Skeletal muscle relaxant effect of a standardized extract of Valeriana officinalis L. after acute administration in mice.
ABSTRACT: Valeriana officinalis L. root extracts are traditionally taken for their sedative and anxiolytic properties and are also used for muscle relaxation. Relaxant effects were clearly observed on smooth muscle whereas data on effects on skeletal muscle are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess whether a standardized extract (SE) of V. officinalis had myorelaxant effects by decreasing skeletal muscle strength and/or neuromuscular tone in mice. Mice received an acute dose of V. officinalis SE (2 or 5 g/kg per os) or tetrazepam (10 mg/kg ip), a standard myorelaxant drug. Thirty minutes later, the maximal muscle strength was measured using a grip test, while global skeletal muscle function (endurance and neuromuscular tone) was assessed in a wire hanging test. Compared to tetrazepam, both doses of V. officinalis SE induced a pronounced decrease in skeletal muscle strength without any significant effects on endurance and neuromuscular tone. This study provides clear evidence that the extract of V. officinalis tested has a relaxant effect on skeletal muscle. By decreasing skeletal muscle strength without impacting endurance and neuromuscular tone, V. officinalis SE could induce less undesirable side effects than standard myorelaxant agents, and be particularly useful for avoiding falls in the elderly.
Project description:Mammalian skeletal muscle contains heterogenous myofibers with different contractile and metabolic properties that sustain muscle mass and endurance capacity. The transcriptional regulators that govern these myofiber gene programs have been elucidated. However, the hormonal cues that direct the specification of myofiber types and muscle endurance remain largely unknown. Here we uncover the secreted factor Tsukushi (TSK) as an extracellular signal that is required for maintaining muscle mass, strength, and endurance capacity, and contributes to muscle regeneration. Mice lacking TSK exhibited reduced grip strength and impaired exercise capacity. Muscle transcriptomic analysis revealed that TSK deficiency results in a remarkably selective impairment in the expression of myofibrillar genes characteristic of slow-twitch muscle fibers that is associated with abnormal neuromuscular junction formation. AAV-mediated overexpression of TSK failed to rescue these myofiber defects in adult mice, suggesting that the effects of TSK on myofibers are likely restricted to certain developmental stages. Finally, mice lacking TSK exhibited diminished muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury. These findings support a crucial role of TSK as a hormonal cue in the regulation of contractile gene expression, endurance capacity, and muscle regeneration. Overall design: RNA-seq on WT vs TSK KO mouse quadriceps
Project description:Neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants have been identified in chordates and protostomian invertebrates but little is known about the molecular identity of neuropeptides that act as muscle relaxants in deuterostomian invertebrates (e.g. echinoderms) that are 'evolutionary intermediates' of chordates and protostomes. Here, we have used the apical muscle of the starfish Patiria pectinifera to assay for myorelaxants in extracts of this species. A hexadecapeptide with the amino acid sequence Phe-Gly-Lys-Gly-Gly-Ala-Tyr-Asp-Pro-Leu-Ser-Ala-Gly-Phe-Thr-Asp was identified and designated starfish myorelaxant peptide (SMP). Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA encoding the SMP precursor protein revealed that it comprises 12 copies of SMP as well as 3 peptides (7 copies in total) that are structurally related to SMP. Analysis of the expression of SMP precursor transcripts in P. pectinifera using qPCR revealed the highest expression in the radial nerve cords and lower expression levels in a range of neuromuscular tissues, including the apical muscle, tube feet and cardiac stomach. Consistent with these findings, SMP also caused relaxation of tube foot and cardiac stomach preparations. Furthermore, SMP caused relaxation of apical muscle preparations from another starfish species - Asterias amurensis. Collectively, these data indicate that SMP has a general physiological role as a muscle relaxant in starfish. Interestingly, comparison of the sequence of the SMP precursor with known neuropeptide precursors revealed that SMP belongs to a bilaterian family of neuropeptides that include molluscan pedal peptides (PP) and arthropodan orcokinins (OK). This is the first study to determine the function of a PP/OK-type peptide in a deuterostome. Pedal peptide/orcokinin (PP/OK)-type peptides are a family of structurally related neuropeptides that were first identified and functionally characterised in protostomian invertebrates. Here, we report the discovery of starfish myorelaxant peptide (SMP), a novel member of the PP/OK-type neuropeptide identified in the starfish Patiria pectinifera (phylum Echinodermata). SMP is the first PP/OK-type neuropeptide to be functionally characterised in a deuterostome.
Project description:Skeletal muscle fatigue has been shown to be associated with hyperphosphorylation of the ryanodine receptor 1 at serine 2843 (pRyR1Ser2843), due to chronic overloading exercise. We investigated whether pRyR1Ser2843, is a mechanism relevant for muscle fatigue also under acute, in contrast to chronic, muscle loading. 24 male subjects (age: 24,8±3,8; height: 182,8±7,2 cm; weight: 82,5±9,9 kg) were evenly (n = 6) assigned to the following four different resistance exercise (RE) groups: hypertrophy- (HYP), strength endurance- (SE), maximum power- (MAX) at the subjects' 10, 25 and 3 repetition maximum, respectively, and low intensity (LI) RE with 70% of the 10 repetition maximum. Each group completed three different RE volumes (1 set, 5, and 10 sets). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis were taken before and after exercise, analyzed for pRyR1Ser2843 and examined for association with RE-induced muscle fatigue which was determined as reduction in maximum isometric force (isoFmax) in the quadriceps femoris muscle also before and after exercise.The degree of RE-induced muscle fatigue was specific in terms of set volume as well as of RE mode. isoFmax was not reduced in any group after one set of RE. Five sets led to a significant reduction of isoFmax in HYP and SE but not in LI and MAX (p<0,05). Ten sets of RE, as compared to five sets, exclusively induced further muscle fatigue in LI. In terms of RE mode differences, isoFmax reduction was generally higher in HYP and SE than in MAX and Li after five and ten sets of RE (p<0,05). However, pRyR1Ser2843 did not show any significant regulation, regardless of exercise condition. We conclude that despite its relevance in reducing muscle contractility in chronic overloading, pRyR1Ser2843 does not reflect the degree of muscle fatigue exerted by acute hypertrophy-, strength endurance-, maximum power and low intensity-oriented exercise.
Project description:Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic neuromuscular disorder characterized by spinal and brainstem motor neuron (MN) loss and skeletal muscle paralysis. Currently, there is no effective treatment other than supportive care to ameliorate the quality of life of patients with SMA. Some studies have reported that physical exercise, by improving muscle strength and motor function, is potentially beneficial in SMA. The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase agonist 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-?-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) has been reported to be an exercise mimetic agent that is able to regulate muscle metabolism and increase endurance both at rest and during exercise. Chronic AICAR administration has been shown to ameliorate the dystrophic muscle phenotype and motor behavior in the mdx mouse, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Here, we investigated whether chronic AICAR treatment was able to elicit beneficial effects on motor abilities and neuromuscular histopathology in a mouse model of severe SMA (the SMN?7 mouse). We report that AICAR improved skeletal muscle atrophy and structural changes found in neuromuscular junctions of SMN?7 animals. However, although AICAR prevented the loss of glutamatergic excitatory synapses on MNs, this compound was not able to mitigate MN loss or the microglial and astroglial reaction occurring in the spinal cord of diseased mice. Moreover, no improvement in survival or motor performance was seen in SMN?7 animals treated with AICAR. The beneficial effects of AICAR in SMA found in our study are SMN-independent, as no changes in the expression of this protein were seen in the spinal cord and skeletal muscle of diseased animals treated with this compound.
Project description:Pedal peptide (PP) and orcokinin (OK) are related neuropeptides that were discovered in protostomian invertebrates (mollusks, arthropods). However, analysis of genome/transcriptome sequence data has revealed that PP/OK-type neuropeptides also occur in a deuterostomian phylum-the echinoderms. Furthermore, a PP/OK-type neuropeptide (starfish myorelaxant peptide, SMP) was recently identified as a muscle relaxant in the starfish Patiria pectinifera. Here mass spectrometry was used to identify five neuropeptides (ArPPLN1a-e) derived from the SMP precursor (PP-like neuropeptide precursor 1; ArPPLNP1) in the starfish Asterias rubens. Analysis of the expression of ArPPLNP1 and neuropeptides derived from this precursor in A. rubens using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed a widespread pattern of expression, with labeled cells and/or processes present in the radial nerve cords, circumoral nerve ring, digestive system (e.g., cardiac stomach) and body wall-associated muscles (e.g., apical muscle) and appendages (e.g., tube feet and papulae). Furthermore, our data provide the first evidence that neuropeptides are present in the lateral motor nerves and in nerve processes innervating interossicular muscles. In vitro pharmacological tests with SMP (ArPPLN1b) revealed that it causes dose-dependent relaxation of apical muscle, tube foot and cardiac stomach preparations from A. rubens. Collectively, these anatomical and pharmacological data indicate that neuropeptides derived from ArPPLNP1 act as inhibitory neuromuscular transmitters in starfish, which contrasts with the myoexcitatory actions of PP/OK-type neuropeptides in protostomian invertebrates. Thus, the divergence of deuterostomes and protostomes may have been accompanied by an inhibitory-excitatory transition in the roles of PP/OK-type neuropeptides as regulators of muscle activity.
Project description:Limited neural input results in muscle weakness in neuromuscular disease because of a reduction in the density of muscle innervation, the rate of neuromuscular junction activation or the efficiency of synaptic transmission. We developed a small-molecule fast-skeletal-troponin activator, CK-2017357, as a means to increase muscle strength by amplifying the response of muscle when neural input is otherwise diminished secondary to neuromuscular disease. Binding selectively to the fast-skeletal-troponin complex, CK-2017357 slows the rate of calcium release from troponin C and sensitizes muscle to calcium. As a consequence, the force-calcium relationship of muscle fibers shifts leftwards, as does the force-frequency relationship of a nerve-muscle pair, so that CK-2017357 increases the production of muscle force in situ at sub-maximal nerve stimulation rates. Notably, we show that sensitization of the fast-skeletal-troponin complex to calcium improves muscle force and grip strength immediately after administration of single doses of CK-2017357 in a model of the neuromuscular disease myasthenia gravis. Troponin activation may provide a new therapeutic approach to improve physical activity in diseases where neuromuscular function is compromised.
Project description:Hypoxia is an important modulator of endurance exercise-induced oxidative adaptations in skeletal muscle. However, whether hypoxia affects resistance exercise-induced muscle adaptations remains unknown. Here, we determined the effect of resistance exercise training under systemic hypoxia on muscular adaptations known to occur following both resistance and endurance exercise training, including muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), one-repetition maximum (1RM), muscular endurance, and makers of mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?), citrate synthase (CS) activity, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), and capillary-to-fiber ratio. Sixteen healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to either a normoxic resistance training group (NRT, n = 7) or a hypoxic (14.4% oxygen) resistance training group (HRT, n = 9) and performed 8 weeks of resistance training. Blood and muscle biopsy samples were obtained before and after training. After training muscle CSA of the femoral region, 1RM for bench-press and leg-press, muscular endurance, and skeletal muscle VEGF protein levels significantly increased in both groups. The increase in muscular endurance was significantly higher in the HRT group. Plasma VEGF concentration and skeletal muscle capillary-to-fiber ratio were significantly higher in the HRT group than the NRT group following training. Our results suggest that, in addition to increases in muscle size and strength, HRT may also lead to increased muscular endurance and the promotion of angiogenesis in skeletal muscle.
Project description:Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass and strength during normal aging, involves coordinate changes in skeletal myofibers and the cells that contact them, including satellite cells and motor neurons. Here we show that the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 gene (Pofut1), which encodes a glycosyltransferase required for NotchR-mediated cell-cell signaling, has reduced expression in aging skeletal muscle. Moreover, premature postnatal deletion of Pofut1 in skeletal myofibers can induce aging-related phenotypes in cis within skeletal myofibers and in trans within satellite cells and within motor neurons via the neuromuscular junction. Changed phenotypes include reduced skeletal muscle size and strength, decreased myofiber size, increased slow fiber (type 1) density, increased muscle degeneration and regeneration in aged muscles, decreased satellite cell self-renewal and regenerative potential, and increased neuromuscular fragmentation and occasional denervation. Pofut1 deletion in skeletal myofibers reduced NotchR signaling in young adult muscles, but this effect was lost with age. Increasing muscle NotchR signaling also reduced muscle size. Gene expression studies point to regulation of cell cycle genes, muscle myosins, NotchR and Wnt pathway genes, and connective tissue growth factor by Pofut1 in skeletal muscle, with additional effects on ? dystroglycan glycosylation.
Project description:Purpose:This study examined the effects of repeated long-duration hyperoxic water immersions (WIs) at 1.35 atmospheres absolute (ATA) on neuromuscular endurance performance. We hypothesized that over a 5-day period of consecutive, resting, long-duration hyperoxic WIs there would be a decrease to neuromuscular endurance performance and tissue oxygenation with the quadriceps muscle, but not with the forearm flexors. Methods:Thirteen well-trained, male subjects completed five consecutive 6-h resting WIs with 18-h surface intervals during the dive week while breathing 100% oxygen at 1.35 ATA. We assessed skeletal muscle endurance performance before and after each WI, and 24 and 72 h after the final WI. Muscular endurance assessments included 40% maximal handgrip endurance (MHE) and 50-repetition maximal isokinetic (IK) knee extensions. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to measure muscle oxidative capacity (MOC) of the vastus lateralis and localized muscle tissue oxygenation of the vastus lateralis and flexor carpi radialis. Simultaneously, we measured brachioradialis neuromuscular activation by surface electromyography (SEMG). Results:MHE time-to-fatigue performance declined by 15% at WI 3 (p = 0.009) and by 17% on WI 5 (p = 0.002). Performance continued to decline by 22% at 24-h post-WI (p < 0.001) and by 12% on 72-h post-WI (p = 0.019). Fifty-repetition IK knee extension total work decreased by 5% (p = 0.002) on WI 3, and was further reduced by 7.5 and 12.3% (p = 0.032) at pre-WI 5 and 24-h post-WI, respectively. However, the rate of fatigue was 8 (p = 0.033) and 30% (p = 0.017) lower at WI 3 and 24-h post-WI when compared to WI 1, respectively, demonstrating the muscles were still fatigued from the previous hyperoxic WIs. We detected no significant limitations in oxygen off-loading kinetics during the exercise or MOC measurements. Conclusion:Repeated, resting, long-duration hyperoxic WIs caused significant reductions to muscular endurance but not to indirect measures of oxygen kinetics in load bearing and non-load bearing muscles.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) is advocated as a screening tool in geriatric care for predicting future disability. We aimed to identify the leg neuromuscular attributes to be targeted in rehabilitative care among older adults with poor SPPB scores.<h4>Methods</h4>Boston Rehabilitative Impairment Study of the Elderly (Boston RISE) participants (n = 430) underwent assessment of neuromuscular attributes (leg strength, leg velocity, trunk extensor endurance, knee flexion range of motion [ROM], ankle ROM, and foot sensation). Linear regression models examined association between each neuromuscular attribute and SPPB, adjusting for age, race, gender, comorbidity, body mass index, depression, cognition, and other neuromuscular attributes.<h4>Results</h4>Participants with 1 SD unit higher leg strength, leg velocity, and trunk extensor endurance had 0.52, 0.30, and 0.52 points higher SPPB total score. Participants with ankle ROM impairment and foot sensory loss had 0.43 and 0.57 lower SPPB total score compared with those without these. Leg strength and trunk extensor endurance were associated with balance; leg velocity, trunk extensor endurance, and ankle ROM were associated with gait speed; and strength, trunk extensor endurance, knee ROM, and feet sensation were associated with chair stand score. Neuromuscular attributes, along with covariates, explained 40.4% of the variance in the total SPPB score, a substantial increase over the 22.7% variance explained by covariates alone.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Neuromuscular attributes affect mobility performance in older patients as measured by the SPPB. Specific impairments are associated with poor performance in specific component scores. Assessment of the SPPB components and rehabilitation of associated impairments may help improve the functional performance among older adults.