Epigenetic regulation of NFE2 overexpression in myeloproliferative neoplasms.
ABSTRACT: The transcription factor "nuclear factor erythroid 2" (NFE2) is overexpressed in the majority of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). In murine models, elevated NFE2 levels cause an MPN phenotype with spontaneous leukemic transformation. However, both the molecular mechanisms leading to NFE2 overexpression and its downstream targets remain incompletely understood. Here, we show that the histone demethylase JMJD1C constitutes a novel NFE2 target gene. JMJD1C levels are significantly elevated in polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis patients; concomitantly, global H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 levels are significantly decreased. JMJD1C binding to the NFE2 promoter is increased in PV patients, decreasing both H3K9me2 levels and binding of the repressive heterochromatin protein-1α (HP1α). Hence, JMJD1C and NFE2 participate in a novel autoregulatory loop. Depleting JMJD1C expression significantly reduced cytokine-independent growth of an MPN cell line. Independently, NFE2 is regulated through the epigenetic JAK2 pathway by phosphorylation of H3Y41. This likewise inhibits HP1α binding. Treatment with decitabine lowered H3Y41ph and augmented H3K9me2 levels at the NFE2 locus in HEL cells, thereby increasing HP1α binding, which normalized NFE2 expression selectively in JAK2V617F-positive cell lines.
Project description:The histone demethylase JMJD1C is overexpressed in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and has been implicated in leukemic stem cell function of MLL-AF9 and HOXA9-driven leukemia. In the emerging field of histone demethylase inhibitors, JMJD1C therefore became a potential target. Depletion of Jmjd1c expression significantly reduced cytokine-independent growth in an MPN cell line, indicating a role for JMJD1C in MPN disease maintenance. Here, we investigated a potential role for the demethylase in MPN disease initiation. We introduced a Cre-inducible JAK2V617F mutation into Jmjd1c knockout mice. We show that Jmjd1c is dispensable, both for healthy hematopoiesis as well as for JAK2V617F-driven MPN disease initiation. Jmjd1c knockout mice did not show any significant changes in peripheral blood composition. Likewise, introduction of JAK2V617F into Jmjd1c-/- mice led to a similar MPN phenotype as JAK2V617F in a Jmjd1c wt background. This indicates that there is a difference between the role of JMJD1C in leukemic stem cells and in MPN. In the latter, JMJC domain-containing family members may serve redundant roles, compensating for the loss of individual proteins.
Project description:We recently demonstrated that the bZip transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 (Nfe2) represses protein acetylation and expression of the transcription factor glial cell missing 1 (Gcm1) in trophoblast cells, preventing excess syncytiotrophoblast formation and permitting normal placental vascularization and embryonic growth. However, the Gcm1 promoter lacks a Nfe2-binding site and hence the mechanisms linking Nfe2 and Gcm1 expression remained unknown. Here we show that Nfe2 represses JunD DNA-binding activity to the Gcm1 promoter during syncytiotrophoblast differentiation. Interventional studies using knockdown and knockin approaches show that enhanced JunD DNA-binding activity is required for increased expression of Gcm1 and syncytiotrophoblast formation as well as impaired placental vascularization and reduced growth of Nfe2(-/-) embryos. Induction of Gcm1 expression requires binding of JunD to the -1441 site within the Gcm1 promoter, which is distinct from the -1314 site previously shown to induce Gcm1 expression by other bZip transcription factors. Nfe2 modulates JunD binding to the Gcm1 promoter via acetylation, as reducing JunD acetylation using the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor curcumin reverses the increased JunD DNA-binding activity observed in the absence of Nfe2. This identifies a novel mechanism through which bZip transcription factors interact. Within the placenta this interaction regulates Gcm1 expression, syncytiotrophoblast formation, placental vascularization, and embryonic growth.
Project description:The mechanisms whereby the crucial pluripotency transcription factor Oct4 regulates target gene expression are incompletely understood. Using an assay system based on partially differentiated embryonic stem cells, we show that Oct4 opposes the accumulation of local H3K9me2 and subsequent Dnmt3a-mediated DNA methylation. Upon binding DNA, Oct4 recruits the histone lysine demethylase Jmjd1c. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) time course experiments identify a stepwise Oct4 mechanism involving Jmjd1c recruitment and H3K9me2 demethylation, transient FACT (facilitates chromatin transactions) complex recruitment, and nucleosome depletion. Genome-wide and targeted ChIP confirms binding of newly synthesized Oct4, together with Jmjd1c and FACT, to the Pou5f1 enhancer and a small number of other Oct4 targets, including the Nanog promoter. Histone demethylation is required for both FACT recruitment and H3 depletion. Jmjd1c is required to induce endogenous Oct4 expression and fully reprogram fibroblasts to pluripotency, indicating that the assay system identifies functional Oct4 cofactors. These findings indicate that Oct4 sequentially recruits activities that catalyze histone demethylation and depletion.
Project description:Emphysema is characterized by irreversibly enlarged airspaces and destruction of alveolar walls. One of the factors contributing to this disease pathogenesis is an elevation in extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the lung. Alveolar type II (ATII) cells produce and secrete pulmonary surfactants and proliferate to restore the epithelium after damage. We isolated ATII cells from control non-smokers, smokers and patients with emphysema to determine the role of NFE2 (nuclear factor, erythroid-derived 2). NFE2 is a heterodimer composed of two subunits, a 45?kDa (p45 NFE2) and 18?kDa (p18 NFE2) polypeptides. Low expression of p45 NFE2 in patients with emphysema correlated with a high ECM degradation. Moreover, we found that NFE2 knockdown increased cell death induced by cigarette smoke extract. We also studied the cross talk between p45 NFE2 and DJ-1. DJ-1 protein is a redox-sensitive chaperone that protects cells from oxidative stress. We detected that cigarette smoke significantly increased p45 NFE2 levels in DJ-1 KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Our results indicate that p45 NFE2 expression is induced by exposure to cigarette smoke, has a cytoprotective activity against cell injury, and its downregulation in human primary ATII cells may contribute to emphysema pathogenesis.
Project description:RUNX1-RUNX1T1 (formerly AML1-ETO), a transcription factor generated by the t(8;21) translocation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), dictates a leukemic program by increasing self-renewal and inhibiting differentiation. Here we demonstrate that the histone demethylase JMJD1C functions as a coactivator for RUNX1-RUNX1T1 and is required for its transcriptional program. JMJD1C is directly recruited by RUNX1-RUNX1T1 to its target genes and regulates their expression by maintaining low H3K9 dimethyl (H3K9me2) levels. Analyses in JMJD1C knockout mice also establish a JMJD1C requirement for RUNX1-RUNX1T1's ability to increase proliferation. We also show a critical role for JMJD1C in the survival of multiple human AML cell lines, suggesting that it is required for leukemic programs in different AML cell types through its association with key transcription factors.
Project description:The NFE2 transcription factor is expressed in multiple hematopoietic lineages with a well-defined role in regulating megakaryocyte biogenesis and platelet production in mammals. Mice deficient in NFE2 develop severe thrombocytopenia with lethality resulting from neonatal hemorrhage. Recent data in mammals reveal potential differences in embryonic and adult thrombopoiesis. Multiple studies in zebrafish have revealed mechanistic insights into hematopoiesis, although thrombopoiesis has been less studied. Rather than platelets, zebrafish possess thrombocytes, which are nucleated cells with similar functional properties. Using transcription activator-like effector nucleases to generate mutations in nfe2, we show that unlike mammals, zebrafish survive to adulthood in the absence of Nfe2. Despite developing severe thrombocytopenia, homozygous mutants do not display overt hemorrhage or reduced survival. Surprisingly, quantification of circulating thrombocytes in mutant 6-day-old larvae revealed no significant differences from wild-type siblings. Both wild-type and nfe2 null larvae formed thrombocyte-rich clots in response to endothelial injury. In addition, ex vivo thrombocytic colony formation was intact in nfe2 mutants, and adult kidney marrow displayed expansion of hematopoietic progenitors. These data suggest that loss of Nfe2 results in a late block in adult thrombopoiesis, with secondary expansion of precursors: features consistent with mammals. Overall, our data suggest parallels with erythropoiesis, including distinct primitive and definitive pathways of development and potential for a previously unknown Nfe2-independent pathway of embryonic thrombopoiesis. Long-term homozygous mutant survival will facilitate in-depth study of Nfe2 deficiency in vivo, and further investigation could lead to alternative methodologies for the enhancement of platelet production.
Project description:The locus control region of the beta-globin gene is composed of four erythroid-specific hypersensitive sites. Hypersensitive site 2 has been shown to be a powerful enhancer and contains a tandem repeat sequence for the transcription factors AP1 and NFE2 (activating protein 1 and nuclear factor erythroid 2, respectively). The human NRF2 (NFE2 related factor 2) has been isolated by bacterial expression screening using this core sequence as a probe. p45-NFE2, NRF1, and NRF2 belong to the CNC ("cap 'n' collar") subfamily of the basic region-leucine zipper transcription factors, which exhibits strong homology at specific regions such as the "CNC" and the DNA binding and leucine zipper domains. Although the erythroid-specific p45-NFE2 has been implicated in globin gene regulation, p45-NFE2 null mice succumb to bleedings due to lack of platelets and those that survive exhibit only a mild anemia. To determine the function of NRF2, which we found to be widely expressed in vivo, we have characterized the genomic structure of the mouse NRF2 gene, disrupted the Nrf2 gene by homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells (ES cells), and generated NRF2-/- mice. Homozygous mutant mice developed normally, were not anemic, reached adulthood, and reproduced. Our studies indicate that NRF2 is dispensable for mouse development.
Project description:Patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is frequently complicated by bone metastasis, which deteriorates the life expectancy of this patient cohort. In order to develop a novel type of therapy for bone metastasis, we established 4T1.3 clone with a high capacity to metastasize to bone after orthotopic injection, from a murine TNBC cell line, 4T1.0. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying a high growth ability of 4T1.3 in a bone cavity, we searched for a novel candidate molecule with a focus on a transcription factor whose expression was selectively enhanced in a bone cavity. Comprehensive gene expression analysis detected enhanced Nfe2 mRNA expression in 4T1.3 grown in a bone cavity, compared with in vitro culture conditions. Moreover, Nfe2 gene transduction into 4T1.0 cells enhanced their capability to form intraosseous tumors. Moreover, Nfe2 shRNA treatment reduced tumor formation arising from intraosseous injection of 4T1.3 clone as well as another mouse TNBC-derived TS/A.3 clone with an augmented intraosseous tumor formation ability. Furthermore, NFE2 expression was associated with in vitro growth advantages of these TNBC cell lines under hypoxic condition, which mimics the bone microenvironment, as well as Wnt pathway activation. These observations suggest that NFE2 can potentially contribute to breast cancer cell survival in the bone microenvironment.
Project description:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant gastrointestinal cancers. Metastasis is a major leading of death in patients with CRC and many patients have metastatic disease at diagnosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we showed that JMJD1C was overexpressed in colon cancer tissues compared to normal samples and was positively associated with metastasis and poor prognosis. Silencing JMJD1C strongly inhibits CRC migration and invasion both in vitro and in vivo. Further, we found that knockdown of JMJD1C decreased the protein and mRNA levels of ATF2, mechanistically, and JMJD1C regulated the expression of ATF2 by modulating the H3K9me2 but not H3K9me1 activity. In addition, we further performed some "rescues experiments". We found that overexpression of ATF2 could reverse the abrogated migration and invasion ability by knockdown of JMJD1C in CRC. Our results demonstrated that an increase of JMJD1C was observed in colon cancer and knockdown of JMJD1C regulated CRC metastasis by inactivation of the ATF2 pathway. This novel JMJD1C/ATF2 signaling pathway may be a promising therapeutic target for CRC metastasis.
Project description:Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) encoded from the CBX5-gene is an evolutionary conserved protein that binds histone H3 di- or tri-methylated at position lysine 9 (H3K9me2/3), a hallmark for heterochromatin, and has an essential role in forming higher order chromatin structures. HP1α has diverse functions in heterochromatin formation, gene regulation, and mitotic progression, and forms complex networks of gene, RNA, and protein interactions. Emerging evidence has shown that HP1α serves a unique biological role in breast cancer related processes and in particular for epigenetic control mechanisms involved in aberrant cell proliferation and metastasis. However, how HP1α deregulation plays dual mechanistic functions for cancer cell proliferation and metastasis suppression and the underlying cellular mechanisms are not yet comprehensively described. In this paper we provide an overview of the role of HP1α as a new sight of epigenetics in proliferation and metastasis of human breast cancer. This highlights the importance of addressing HP1α in breast cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.