Class II). Mean (standard deviation) ejection fraction (EF) was 44.9% (8.2) (n = 81) in patients with HF; 26 had EF ≤40%. In HF patients, mean serum potassium decreased by Day 3 through Week 52. At Week 4, estimated mean (95% confidence interval) change in serum potassium was -0.64 mmol/L (-0.72, -0.55) in mild and -0.97 mmol/L (-1.14, -0.80) in moderate HK (both P < 0.0001). Most HF patients with mild (>88%) and moderate (≥73%) HK had normokalaemia at each visit from Weeks 12 to 52. Three HF patients were withdrawn because of high (n = 1) or low (n = 2) serum potassium. The most common patiromer-related adverse event was hypomagnesaemia (8.6%). CONCLUSIONS:In patients with a clinical diagnosis of HF, diabetes, CKD, and HK on ACE-I/ARB, patiromer was well tolerated and effective for HK treatment over 52 weeks.
Project description:Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high risk of hyperkalemia, which increases mortality and can lead to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor (RAASi) dose reduction or discontinuation. Patiromer, a nonabsorbed potassium binder, has been shown to normalize serum potassium in patients with CKD and hyperkalemia on RAASi. Here, patiromer's onset of action was determined in patients with CKD and hyperkalemia taking at least one RAASi. After a 3-day potassium- and sodium-restricted diet in an inpatient research unit, those with sustained hyperkalemia (serum potassium 5.5 - under 6.5?mEq/l) received patiromer 8.4?g/dose with morning and evening meals for a total of four doses. Serum potassium was assessed at baseline (0?h), 4?h postdose, then every 2-4?h to 48?h, at 58?h, and during outpatient follow-up. Mean baseline serum potassium was 5.93?mEq/l and was significantly reduced by 7?h after the first dose and at all subsequent times through 48?h. Significantly, mean serum potassium under 5.5?mEq/l was achieved within 20?h. At 48?h (14?h after last dose), there was a significant mean reduction of 0.75?mEq/l. Serum potassium did not increase before the next dose or for 24?h after the last dose. Patiromer was well tolerated, without serious adverse events and no withdrawals. The most common gastrointestinal adverse event was mild constipation in two patients. No hypokalemia (serum potassium under 3.5?mEq/l) was observed. Thus, patiromer induced an early and sustained reduction in serum potassium and was well tolerated in patients with CKD and sustained hyperkalemia on RAASis.
Project description:Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) improve outcomes in patients with heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF), but their use is limited by hyperkalaemia and/or worsening renal function (WRF). BAY 94-8862 is a highly selective and strongly potent non-steroidal MRA. We investigated its safety and tolerability in patients with HFrEF associated with mild or moderate chronic kidney disease (CKD).This randomized, controlled, phase II trial consisted of two parts. In part A, the safety and tolerability of oral BAY 94-8862 [2.5, 5, or 10 mg once daily (q.d.)] was assessed in 65 patients with HFrEF and mild CKD. In part B, BAY 94-8862 (2.5, 5, or 10 mg q.d., or 5 mg twice daily) was compared with placebo and open-label spironolactone (25 or 50 mg/day) in 392 patients with HFrEF and moderate CKD. BAY 94-8862 was associated with significantly smaller mean increases in serum potassium concentration than spironolactone (0.04-0.30 and 0.45 mmol/L, respectively, P < 0.0001-0.0107) and lower incidences of hyperkalaemia (5.3 and 12.7%, respectively, P = 0.048) and WRF. BAY 94-8862 decreased the levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), amino-terminal proBNP, and albuminuria at least as much as spironolactone. Adverse events related to BAY 94-8862 were infrequent and mostly mild.In patients with HFrEF and moderate CKD, BAY 94-8862 5-10 mg/day was at least as effective as spironolactone 25 or 50 mg/day in decreasing biomarkers of haemodynamic stress, but it was associated with lower incidences of hyperkalaemia and WRF.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the normal range of serum potassium, the prevalence of dyskalaemia and the associated factors in Chinese older adults. DESIGN:A cross-sectional study conducted from September 2017 to March 2018. SETTING:Forty-eight community elderly care facilities in four regions in northern China. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 1266 (308 apparently healthy and 958 unhealthy) participants 55 years or older and with fasting serum potassium measured. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES AND METHODS:Serum potassium <3.5?mEq/L and >5.5?mEq/L (guidelines definition) and <2.5th and >97.5th percentiles of the distribution among healthy participants (our study definition) were both used to define hypokalaemia and hyperkalaemia, respectively. Multivariable generalised estimating equation models were used to adjust for clustering effect in the analyses of factors associated with risk of dyskalaemia and with variations in serum potassium. RESULTS:The study participants had a mean age of 70 (8.8) years. Among apparently healthy participants, the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of serum potassium distribution were 3.7 mEq/L and 5.3 mEq/L, respectively. Using the study definition, the prevalence of hyperkalaemia was 4.3% (95% CI 3.2% to 5.4%) and of hypokalaemia was 4.0% (95% CI 2.9% to 5.1%). Multivariable analyses showed that risk of hyperkalaemia was associated with unhealthy conditions (OR=2.21; 95%?CI 1.17 to 4.18); risk of hypokalaemia was associated with unhealthy conditions (OR=2.56; 95% CI 1.05 to 6.23), older age (OR=1.70 per 10-year increase; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.79) and region (OR=16.87; 95% CI 6.41 to 44.38); and higher serum potassium was associated with male gender (mean difference (MD)=0.12; 95%?CI 0.05 to 0.19) and estimated glomerular filtration rate <60?mL/min/1.73?m2 (MD=0.29; 95% CI 0.12 to 0.46). Using the guidelines definition, hyperkalaemia accounted for 2.7% (1.8%, 3.6%) and hypokalaemia 1.8% (1.1%, 2.5%). Analyses of the associated factors showed similar trends. CONCLUSIONS:The study suggested a narrower normal range of serum potassium for defining dyskalaemia, which was common in older Chinese and more prevalent in unhealthy ones. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03290716; Pre-results.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Certain patients with heart failure (HF) are unable to tolerate spironolactone therapy due to hyperkalemia. Patiromer is a novel agent used to treat hyperkalemia and has been shown to be efficacious, safe, and well-tolerated. The potential clinical outcomes and economic value of using patiromer and spironolactone in patients with HF unable to otherwise tolerate spironolactone due to hyperkalemia are unclear. The objective of this analysis was to model the potential pharmacoeconomic value of using patiromer and spironolactone in patients with a history of hyperkalemia that prevents them from utilizing spironolactone. METHODS:We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment with patiromer, spironolactone, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III-IV HF compared with ACEI alone. A Markov model was constructed to simulate a cohort of 65-year-old patients diagnosed with HF from the payer perspective across the lifetime horizon. Clinical inputs were derived from the RALES and OPAL-HK randomized trials of spironolactone and patiromer, respectively. Utility estimates and costs were derived from the literature and list prices. Outcomes assessed included hospitalization, life expectancy, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). One-way and probability sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the model findings. RESULTS:Treatment with patiromer-spironolactone-ACEI was projected to increase longevity compared with ACEI alone (5.29 vs. 4.62 life-years gained, respectively), greater QALYs (2.79 vs. 2.60), and costs (US$28,200 vs. US$18,200), giving an ICER of US$52,700 per QALY gained. The ICERs ranged from US$40,000 to US$85,800 per QALY gained in 1-way sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that the use of spironolactone-patiromer-ACEI may provide clinical benefit and good economic value in patients with NYHA class III-IV HF unable to tolerate spironolactone due to hyperkalemia.
Project description:Background:Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a growing epidemic. The cornerstone of pharmacological therapy in CHF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is the inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). One of the adverse effects of RAAS blockade is the development of hyperkalaemia, which often limits the optimization of recommended, Class I treatments. In this context, potassium binders patiromer or sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (ZS-9) provide an opportunity to optimize the pharmacological management of these patients. Case summary:We present a case report illustrating our real-life experience using the potassium-binder patiromer in a patient with HFrEF, in whom recurrent hyperkalaemia (up to 6.3?mmol/L with low doses of enalapril) was preventing titration of RAAS inhibition therapies. Use of patiromer allowed re-introducing ramipril (subsequently switched to sacubitril/valsartan) and eplerenone. Serum potassium levels remained normal with patiromer 16.8?g/24 h, and the patient's tolerance to patiromer was excellent. Discussion:In patients with HFrEF and recurrent hyperkalaemia, optimal RAAS inhibition is often discontinued. In this context, novel potassium binders such as patiromer or ZS-9 have been shown to be effective in lowering potassium and maintaining normokalaemia, with a good safety profile and patient tolerance, all of which make them promising alternative options. Our preliminary experience suggests that patiromer may be a helpful and well-tolerated treatment option, which may aid in achieving optimal RAAS inhibition in HFrEF patients with recurrent hyperkalaemia. Registries of HFrEF patients will help better understand whether therapies such as patiromer have prognostic benefits through facilitating optimal RAAS blockade.