Association between LEPR, FTO, MC4R, and PPARG-2 polymorphisms with obesity traits and metabolic phenotypes in school-aged children.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:Evaluate the relationship of leptin receptor (LEPR) rs1137101, fat mass obesity-associated (FTO) receptors 9939609, melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4R) rs2229616 and rs17782313, and proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG) rs1801282 with clinical and metabolic phenotypes in prepubertal children. RESEARCH QUESTION:What is the effect of polymorphisms on clinical and metabolic phenotypes in prepubertal children? METHODS:A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed to evaluate anthropometric features, percentage body fat (%BF), biochemical parameters, and genotype in 773 prepubertal children. RESULTS:FTO rs9939609 was associated with an increase in body mass index (BMI) and BMI z-score (zBMI). MC4R rs17782313 was associated with a decrease in BMI and +0.06 units in zBMI. LEPR, and PPARG-2 polymorphisms were associated with decreases in BMI and an increase and decrease units in zBMI, respectively. The homozygous SNPs demonstrated increases (FTO rs993609 and MC4R rs17782313) and decreases (LEPR rs1137101, PPARG rs1801282) in zBMI than the homozygous form of the major allele. In the overweight/obese group, the MC4R rs17782313 CC genotype showed higher average weight, zBMI, waist circumference, waist-circumference-to-height ratio, and waist-hip ratio, and lower BMI, mid-upper arm circumference, calf circumference, and %BF (P< 0.05). FTO rs9939609 AT and AA genotypes were associated with lower triglycerides (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:We showed that MC4R rs17782313 and FTO rs9939609 were positively associated with zBMI, with weak and very weak effects, respectively, suggesting a very scarce contribution to childhood obesity. LEPR rs1137101 and PPARG-2 rs1801282 had weak and medium negative effects on zBMI, respectively, and may slightly protect against childhood obesity.
Project description:The aim of this study was to assess the impact of mothers' and newborns' fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs9939609 and leptin receptor (LEPR) rs1137101 gene polymorphisms on neonatal anthropometric parameters in order to identify a potential risk for developing obesity.We performed a cross-sectional study on 355 mother-newborn couples in an Obstetrics Gynecology Tertiary Hospital from Romania, evaluated with regard to anthropometric parameters, clinical and laboratory parameters besides 2 genetic polymorphisms (FTO rs9939609 and LEPR rs1137101).Newborns with mothers carrying variant AT or AA genotype for FTO rs9939609 presented lower BMI (P = 0.012) and lower MUAC (P = 0.029). There was a significant interaction effect between newborn and mother LEPR rs1137101 polymorphism on birth weight (P = 0.009) and BMI (P = 0.007). We noticed significantly increased birth weight and BMI in newborns carriers of AG?+?GG genotype, coming from mothers with AA genotype (P = 0.006). There was no evidence of significant interaction effect between newborn and mother FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on the studied anthropometrical data (P?>?0.05). In addition, lower BMI scores (P = 0.042) were observed in newborns carriers of TT genotype whose mothers had AA?+?AT genotype. Lower MUAC scores (P = 0.041) were noticed in newborns carriers of AA?+?AT genotype whose mothers had AA?+?AT genotype for FTO rs9939609 gene polymorphism. Newborns carriers of the AG?+?GG genotype (P = 0.003) of LEPR rs1137101 coming from mothers with increased FMI (upper tertile) had significantly increased BMIs.Presence of the variant A allele of FTO rs9939609 polymorphism in mothers decreased BMI and MUAC in newborns. The impact of LEPR rs1137101 polymorphism on BMI and birth weight in newborns differed depending on the presence/absence of the dominant LEPR allele in mothers. In addition, we noticed that maternal FMI presented a significant positive effect on newborns' BMI by changing the effect of LEPR rs1137101.We can conclude that mothers' FTO rs9939609 and LEPR rs1137101 gene polymorphisms presented an impact on birth weight and newborns' BMI, therefore being involved in the newborns' nutritional status and in the design of a potential protocol.
Project description:Genetic variants of the FTO gene rs9939609 A/T and the MC4R gene rs17782313 C/T have been associated with obesity. Individuals with mutations in MC4R gene have lower blood pressure (BP), independently of obesity. This study aimed to investigate the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with anthropometric indexes, BP, and type 2 diabetes mellitus among hypertensive patients.We genotyped 217 individuals (86 men and 131 women) with hypertension (systolic or diastolic BP???140/90 mmHg or using antihypertensive drugs). Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. Waist and neck circumferences (cm), Body Adiposity Index (BAI,%), Lipid Accumulation Product Index (LAP, cm.mmol.l) and body mass index (BMI, kg/m²) were analyzed using analysis of covariance or modified Poisson's regression.Rare allele frequencies were 0.40 for A for FTO rs9939609 and 0.18 for C for MC4R rs17782313. A positive association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with BMI was observed in the overall sample. Among men and women, neck circumference was associated with the FTO genotype and, for women, MC4R genotype. In contrast, in men we found a negative association of MC4R rs17782313 with diastolic BP (TT 90.1 ±12.2, TC/CC 83.2 ±12.1; P?=?0.03) and borderline association for systolic BP after controlling for age and BMI.Common genetic variants of FTO rs9939609 have positive associations with BMI and neck circumference and MC4R rs17782313 in women, but a negative association with diastolic and mean blood pressure in men with hypertension.
Project description:Metabolic disorders, including MetS, obesity, and lipid disorders, may be related to genetic factors. Metabolic disorders are associated with decreased TS levels in aging men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, and PPARγ rs1801282 polymorphisms and the presence of MetS and its components, the concurrent lipid disorders, as well as sex hormone concentrations.This study involved 272 men of Caucasian descent aged 50-75 years. Lipid profile, including TCh, LDL, HDL, and TG, was evaluated by spectrophotometric method. Anthropometric measurements concerned WC and blood pressure. MetS was diagnosed according to the criteria of the IDF. Sex hormone profile, including TST, FTS, E2, DHEAS, and SHBG, was examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Polymorphisms within FTO, MC4R, and PPARγ genes were identified using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragments length polymorphism.This study did not show links between the analyzed genetic polymorphisms and the presence of MetS, T2DM, HT, and obesity. However, higher concentrations of TCh and LDL were found in men with the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism in the recessive mode of inheritance (P=0.03 and P=0.05, respectively). Lower WC was found to be associated with MC4R rs17782313 gene inherited in the same model (P=0.005).FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, and PPARγ rs1801282 polymorphisms seem to have little effect on the incidence of metabolic malfunctions and no effect on androgen-related disorders in the examined middle-aged and elderly men.
Project description:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and complex endocrine-metabolic disease. One of the well-documented characteristics of PCOS is obesity or overweightness. It is possible to be genetically predisposed to becoming obese or overweight, and several potentially causative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), such as rs9939609 (A/T) in the fat mass, and obesity-associated gene (FTO) and rs17782313 (T/C) in the melanocortin-4 receptor gene (MC4R), have been investigated. Further investigation of association between obesity-associated SNPs and PCOS susceptibility will contribute to a better understanding of the disease.In the present study, we enrolled 733 patients with PCOS and 892 control subjects. The common variants FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 were genotyped and their relationship with obesity-related traits was evaluated.Rs9939609 and rs17782313 are associated with PCOS and obesity-related traits and profiles. The association found between PCOS and FTO rs9939609 (p=0.0302) was attenuated after adjustment for BMI (p=0.187). MC4R rs17782313 did not confer an increased risk for PCOS (p=0.368) even after adjustments (p=0.715). Interestingly, the interaction of FTO and MC4R polymorphisms was more significantly associated with PCOS (p=0.031, adjusted for age and BMI). The FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with Chinese women with PCOS; however, this association is affected by BMI.The combined pathogenic effect of FTO and MC4R polymorphisms indicates a direct role of the interaction between FTO and MC4R polymorphisms in the development of PCOS.
Project description:Overweight and obesity are strongly associated with endometrial cancer. Several independent genome-wide association studies recently identified two common polymorphisms, FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313, that are linked to increased body weight and obesity. We examined the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with endometrial cancer risk in a pooled analysis of nine case-control studies within the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2). This analysis included 3601 non-Hispanic white women with histologically-confirmed endometrial carcinoma and 5275 frequency-matched controls. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the relation of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 genotypes to the risk of endometrial cancer. Among control women, both the FTO rs9939609 A and MC4R rs17782313 C alleles were associated with a 16% increased risk of being overweight (p?=?0.001 and p?=?0.004, respectively). In case-control analyses, carriers of the FTO rs9939609 AA genotype were at increased risk of endometrial carcinoma compared to women with the TT genotype [odds ratio (OR) ?=?1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.32, p?=?0.01]. However, this association was no longer apparent after adjusting for body mass index (BMI), suggesting mediation of the gene-disease effect through body weight. The MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism was not related to endometrial cancer risk (per allele OR?=?0.98; 95% CI: 0.91-1.06; p?=?0.68). FTO rs9939609 is a susceptibility marker for white non-Hispanic women at higher risk of endometrial cancer. Although FTO rs9939609 alone might have limited clinical or public health significance for identifying women at high risk for endometrial cancer beyond that of excess body weight, further investigation of obesity-related genetic markers might help to identify the pathways that influence endometrial carcinogenesis.
Project description:Although the fat mass and obesity (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) genes have been consistently associated with obesity risk, the association between the obesity-risk alleles with type 2 diabetes is still controversial. In some recent meta-analyses in which significant results have been reported, the associations disappeared after adjustment for body mass index (BMI). However gene-diet interactions with dietary patterns have not been investigated. Our main aim was to analyze whether these associations are modulated by the level of adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet).Case-control study in 7,052 high cardiovascular risk subjects (3,430 type 2 diabetes cases and 3,622 non-diabetic subjects) with no differences in BMI. Diet was assessed by validated questionnaires. FTO-rs9939609 and MC4R-rs17782313 were determined. An aggregate genetic score was calculated to test additive effects. Gene-diet interactions were analyzed.Neither of the polymorphisms was associated with type 2 diabetes in the whole population. However, we found consistent gene-diet interactions with adherence to the MedDiet both for the FTO-rs9939609 (P-interaction=0.039), the MC4R-rs17782313 (P-interaction=0.009) and for their aggregate score (P-interaction=0.006). When adherence to the MedDiet was low, carriers of the variant alleles had higher type 2 diabetes risk (OR=1.21, 95%CI: 1.03-1.40; P=0.019 for FTO-rs9939609 and OR=1.17, 95%CI:1.01-1.36; P=0.035 for MC4R-rs17782313) than wild-type subjects. However, when adherence to the MedDiet was high, these associations disappeared (OR=0.97, 95%CI: 0.85-1.16; P=0.673 for FTO-rs9939609 and OR=0.89, 95%CI:0.78-1.02; P=0.097 for MC4R-rs17782313). These gene-diet interactions remained significant even after adjustment for BMI. As MedDiet is rich in folate, we also specifically examined folate intake and detected statistically significant interaction effects on fasting plasma glucose concentrations in non-diabetic subjects. However these findings should be interpreted with caution because folate intake may simply reflect a healthy dietary pattern.These novel results suggest that the association of the FTO-rs9939609 and the MC4R-rs17782313 polymorphisms with type 2 diabetes depends on diet and that a high adherence to the MedDiet counteracts the genetic predisposition.
Project description:Objectives:Obesity is a significant risk factor for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Obesity usually results from a combination of causes and contributing factors, including genetics and lifestyle choices. Many studies have shown an association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) and the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) genes with body mass index (BMI). Therefore, recognizing the main genes and their relevant genetic variants will aid prediction of obesity risk. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency of rs9939609 and rs17782313 polymorphisms in FTO and MC4R genes in an Iranian population. Methods:We enrolled 130 obese patients and 83 healthy weight controls and calculated their BMI. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the frequency of rs9939609 and rs17782313 polymorphisms in FTO and MC4R genes was determined using the tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR). Results:Significant associations were found between FTO rs9939609 and BMI. Where homozygous risk allele carriers (A-A) have significant higher odds ratio (OR) of being obese than individuals with normal BMI (OR = 6.927, p < 0.005, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.48-13.78). No significant correlation between MC4R rs17782313 and obesity were observed when compared to healthy weight individuals. Although subjects with C-C genotype had higher odds of obesity (OR = 1.889, p = 0.077, 95%CI: 0.92-3.84). Conclusions:This study shows a relationship between FTO polymorphism and increased BMI, therefore, SNP in the FTO gene influence changes in BMI and can be considered a prognostic marker of obesity risk.
Project description:In this study we investigated the association of FTO rs9939609 and MC4R rs17782313 with elevated blood pressure in the Chinese Han population, and analysed the relationship between the rs9939609 and rs17782313 variants.We tested the rs9939609 and rs17782313 variants with the sequence-retrieval method.The increase in odds ratios of the A allele of rs9939609 and the C allele of rs17782313 for nocturnal blood pressure were 1.37 and 1.69. The nocturnal blood pressure of participants simultaneously carrying the A and C alleles was significantly higher than the blood pressure of those carrying neither FTO nor MC4R risk alleles (p < 0.05), and that of the controls carrying only the A or C alleles (p < 0.05). No association between the FTO or MC4R genes with daytime hypertension was found in this Chinese population (p > 0.05).Our data suggest that the rs9939609 and rs17782313 variants may be significantly associated with nocturnal but not daytime blood pressure levels and their combined effects were significant in this Chinese Han population.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common polygenic disease with associated comorbidities. Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of T2DM. The aim of this study is to determine the allele and genotype frequency of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) rs1801282, fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) rs9939609, and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) rs2229616 polymorphisms and their association with risk of T2DM in the western Saudi population as mediators of adiposity phenotypes. In a cross-sectional prospective study, genomic DNA from control and T2DM patients were isolated and genotyped for these single-nucleotide polymorphisms. There was a significant association of the MC4R rs2229616 variant with T2DM, but no association with T2DM was detected with PPAR? rs1801282 or FTO rs9939609. The combination of C/C for PPAR? rs1801282, A/A for FTO rs9939609, and C/C for MC4R rs2229616 increased the risk of T2DM by 1.82. The A/T genotype for FTO rs9939609 was predicted to decrease the risk of T2DM when combined with C/C for PPAR? rs1801282 and C/C for MC4R rs2229616 or C/C for PPAR? rs1801282 and C/T MC4R rs2229616. In conclusion, our study showed the risk of the assessed variants for the development of T2DM in the Saudi population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Fat mass and obesity (FTO) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) and are relevant genes associated with obesity. This could be through food intake, but results are contradictory. Modulation by diet or other lifestyle factors is also not well understood.<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate whether MC4R and FTO associations with body-weight are modulated by diet and physical activity (PA), and to study their association with alcohol and food intake.<h4>Methods</h4>Adherence to Mediterranean diet (AdMedDiet) and physical activity (PA) were assessed by validated questionnaires in 7,052 high cardiovascular risk subjects. MC4R rs17782313 and FTO rs9939609 were determined. Independent and joint associations (aggregate genetic score) as well as statistical and biological gene-lifestyle interactions were analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>FTO rs9939609 was associated with higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and obesity (P<0.05 for all). A similar, but not significant trend was found for MC4R rs17782313. Their additive effects (aggregate score) were significant and we observed a 7% per-allele increase of being obese (OR=1.07; 95%CI 1.01-1.13). We found relevant statistical interactions (P<0.05) with PA. So, in active individuals, the associations with higher BMI, WC or obesity were not detected. A biological (non-statistical) interaction between AdMedDiet and rs9939609 and the aggregate score was found. Greater AdMedDiet in individuals carrying 4 or 3-risk alleles counterbalanced their genetic predisposition, exhibiting similar BMI (P=0.502) than individuals with no risk alleles and lower AdMedDiet. They also had lower BMI (P=0.021) than their counterparts with low AdMedDiet. We did not find any consistent association with energy or macronutrients, but found a novel association between these polymorphisms and lower alcohol consumption in variant-allele carriers (B+/-SE: -0.57+/-0.16 g/d per-score-allele; P=0.001).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Statistical and biological interactions with PA and diet modulate the effects of FTO and MC4R polymorphisms on obesity. The novel association with alcohol consumption seems independent of their effects on BMI.