Development of a dietary index based on the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program (BALANCE).
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The diet of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Nutritional Program (BALANCE) classifies food into four groups and sets the daily amount to be consumed. The dietary approach of BALANCE is different from other dietary recommendations; therefore, it is not possible to use existing dietary indexes (DI) to assess patient's adequacy to BALANCE diet. For this reason, it is important to develop a specific dietary index based on BALANCE diet. This study aims to describe the development of the BALANCE DI, evaluate its internal consistency, construct and content validity and population characteristics associated with the index. METHODS:We analyzed baseline data from the BALANCE randomized clinical trial ( https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ ; NCT01620398). The four food groups of the diet were adopted as index components. Points ranging from 0 to 10 were given to each index component. Internal consistency was evaluated by correlation coefficients between total score and component scores, as well as Cronbach's Alpha. Content and construct validity were assessed by checking how nutrients are associated with the index and if the index could distinguish between groups with known differences in diet, respectively. Crude and adjusted linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate population characteristics associated with the index. RESULTS:The analysis included 2044 subjects (58.6% men). The average of the total index was higher among women (p??0.40. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.66. High scores in the index were inversely associated (p?
Project description:The Healthy Eating Index (HEI), a measure of diet quality, was updated to reflect the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the accompanying USDA Food Patterns. To assess the validity and reliability of the HEI-2010, exemplary menus were scored and 2 24-h dietary recalls from individuals aged ?2 y from the 2003-2004 NHANES were used to estimate multivariate usual intake distributions and assess whether the HEI-2010 1) has a distribution wide enough to detect meaningful differences in diet quality among individuals, 2) distinguishes between groups with known differences in diet quality by using t tests, 3) measures diet quality independently of energy intake by using Pearson correlation coefficients, 4) has >1 underlying dimension by using principal components analysis (PCA), and 5) is internally consistent by calculating Cronbach's coefficient ?. HEI-2010 scores were at or near the maximum levels for the exemplary menus. The distribution of scores among the population was wide (5th percentile = 31.7; 95th percentile = 70.4). As predicted, men's diet quality (mean HEI-2010 total score = 49.8) was poorer than women's (52.7), younger adults' diet quality (45.4) was poorer than older adults' (56.1), and smokers' diet quality (45.7) was poorer than nonsmokers' (53.3) (P < 0.01). Low correlations with energy were observed for HEI-2010 total and component scores (|r| ? 0.21). Cronbach's coefficient ? was 0.68, supporting the reliability of the HEI-2010 total score as an indicator of overall diet quality. Nonetheless, PCA indicated multiple underlying dimensions, highlighting the fact that the component scores are equally as important as the total. A comparable reevaluation of the HEI-2005 yielded similar results. This study supports the validity and the reliability of both versions of the HEI.
Project description:The Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI) is a measuring instrument of diet quality in accordance with the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese (DGC)-2016. The objective of the study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the CHEI. Data from 12,473 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS)-2011, including 3-day-24-h dietary recalls were used in this study. The CHEI was assessed by four exemplary menus developed by the DGC-2016, the general linear models, the independent t-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test, the Spearman's correlation analysis, the principal components analysis (PCA), the Cronbach's coefficient, and the Pearson correlation with nutrient intakes. A higher CHEI score was linked with lower exposure to known risk factors of Chinese diets. The CHEI scored nearly perfect for exemplary menus for adult men (99.8), adult women (99.7), and the healthy elderly (99.1), but not for young children (91.2). The CHEI was able to distinguish the difference in diet quality between smokers and non-smokers (P < 0.0001), people with higher and lower education levels (P < 0.0001), and people living in urban and rural areas (P < 0.0001). Low correlations with energy intake for the CHEI total and component scores (|r| < 0.34, P < 0.01) supported the index assessed diet quality independently of diet quantity. The PCA indicated that underlying multiple dimensions compose the CHEI, and Cronbach's coefficient ? was 0.22. Components of dairy, fruits and cooking oils had the greatest impact on the total score. People with a higher CHEI score had not only a higher absolute intake of nutrients (P < 0.001), but also a more nutrient-dense diet (P < 0.001). Our findings support the validity and reliability of the CHEI when using the 3-day-24-h recalls.
Project description:Distilling the complexity of overall diet into a simple measure or summative score by data reduction methods has become a common practice in nutritional epidemiology. Recent reviews on diet quality indices (DQI) have highlighted the importance of sound construction criteria and validation. The aim of this current review was to identify and critically appraise all DQI used within Australian and New Zealand adult populations. Twenty-five existing DQI were identified by electronic searching in Medline and hand searching of reference lists. DQI were constructed based on the respective national dietary guidelines and condition-specific recommendations. For preferable features of DQI, six captured the dimensions of adequacy, moderation and balance; five had a nested structure; 12 consisted of foods, food groups and nutrients; 11 used metric scoring systems and most of those with metric scales used normative cutoff points. Food frequency questionnaires, either alone or with other methods, were the most common dietary assessment method used in 20 DQI. For evaluation of DQI, construct validity and relative validity are reported. Based on our critical appraisal, Dietary Guideline Index (DGI), Dietary Guideline Index-2013 (DGI-2013), Total Diet Score (TDS), Healthy Eating Index for Australian Adults-2013 (HEIFA-2013), and Aussie-Diet Quality Index (Aussie-DQI) were the preferred DQI used in Australian adults according to dimension, indicator selection, scoring criteria and evaluation. Further work is needed to enhance the construction of all Australian and New Zealand DQI, especially in terms of dimension and structure, for alignment with recommended construction criteria.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>As there is no population-specific, simple food-based diet index suitable for examination of diet quality in New Zealand (NZ) adolescents, there is a need to develop such a tool. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an adolescent-specific diet quality index based on dietary information sourced from a Food Questionnaire (FQ) and examine its validity relative to a four-day estimated food record (4DFR) obtained from a group of adolescents aged 14 to 18 years.<h4>Methods</h4>A diet quality index for NZ adolescents (NZDQI-A) was developed based on 'Adequacy' and 'Variety' of five food groups reflecting the New Zealand Food and Nutrition Guidelines for Healthy Adolescents. The NZDQI-A was scored from zero to 100, with a higher score reflecting a better diet quality. Forty-one adolescents (16 males, 25 females, aged 14-18 years) each completed the FQ and a 4DFR. The test-retest reliability of the FQ-derived NZDQI-A scores over a two-week period and the relative validity of the scores compared to the 4DFR were estimated using Pearson's correlations. Construct validity was examined by comparing NZDQI-A scores against nutrient intakes obtained from the 4DFR.<h4>Results</h4>The NZDQI-A derived from the FQ showed good reliability (r = 0.65) and reasonable agreement with 4DFR in ranking participants by scores (r = 0.39). More than half of the participants were classified into the same thirds of scores while 10% were misclassified into the opposite thirds by the two methods. Higher NZDQI-A scores were also associated with lower total fat and saturated fat intakes and higher iron intakes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Higher NZDQI-A scores were associated with more desirable fat and iron intakes. The scores derived from either FQ or 4DFR were comparable and reproducible when repeated within two weeks. The NZDQI-A is relatively valid and reliable in ranking diet quality in adolescents at a group level even in a small sample size. Further studies are required to test the predictive validity of this food-based diet index in larger samples.
Project description:Objective:Few studies have examined associations between patient knowledge of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) and clinical outcomes, mostly because of the lack of validated questionnaires for assessing knowledge. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire to self-assess knowledge of DOAC. Methods:Twelve anticoagulation experts participated in the questionnaire development process to ensure content validity. The Knowledge Of Direct Oral Anticoagulants (KODOA)-test was submitted to patients on DOAC and to pharmacists to assess construct validity. Responsiveness was evaluated after educational counseling. Test-retest reliability was assessed to ensure stability over time, and Cronbach's ? was calculated for internal reliability. Index of difficulty and item discrimination (D-value) were calculated to assess the performance of single items. Results:The KODOA-test contains 15 items with multiple-choice answers. Each correct answer scores 1 point (max. score of 15). The KODOA-test was administered to 32 patients on DOAC and 28 pharmacists. Pharmacists scored significantly higher than patients at baseline (median score 13.3 vs 10.0; p<0.001), supporting construct validity. Patient scores increased significantly after educational counseling (median score 11 [interquartile range 2] vs 14 [interquartile range 3]; p<0.001). Test-retest and Cronbach's ? were acceptable with a Pearson's correlation of 0.8 and an ? of 0.67. The index of difficulty for most items was satisfactory (0.38-0.72) and the mean D-value was 42.5%. Conclusion:The KODOA-test is a brief, valid, and reliable knowledge self-assessment questionnaire that may be used in clinical trials to investigate associations between knowledge increase and patient-related outcomes.
Project description:AIM:To provide a Portuguese version of the Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile (MDP), investigating its validity and reliability in Brazilian patients with COPD. METHODS:This was a cross-sectional study for translation and linguist validation of the Portuguese MDP version for patients with COPD. The process occurred according to the protocol of Mapi Research Trust, Lyon, France. Three scores of MDP were used for the analysis: the immediate unpleasantness of dyspnea (A1); the "immediate perception domain" (S) (sum of A1 plus the sensory descriptors) and the "emotional response domain" (A2) (sum of the emotional descriptors). The questionnaires COPD assessment Test (CAT), Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) and Medical Research Council scale (MRC) were used as anchors to investigate MDP's validity. Internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach's alpha. Test-retest reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and concurrent validity was assessed with Spearman correlation coefficients. RESULTS:Thirty patients with moderate-severe COPD were studied for MDP's validation analysis (43% male, 63±8years, body mass index [BMI] 27±6Kg/m2, forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1] 48±15%predicted, six-minute walking test [6MWT] 464±84m and 84±16%predicted), whereas 10 patients were excluded from the test-retest reliability analysis due to missing data, resulting in a sample of 20 subjects for this purpose (50% male, 62±8years, BMI 27±6Kg/m2, FEV1 48±15%predicted, 6MWT 452±93m and 82±19%predicted). Both samples were similar regarding general characteristics (P>0,05 for all variables). MDP presented strong correlations, i.e., ICC intra-rater: A1: 0.77 (0.48-0.90), S: 0.78 (0.52-0.91), and A2: 0.85 (0.66-0.94), with high internal consistency (Cronbach's ? 0.86, 0.88 and 0.92 respectively); and ICC inter-rater: A1: 0.74 (0.46-0.89), S: 0.75 (0.48-0.89) and A2: 0.91 (0.78-0.96) with Cronbach's ? 0.85, 0.86 and 0.95 respectively. CONCLUSION:The Portuguese version of the MDP is the first valid and reliable instrument to assess dyspnea multidimensionally in Portuguese-speaking patients with COPD.
Project description:The EAT-Lancet Commission has proposed a planetary health diet. We propose the development of the Planetary Health Diet Index (PHDI) based on this proposed reference diet. We used baseline dietary data obtained through a 114-item FFQ from 14,779 participants of the Longitudinal Study on Adult Health, a multicenter cohort study conducted in Brazil. The PHDI has 16 components and a score from 0 to 150 points. Validation and reliability analyses were performed, including principal component analyses, association with selected nutrients, differences in means between groups (for example, smokers vs. non-smokers), correlations between components and total energy intake, Cronbach's alpha, item-item correlations, and linear regression analysis between PHDI with carbon footprint and overall dietary quality. The mean PHDI was 60.4 (95% CI 60.2:60.5). The PHDI had six dimensions, was associated in an expected direction with the selected nutrients and was significantly (<i>p</i> < 0.001) lower in smokers (59.0) than in non-smokers (60.6). Cronbach's alpha value was 0.51. All correlations between components were low, as well as between components and PHDI with total energy intake. After adjustment for age and sex, the PHDI score remained associated (<i>p</i> < 0.001) with a higher overall dietary quality and lower carbon footprint. Thus, we confirmed the PHDI validity and reliability.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Existing diet quality indices often show theoretical and methodological limitations, especially with regard to validation.<h4>Objective</h4>To develop a diet quality index based on the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) and evaluate its validity using data from French and US populations.<h4>Material and methods</h4>The PANDiet is composed of adequacy probabilities for 24 nutrients grouped into two sub-scores. The relationship between the PANDiet score and energy intake were investigated. We evaluated the construct validity of the index by comparing scores for population sub-groups with 'a priori' differences in diet quality, according to smoking status, energy density, food intakes, plasma folate and carotenoid concentrations. French and US implementations of the PANDiet were developed and evaluated using national nutritional recommendations and dietary surveys.<h4>Results</h4>The PANDiet was not correlated with energy for the French implementation (r?=?-0.02, P>0.05) and correlated at a low level for the US implementation (r?=?-0.11, P<0.0001). In both implementations, a higher PANDiet score (i.e. a better diet quality) was associated with not smoking, having a lower-energy-dense diet, consuming higher amounts of fruits, vegetables, fish, milk and other dairy products and lower amounts of cheese, pizza, eggs, meat and processed meat, and having higher plasma folate and carotenoid concentrations after controlling for appropriate factors (all P<0.05, carotenoid data for US not available).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The PANDiet provides a single score that measures the adequacy of nutrient intake and reflects diet quality. This index is adaptable for use in different countries and relevant at the individual and population levels.
Project description:Dietary components are important determinants of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for most chronic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was developed to assess dietary inflammatory potential. It was hypothesized that anti-inflammatory DII scores would be associated with "healthier" scores on other dietary indices. The Energy Balance Study is an observational study focusing on energy intake and expenditure in young adults; only baseline data were used for this analysis (n=430). The DII, as well as the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Index (DASH) were calculated based on one to three 24-hour dietary recalls. General linear models were used to estimate least square means of the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH according to DII quartiles. Those with higher (ie, more proinflammatory) DII scores were more likely to be males, have less than a completed college education, and be younger. In addition, those with higher scores for cognitive restraint for eating or drive for thinness had lower (ie, anti-inflammatory) DII scores. Linear regression analyses indicated that as the DII increased, the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH dietary indices decreased (ie, became more unhealthy, all P<.01). The DII is a novel tool that characterizes the inflammatory potential of diet and is grounded in the peer-reviewed literature on diet and inflammation. Findings from the Energy Balance Study indicate that the DII is associated with other dietary indices, but has the added advantage of specifically measuring dietary inflammatory potential, a risk factor for chronic disease.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Food behaviours, attitudes, environments and knowledge are relevant to professionals in childhood obesity prevention, as are dietary patterns which promote positive energy balance. There is a lack of valid and reliable tools to measure these parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and relative validity of a child nutrition questionnaire assessing all of these parameters, used in the evaluation of a community-based childhood obesity prevention project.<h4>Methods</h4>The development of the 14-item questionnaire was informed by the aims of the obesity prevention project. A sub-sample of children aged 10-12 years from primary schools involved in the intervention was recruited at the project's baseline data collection (Test 1). Questionnaires were readministered (Test 2) following which students completed a 7-day food diary designed to reflect the questionnaire. Twelve scores were derived to assess consumption of fruit, vegetables, water, noncore foods and sweetened beverages plus food knowledge, behaviours, attitudes and environments. Reliability was assessed using (a) the intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95% confidence intervals to compare scores from Tests 1 and 2 (test-retest reliability) and (b) Cronbach's alpha (internal consistency). Validity was assessed with Spearman correlations, bias and limits of agreement between scores from Test 1 and the 7-day diaries. The Wilcoxon signed rank test checked for significant differences between mean scores.<h4>Results</h4>One hundred and forty one students consented to the study. Test 2 (n = 134) occurred between eight and 36 days after Test 1. For 10/12 scores ICCs ranged from 0.47-0.66 (p < 0.001) while for two scores ICCs were < 0.4 (p < 0.05). Spearman correlations ranged from 0.34-0.48 (p < 0.01) and Cronbach's alpha 0.50-0.80. Three scores were modified based on this analysis. The Wilcoxon signed rank test found no evidence of a difference between means (p > 0.05) for 10/12 (test-retest reliability) and 3/7 (validity) scores.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This child nutrition questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to simultaneously assess dietary patterns associated with positive energy balance, and food behaviours, attitudes and environments in Australian school children aged 10-12 years. Thus it can be used to monitor secular changes in these parameters and measure the effectiveness of this and other obesity prevention projects with similar aims.