Dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolism contributes to bortezomib-induced neuropathic pain.
ABSTRACT: The development of chemotherapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of many chemotherapeutics, including bortezomib, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. We now report that bortezomib causes the dysregulation of de novo sphingolipid metabolism in the spinal cord dorsal horn to increase the levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1PR1) ligands, S1P and dihydro-S1P. Accordingly, genetic and pharmacological disruption of S1PR1 with multiple S1PR1 antagonists, including FTY720, blocked and reversed neuropathic pain. Mice with astrocyte-specific alterations of S1pr1 did not develop neuropathic pain and lost their ability to respond to S1PR1 inhibition, strongly implicating astrocytes as a primary cellular substrate for S1PR1 activity. At the molecular level, S1PR1 engaged astrocyte-driven neuroinflammation and altered glutamatergic homeostasis, processes blocked by S1PR1 antagonism. Our findings establish S1PR1 as a target for therapeutic intervention and provide insight into cellular and molecular pathways. As FTY720 also shows promising anticancer potential and is FDA approved, rapid clinical translation of our findings is anticipated.
Project description:The immunomodulatory prodrug 2-amino-2-(2-[4-octylphenyl]ethyl)-1,3-propanediol (FTY720), which acts as an agonist for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors (S1PR) when phosphorylated, is proposed as a novel pain therapeutic. In this study, we assessed FTY720-mediated antinociception in the radiant heat tail-flick test and in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model of neuropathic pain in mice. FTY720 produced antinociception and antiallodynia, respectively, and these effects were dose-dependent and mimicked by the S1PR1-selective agonist CYM-5442. Repeated administration of FTY720 for 1 week produced tolerance to acute thermal antinociception, but not to antiallodynia in the CCI model. S1PR-stimulated [35S]GTP?S autoradiography revealed apparent desensitization of G protein activation by S1P or the S1PR1 agonist 5-[4-phenyl-5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-thienyl]-3-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazole (SEW-2871) throughout the brain. Similar results were seen in spinal cord membranes, whereby the Emax value of S1PR-stimulated [35S]GTP?S binding was greatly reduced in repeated FTY720-treated mice. These results suggest that S1PR1 is a primary target of FTY720 in alleviating both acute thermal nociception and chronic neuropathic nociception. Furthermore, the finding that tolerance develops to antinociception in the tail-flick test but not in chronic neuropathic pain suggests a differential mechanism of FTY720 action between these models. The observation that repeated FTY720 administration led to desensitized S1PR1 signaling throughout the central nervous system suggests the possibility that S1PR1 activation drives the acute thermal antinociceptive effects, whereas S1PR1 desensitization mediates the following: 1) tolerance to thermal antinociceptive actions of FTY720 and 2) the persistent antiallodynic effects of FTY720 in neuropathic pain by producing functional antagonism of pronociceptive S1PR1 signaling.
Project description:Neuropathic pain afflicts millions of individuals and represents a major health problem for which there is limited effective and safe therapy. Emerging literature links altered sphingolipid metabolism to nociceptive processing. However, the neuropharmacology of sphingolipid signaling in the central nervous system in the context of chronic pain remains largely unexplored and controversial. We now provide evidence that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) generated in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in response to nerve injury drives neuropathic pain by selectively activating the S1P receptor subtype 1 (S1PR1) in astrocytes. Accordingly, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of S1PR1 with multiple antagonists in distinct chemical classes, but not agonists, attenuated and even reversed neuropathic pain in rodents of both sexes and in two models of traumatic nerve injury. These S1PR1 antagonists retained their ability to inhibit neuropathic pain during sustained drug administration, and their effects were independent of endogenous opioid circuits. Moreover, mice with astrocyte-specific knockout of S1pr1 did not develop neuropathic pain following nerve injury, thereby identifying astrocytes as the primary cellular substrate of S1PR1 activity. On a molecular level, the beneficial reductions in neuropathic pain resulting from S1PR1 inhibition were driven by interleukin 10 (IL-10), a potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory cytokine. Collectively, our results provide fundamental neurobiological insights that identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms engaged by the S1PR1 axis in neuropathic pain and establish S1PR1 as a target for therapeutic intervention with S1PR1 antagonists as a class of nonnarcotic analgesics.
Project description:Recent evidence suggests that the oral drug Fingolimod (FTY720) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) may act directly on the central nervous system (CNS) and modulate disease pathogenesis and progression in experimental models of MS. However, the specific subtype of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors that mediates the effect of FTY720 on the CNS cells has not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) is elevated in reactive astrocytes in an autoimmunity independent mouse model of MS and that selective S1PR1 modulation is sufficient to ameliorate the loss of oligodendrocytes and demyelination. The non-selective S1PR modulator, FTY720, or a short-lived S1PR1-specific modulator, CYM5442, was administered daily to mice while on cuprizone diet. Both FTY720- and CYM5422-treated mice displayed a significant reduction in oligodendrocyte apoptosis and astrocyte and microglial activation in comparison to vehicle-treated groups, which was associated with decreased production of proinflammatory mediators and down-regulation of astrocytic S1PR1 protein. Interestingly, S1PR1 modulation during the early phase of cuprizone intoxication was required to suppress oligodendrocyte death and consequent demyelination as drug treatment from 10 days after the initiation of cuprizone feeding was no longer effective. CYM5442 treatment during the brief cuprizone exposure significantly prevented Il-1?, Il-6, Cxcl10, and Cxcl3 induction, resulting in suppression of subsequent reactive gliosis and demyelination. Our study identifies functional antagonism of S1PR1 as a major mechanism for the protective effect of FTY720 in the cuprizone model and suggests pathogenic contributions of astrocyte S1PR1 signaling in primary demyelination and its potential as a therapeutic target for CNS inflammation.
Project description:At the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers, P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven drug efflux pump, is a major obstacle to central nervous system (CNS) pharmacotherapy. Recently, we showed that signaling through tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), sphingolipids, and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) rapidly and reversibly reduced basal P-glycoprotein transport activity in the rat blood-brain barrier. The present study extends those findings to the mouse blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers and, importantly, identifies multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (Mrp1, Abcc1) as the transporter that mediates S1P efflux from brain and spinal cord endothelial cells. In brain and spinal cord capillaries isolated from wild-type mice, TNF-α, sphingosine, S1P, the S1PR agonist fingolimod (FTY720), and its active, phosphorylated metabolite, FTY720P, reduced P-glycoprotein transport activity; these effects were abolished by a specific S1PR1 antagonist. In brain and spinal cord capillaries isolated from Mrp1-null mice, neither TNF-α nor sphingosine nor FTY720 reduced P-glycoprotein transport activity. However, S1P and FTY720P had the same S1PR1-dependent effects on transport activity as in capillaries from wild-type mice. Thus, deletion of Mrp1 alone terminated endogenous signaling to S1PR1. These results identify Mrp1 as the transporter essential for S1P efflux from the endothelial cells and thus for inside-out S1P signaling to P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers.
Project description:The lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) regulates a wide range of cellular activities, including vascular maturation, angiogenesis, and immune-cell trafficking. Among the five known receptors for S1P (S1PR1-S1PR5), S1PR1 is a critical regulator of lymphocyte trafficking: its signaling is required for lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs, while its down-modulation by agonist-induced internalization is a prerequisite for lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs from the bloodstream. Despite the importance of S1PR1 down-regulation in determining lymphocyte behavior, the molecular mechanism of its internalization in lymphocytes has not been defined. Here we show that agonist-induced S1PR1 internalization in T cells occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is regulated by moesin, an ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family member. In S1P-stimulated T cells, S1PR1 relocalized within clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) and early endosomes, and S1PR1 internalization was blocked when clathrin was pharmacologically inhibited. Stimulating moesin-deficient T cells with S1P failed to induce S1PR1 internalization and CCV formation. Furthermore, treating moesin-deficient mice with FTY720, an S1P receptor agonist known to internalize S1PR1, caused delayed lymphopenia, and lymphocytes isolated from FTY720-treated moesin-deficient mice still responded to S1P ex vivo in chemotaxis assays. These results reveal a novel role for moesin in regulating clathrin-dependent S1PR1 internalization through CCV formation.
Project description:P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven drug efflux pump, is a major obstacle to the delivery of small-molecule drugs across the blood-brain barrier and into the CNS. Here we test a unique signaling-based strategy to overcome this obstacle. We used a confocal microscopy-based assay with isolated rat brain capillaries to map a signaling pathway that within minutes abolishes P-glycoprotein transport activity without altering transporter protein expression or tight junction permeability. This pathway encompasses elements of proinflammatory- (TNF-?) and sphingolipid-based signaling. Critical to this pathway was signaling through sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1). In brain capillaries, S1P acted through S1PR1 to rapidly and reversibly reduce P-glycoprotein transport activity. Sphingosine reduced transport by a sphingosine kinase-dependent mechanism. Importantly, fingolimod (FTY720), a S1P analog recently approved for treatment of multiple sclerosis, also rapidly reduced P-glycoprotein activity; similar effects were found with the active, phosphorylated metabolite (FTY720P). We validated these findings in vivo using in situ brain perfusion in rats. Administration of S1P, FTY720, or FTY729P increased brain uptake of three radiolabeled P-glycoprotein substrates, (3)H-verapamil (threefold increase), (3)H-loperamide (fivefold increase), and (3)H-paclitaxel (fivefold increase); blocking S1PR1 abolished this effect. Tight junctional permeability, measured as brain (14)C-sucrose accumulation, was not altered. Therefore, targeting signaling through S1PR1 at the blood-brain barrier with the sphingolipid-based drugs, FTY720 or FTY720P, can rapidly and reversibly reduce basal P-glycoprotein activity and thus improve delivery of small-molecule therapeutics to the brain.
Project description:Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that acts through a family of five G-protein-coupled receptors (S1PR1-5) and plays a key role in regulating the inflammatory response. Our previous studies demonstrated that rat sensory neurons express the mRNAs for all five S1PRs and that S1P increases neuronal excitability primarily, but not exclusively, through S1PR1. This raises the question as to which other S1PRs mediate the enhanced excitability.Isolated sensory neurons were treated with either short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or a variety of pharmacological agents targeted to S1PR1/R2/R3 to determine the role(s) of these receptors in regulating neuronal excitability. The excitability of isolated sensory neurons was assessed by using whole-cell patch-clamp recording to measure the capacity of these cells to fire action potentials (APs).After siRNA treatment, exposure to S1P failed to augment the excitability. Pooled siRNA targeted to S1PR1 and R3 also blocked the enhanced excitability produced by S1P. Consistent with the siRNA results, pretreatment with W146 and CAY10444, selective antagonists for S1PR1 and S1PR3, respectively, prevented the S1P-induced increase in neuronal excitability. Similarly, S1P failed to augment excitability after pretreatment with either VPC 23019, which is a S1PR1 and R3 antagonist, or VPC 44116, the phosphonate analog of VPC 23019. Acute exposure (10 to 15 min) to either of the well-established functional antagonists, FTY720 or CYM-5442, produced a significant increase in the excitability. Moreover, after a 1-h pretreatment with FTY720 (an agonist for S1PR1/R3/R4/R5), neither SEW2871 (S1PR1 selective agonist) nor S1P augmented the excitability. However, after pretreatment with CYM-5442 (selective for S1PR1), SEW2871 was ineffective, but S1P increased the excitability of some, but not all, sensory neurons.These results demonstrate that the enhanced excitability produced by S1P is mediated by activation of S1PR1 and/or S1PR3.
Project description:Nitric oxide is one of the major endothelial-derived vasoactive factors that regulate blood pressure (BP), and the bioactive lipid mediator S1P (sphingosine-1-phosphate) is a potent activator of endothelial nitric oxide synthase through G protein-coupled receptors. Endothelial-derived S1P and the autocrine/paracrine activation of S1PR (S1P receptors) play an important role in preserving vascular functions and BP homeostasis. Furthermore, FTY720 (fingolimod), binding to 4 out of 5 S1PRs recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat autoimmune conditions, induces a modest and transient decrease in heart rate in both animals and humans, suggesting that drugs targeting sphingolipid signaling affect cardiovascular functions in vivo. However, the role of specific S1P receptors in BP homeostasis remains unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the role of the key vascular S1P receptors, namely, S1PR1 and S1PR3, in BP regulation in physiological and hypertensive conditions. The specific loss of endothelial S1PR1 decreases basal and stimulated endothelial-derived nitric oxide and resets BP to a higher-than-normal value. Interestingly, we identified a novel and important role for S1PR1 signaling in flow-mediated mechanotransduction. FTY720, acting as functional antagonist of S1PR1, markedly decreases endothelial S1PR1, increases BP in control mice, and exacerbates hypertension in angiotensin II mouse model, underlining the antihypertensive functions of S1PR1 signaling. Our study identifies S1P-S1PR1-nitric oxide signaling as a new regulatory pathway in vivo of vascular relaxation to flow and BP homeostasis, providing a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune-inflammatory neurodegenerative disease that is often accompanied by a debilitating neuropathic pain. Disease-modifying agents slow down the progression of multiple sclerosis and prevent relapses, yet it remains unclear if they yield analgesia. We explored the analgesic potential of fingolimod (FTY720), an agonist and/or functional antagonist at the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1), because it reduces hyperalgesia in models of peripheral inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We used a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35 to 55 (MOG35-55) mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, modified to avoid frank paralysis, and thus, allow for assessment of withdrawal behaviors to somatosensory stimuli. Daily intraperitoneal fingolimod reduced behavioral signs of central neuropathic pain (mechanical and cold hypersensitivity) in a dose-dependent and reversible manner. Both autoimmune encephalomyelitis and fingolimod changed hyperalgesia before modifying motor function, suggesting that pain-related effects and clinical neurological deficits were modulated independently. Fingolimod also reduced cellular markers of central sensitization of neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord: glutamate-evoked Ca signaling and stimulus-evoked phospho-extracellular signal-related kinase ERK (pERK) expression, as well as upregulation of astrocytes (GFAP) and macrophage/microglia (Iba1) immunoreactivity. The antihyperalgesic effects of fingolimod were prevented or reversed by the S1PR1 antagonist W146 (1 mg/kg daily, i.p.) and could be mimicked by either repeated or single injection of the S1PR1-selective agonist SEW2871. Fingolimod did not change spinal membrane S1PR1 content, arguing against a functional antagonist mechanism. We conclude that fingolimod behaves as an S1PR1 agonist to reduce pain in multiple sclerosis by reversing central sensitization of spinal nociceptive neurons.