Translation is actively regulated during the differentiation of CD8+ effector T cells.
ABSTRACT: Translation is a critical process in protein synthesis, but translational regulation in antigen-specific T cells in vivo has not been well defined. Here we have characterized the translatome of virus-specific CD8+ effector T cells (Teff cells) during acute infection of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Antigen-specific T cells exerted dynamic translational control of gene expression that correlated with cell proliferation and stimulation via the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). The translation of mRNAs that encode translation machinery, including ribosomal proteins, was upregulated during the T cell clonal-expansion phase, followed by inhibition of the translation of those transcripts when the CD8+ Teff cells stopped dividing just before the contraction phase. That translational suppression was more pronounced in terminal effector cells than in memory precursor cells and was regulated by antigenic stimulation and signals from the kinase mTOR. Our studies show that translation of transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins is regulated during the differentiation of CD8+ Teff cells and might have a role in fate 'decisions' involved in the formation of memory cells.
Project description:The generation of CD8(+) T-cell memory is a major aim of vaccination. While distinct subsets of CD8(+) T-cells are generated following immunization that differ in their ability to confer long-term immunity against infection, the transcriptional profiles of these subsets within endogenous vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cell responses have not been resolved. Here, we measure global transcriptional profiles of endogenous effector (TEFF), effector memory (TEM) and central memory (TCM) CD8(+) T-cells arising from immunization with three distinct prime-boost vaccine regimens. While a proportion of transcripts were uniquely regulated within distinct CD8(+) T cell populations, we observed progressive up- or down-regulation in the expression of a majority of differentially expressed transcripts when subsets were compared in the order TN>TCM>TEM>TEFF. Strikingly, when we compared global differences in gene expression between TN, TCM, TEM and TEFF cells with known transcriptional changes that result when CD8(+) T cells repetitively encounter antigen, our analysis overwhelmingly favored a model whereby cumulative antigen stimulation drives differentiation specifically from TN>TCM>TEM>TEFF and this was common to all vaccines tested. These findings provide insight into the molecular basis of immunological memory and identify potential biomarkers for characterization of vaccine-induced responses and prediction of vaccine efficacy.
Project description:Adoptive T cell therapy has emerged as a promising treatment for cancer. However, it is unknown whether adoptively transferred anti-tumor T cells can form immunological memory and provide continuous protection against cancer metastasis. Herein, we used TCR transgenic Pmel-1 CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells as a model to investigate whether early transferred Pmel-1 CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells can generate immunological memory to prevent later melanoma metastasis. Upon stimulation with the cognate melanoma-associated hgp100 antigen, in vitro cultured Pmel-1 CD8<sup>+</sup> T cells developed into effector T (Teff) cells that exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against B16F10 melanoma cells. Next, B16F10 melanoma cells were intravenously injected into C57BL/6 (B6) mice to establish experimental lung metastasis. In vitro generated Pmel-1 Teff cells were adoptively transferred into the mice on the same day of or three weeks prior to B16F10 cell inoculation. We found that adoptive Pmel-1 Teff cell therapy significantly inhibited the B16F10 lung metastasis and prolonged the animal survival. Importantly, Pmel-1 Teff cells transferred three weeks prior to tumor inoculation were as potent as the Pmel-1 Teff cells transferred on the same day in inhibiting melanoma metastasis. Hence, our results suggest that adoptive CD8<sup>+</sup> Teff cell therapy generates immunological memory that continuously protect against melanoma metastasis.
Project description:During an acute infection, antigenic stimulation leads to activation, expansion, and differentiation of naïve CD8+ T cells, first into cytotoxic effector cells and eventually into long-lived memory cells. T cell antigen receptors (TCRs) detect antigens on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the form of antigenic peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex I (MHC-I)-encoded molecules and initiate TCR signal transduction network. This process is mediated by phosphorylation of many intracellular signaling proteins. Protein O-GlcNAc modification is another post-translational modification involved in this process, which often has either reciprocal or synergistic roles with phosphorylation. In this study, using a chemoenzymatic glycan labeling technique and proteomics analysis, we compared protein O-GlcNAcylation of murine effector and memory-like CD8+ T cells differentiated in vitro. By quantitative proteomics analysis, we identified 445 proteins that are significantly regulated in either effector- or memory-like T cell subsets. Furthermore, qualitative and quantitative analysis identified highly regulated protein clusters that suggest involvement of this post-translational modification in specific cellular processes. In effector-like T cells, protein O-GlcNAcylation is heavily involved in transcriptional and translational processes that drive fast effector T cells proliferation. During the formation of memory-like T cells, protein O-GlcNAcylation is involved in a more specific, perhaps more targeted regulation of transcription, mRNA processing, and translation. Significantly, O-GlcNAc plays a critical role as part of the "histone code" in both CD8+ T cells subgroups.
Project description:Highly functional CD8(+) effector T (Teff) cells can persist in large numbers during controlled persistent infections, as exemplified by rare HIV-infected individuals who control the virus. Here we examined the cellular mechanisms that maintain ongoing T effector responses using a mouse model for persistent Toxoplasma gondii infection. In mice expressing the protective MHC-I molecule, H-2L(d), a dominant T effector response against a single parasite antigen was maintained without a contraction phase, correlating with ongoing presentation of the dominant antigen. Large numbers of short-lived Teff cells were continuously produced via a proliferative, antigen-dependent intermediate (Tint) population with a memory-effector hybrid phenotype. During an acute, resolved infection, decreasing antigen load correlated with a sharp drop in the Tint cell population and subsequent loss of the ongoing effector response. Vaccination approaches aimed at the development of Tint populations might prove effective against pathogens that lead to chronic infection.
Project description:An increasing body of evidence emphasizes the role of tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) in the defense against recurring pathogens and malignant neoplasms. However, little is known with regard to the origin of these cells and their kinship to other CD8+ T cell compartments. To address this issue, we followed the antigen-specific progeny of individual naive CD8+ T cells to the T effector (TEFF), T circulating memory (TCIRCM), and TRM pools by lineage-tracing and single-cell transcriptome analysis. We demonstrate that a subset of T cell clones possesses a heightened capacity to form TRM, and that enriched expression of TRM-fate-associated genes is already apparent in the circulating TEFF offspring of such clones. In addition, we demonstrate that the capacity to generate TRM is permanently imprinted at the clonal level, before skin entry. Collectively, these data provide compelling evidence for early stage TRM fate decisions and the existence of committed TRM precursor cells in the circulatory TEFF compartment.
Project description:Blocking Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) can reinvigorate exhausted CD8 T cells (TEX) and improve control of chronic infections and cancer. However, whether blocking PD-1 can reprogram TEX into durable memory T cells (TMEM) is unclear. We found that reinvigoration of TEX in mice by PD-L1 blockade caused minimal memory development. After blockade, reinvigorated TEX became reexhausted if antigen concentration remained high and failed to become TMEM upon antigen clearance. TEX acquired an epigenetic profile distinct from that of effector T cells (TEFF) and TMEM cells that was minimally remodeled after PD-L1 blockade. This finding suggests that TEX are a distinct lineage of CD8 T cells. Nevertheless, PD-1 pathway blockade resulted in transcriptional rewiring and reengagement of effector circuitry in the TEX epigenetic landscape. These data indicate that epigenetic fate inflexibility may limit current immunotherapies.
Project description:The contribution of different DC subsets to effector and memory CD8(+) T cell generation during infection and the mechanism by which DCs controls these fate decisions is unclear. Here we demonstrated that the CD103(+) and CD11b(hi) migratory respiratory DC (RDC) subsets after influenza virus infection activated naive virus-specific CD8(+) T cells differentially. CD103(+) RDCs supported the generation of CD8(+) T effector (Teff) cells, which migrate from lymph nodes to the infected lungs. In contrast, migrant CD11b(hi) RDCs activated CD8(+) T cells characteristic of central memory CD8(+) T (CD8(+) Tcm) cells including retention within the draining lymph nodes. CD103(+) RDCs expressed CD24 at an elevated level, contributing to the propensity of this DC subpopulation to support CD8(+) Teff cell differentiation. Mechanistically, CD24 was shown to regulate CD8(+) T cell activation through HMGB1-mediated engagement of T cell RAGE. Thus, there is distribution of labor among DC subsets in regulating CD8(+) T cell differentiation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The development of memory responses is an evolutionary function of the adaptive immune system. We propose that for the immune system to populate the memory compartment with the best-suited CD8 T cells it utilizes a process of certification or molecular accreditation mediated through Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D). This process of certification assures that the memory compartment is filled with CD8 T cells that have demonstrated their ability to kill their cognate targets through a two-step process that utilizes T cell receptor (TCR) and NKG2D signaling.<h4>Methods</h4>One week after immunization with peptide-pulsed dendritic cells, NKG2D signaling was transiently blocked in vivo with a single injection of neutralizing antibodies. Under such conditions, we determined the importance of NKG2D signaling during the effector phase for memory formation without compromising NKG2D signaling at the memory phase. Both open (polyclonal) and closed (monoclonal) CD8 T cell repertoires were studied.<h4>Results</h4>We show that signaling through NKG2D mediated this certification. Temporary blockade of NKG2D signaling during the effector phase resulted in the formation of highly defective memory CD8 T cells characterized by altered expression of the ribosomal protein S6 and epigenetic modifiers, suggesting modifications in the T cell translational machinery and epigenetic programming. Finally, these uncertified memory cells were not protective against a B16 tumor challenge.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Signaling through NKG2D during the effector phase (certification) favors the development of functional memory CD8 T cells, a previously undescribed role for NKG2D. Temporary blockade of NKG2D signaling during the effector phase results in the formation of highly defective memory CD8 T cells potentially by affecting the expression of the ribosomal protein S6 and epigenetic modifiers, suggesting alterations in T cell translational machinery and epigenetic programming.
Project description:Exhausted CD8+ T (Tex) cells in chronic infections and cancer have limited effector function, high co-expression of inhibitory receptors and extensive transcriptional changes compared with effector (Teff) or memory (Tmem) CD8+ T cells. Tex cells are important clinical targets of checkpoint blockade and other immunotherapies. Epigenetically, Tex cells are a distinct immune subset, with a unique chromatin landscape compared with Teff and Tmem cells. However, the mechanisms that govern the transcriptional and epigenetic development of Tex cells remain unknown. Here we identify the HMG-box transcription factor TOX as a central regulator of Tex cells in mice. TOX is largely dispensable for the formation of Teff and Tmem cells, but it is critical for exhaustion: in the absence of TOX, Tex cells do not form. TOX is induced by calcineurin and NFAT2, and operates in a feed-forward loop in which it becomes calcineurin-independent and sustained in Tex cells. Robust expression of TOX therefore results in commitment to Tex cells by translating persistent stimulation into a distinct Tex cell transcriptional and epigenetic developmental program.
Project description:Infections induce pathogen-specific T cell differentiation into diverse effectors (Teff) that give rise to memory (Tmem) subsets. The cell-fate decisions and lineage relationships that underlie these transitions are poorly understood. Here, we found that the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 identifies three distinct CD8+ Teff and Tmem subsets. Classical central (Tcm) and effector memory (Tem) cells and their corresponding Teff precursors were CX3CR1- and CX3CR1high, respectively. Viral infection also induced a numerically stable CX3CR1int subset that represented ?15% of blood-borne Tmem cells. CX3CR1int Tmem cells underwent more frequent homeostatic divisions than other Tmem subsets and not only self-renewed, but also contributed to the expanding CX3CR1- Tcm pool. Both Tcm and CX3CR1int cells homed to lymph nodes, but CX3CR1int cells, and not Tem cells, predominantly surveyed peripheral tissues. As CX3CR1int Tmem cells present unique phenotypic, homeostatic, and migratory properties, we designate this subset peripheral memory (tpm) cells and propose that tpm cells are chiefly responsible for the global surveillance of non-lymphoid tissues.