ABSTRACT: Metasurfaces of mechanical resonators have been successfully used to control in-plane polarized surface waves for filtering, waveguiding and lensing applications across different length scales. In this work, we extend the concept of metasurfaces to anti-plane surface waves existing in semi-infinite layered media, generally known as Love waves. By means of an effective medium approach, we derive an original closed-form dispersion relation for the metasurface. This relation reveals the possibility to control the Love waves dispersive properties by varying the resonators mechanical parameters. We exploit this capability to manipulate the metasurface refractive index and design two gradient index (GRIN) metalenses, i.e. a Luneburg lens and a Maxwell lens. We confirm the performance of the designed lenses using full 3D finite element simulations. Our work demonstrates the possibility of realizing wave control devices for anti-plane waves.
Project description:Metasurfaces offer a unique platform to precisely control optical wavefronts and enable the realization of flat lenses, or metalenses, which have the potential to substantially reduce the size and complexity of imaging systems and to realize new imaging modalities. However, it is a major challenge to create achromatic metalenses that produce a single focal length over a broad wavelength range because of the difficulty in simultaneously engineering phase profiles at distinct wavelengths on a single metasurface. For practical applications, there is a further challenge to create broadband achromatic metalenses that work in the transmission mode for incident light waves with any arbitrary polarization state. We developed a design methodology and created libraries of meta-units-building blocks of metasurfaces-with complex cross-sectional geometries to provide diverse phase dispersions (phase as a function of wavelength), which is crucial for creating broadband achromatic metalenses. We elucidated the fundamental limitations of achromatic metalens performance by deriving mathematical equations that govern the tradeoffs between phase dispersion and achievable lens parameters, including the lens diameter, numerical aperture (NA), and bandwidth of achromatic operation. We experimentally demonstrated several dielectric achromatic metalenses reaching the fundamental limitations. These metalenses work in the transmission mode with polarization-independent focusing efficiencies up to 50% and continuously provide a near-constant focal length over ??=?1200-1650?nm. These unprecedented properties represent a major advance compared to the state of the art and a major step toward practical implementations of metalenses.
Project description:Metasurfaces enable the design of optical elements by engineering the wavefront of light at the subwavelength scale. Due to their ultrathin and compact characteristics, metasurfaces possess great potential to integrate multiple functions in optoelectronic systems for optical device miniaturisation. However, current research based on multiplexing in the 2D plane has not fully utilised the capabilities of metasurfaces for multi-tasking applications. Here, we demonstrate a 3D-integrated metasurface device by stacking a hologram metasurface on a monolithic Fabry-Pérot cavity-based colour filter microarray to simultaneously achieve low-crosstalk, polarisation-independent, high-efficiency, full-colour holography, and microprint. The dual functions of the device outline a novel scheme for data recording, security encryption, colour displays, and information processing. Our 3D integration concept can be extended to achieve multi-tasking flat optical systems by including a variety of functional metasurface layers, such as polarizers, metalenses, and others.
Project description:Metasurfaces open up unprecedented potential for wave engineering using subwavelength sheets. However, a severe limitation of current acoustic metasurfaces is their poor reconfigurability to achieve distinct functions on demand. Here a programmable acoustic metasurface that contains an array of tunable subwavelength unit cells to break the limitation and realize versatile two-dimensional wave manipulation functions is reported. Each unit cell of the metasurface is composed of a straight channel and five shunted Helmholtz resonators, whose effective mass can be tuned by a robust fluidic system. The phase and amplitude of acoustic waves transmitting through each unit cell can be modulated dynamically and continuously. Based on such mechanism, the metasurface is able to achieve versatile wave manipulation functions, by engineering the phase and amplitude of transmission waves in the subwavelength scale. Through acoustic field scanning experiments, multiple wave manipulation functions, including steering acoustic waves, engineering acoustic beams, and switching on/off acoustic energy flow by using one design of metasurface are visually demonstrated. This work extends the metasurface research and holds great potential for a wide range of applications including acoustic imaging, communication, levitation, and tweezers.
Project description:We propose a kind of anisotropic planar metasurface, which has capacity to manipulate the orthogonally-polarized electromagnetic waves independently in the reflection mode. The metasurface is composed of orthogonally I-shaped structures and a metal-grounded plane spaced by a dielectric isolator, with the thickness of about 1/15 wavelength. The normally incident linear-polarized waves will be totally reflected by the metal plane, but the reflected phases of x- and y-polarized waves can be controlled independently by the orthogonally I-shaped structures. Based on this principle, we design four functional devices using the anisotropic metasurfaces to realize polarization beam splitting, beam deflection, and linear-to-circular polarization conversion with a deflection angle, respectively. Good performances have been observed from both simulation and measurement results, which show good capacity of the anisotropic metasurfaces to manipulate the x- and y-polarized reflected waves independently.
Project description:We propose an illusion device that transforms a metallic cylinder into a Luneburg lens by using transformation optics. Such a transformed focusing lens guides electromagnetic waves to propagate around the central metallic cylinder smoothly and be focused on one spot, and thus the information of an object behind the obstacle can be transmitted to infinity. In order to realize the required-anisotropic parameters with high permittivity and low permeability, we design embedded split-ring resonators (SRRs) to increase the permittivity of the traditional SRR structures. In experiments, we fabricate and measure the transformed lens, and the tested results agree well with the numerical simulations and theoretical predictions. The proposed transformation lens can mimic some properties of Einstein gravitational lens because their wave propagation behaviors are very similar.
Project description:Among various flat optical devices, metasurfaces have presented their great ability in efficient manipulation of light fields and have been proposed for variety of devices with specific functionalities. However, due to the high phase dispersion of their building blocks, metasurfaces significantly suffer from large chromatic aberration. Here we propose a design principle to realize achromatic metasurface devices which successfully eliminate the chromatic aberration over a continuous wavelength region from 1200 to 1680?nm for circularly-polarized incidences in a reflection scheme. For this proof-of-concept, we demonstrate broadband achromatic metalenses (with the efficiency on the order of ?12%) which are capable of focusing light with arbitrary wavelength at the same focal plane. A broadband achromatic gradient metasurface is also implemented, which is able to deflect wide-band light by the same angle. Through this approach, various flat achromatic devices that were previously impossible can be realized, which will allow innovation in full-color detection and imaging.Metasurfaces suffer from large chromatic aberration due to the high phase dispersion of their building blocks, limiting their applications. Here, Wang et al. design achromatic metasurface devices which eliminate the chromatic aberration over a continuous region from 1200 to 1680?nm in a reflection schleme.
Project description:Metasurfaces allow the rapid development of compact and flat electromagnetic devices owing to their capability in manipulating the wavefront of electromagnetic waves. Particularly, with respect to the metasurface lenses, wide operational bandwidth and wide incident angle behavior are critically required for practical applications. Herein, a single-layer phase gradient metasurface lens is presented to achieve millimeter-wave focusing at a focal point of 13 mm regardless of the incident angle. The proposed metasurface lens is fabricated by constructing subwavelength-thick (< λ/10) phase elements composed of two metallic layers separated by a single dielectric substrate that exhibits low-Q resonance properties and a wide phase modulation range with satisfactory transmissivity. By controlling the spatial phase distribution, the proposed metasurface lens successfully realises effective wavefront manipulation properties and high-performance electromagnetic-wave-focusing characteristics over a wide operating frequency range from 35 to 40 GHz with incident angle independency up to 30°.
Project description:Materials of which the refractive indices can be thermally tuned or switched, such as in chalcogenide phase-change alloys, offer a promising path towards the development of active optical metasurfaces for the control of the amplitude, phase, and polarization of light. However, for phase-change metasurfaces to be able to provide viable technology for active light control, in situ electrical switching via resistive heaters integral to or embedded in the metasurface itself is highly desirable. In this context, good electrical conductors (metals) with high melting points (i.e., significantly above the melting point of commonly used phase-change alloys) are required. In addition, such metals should ideally have low plasmonic losses, so as to not degrade metasurface optical performance. This essentially limits the choice to a few noble metals, namely, gold and silver, but these tend to diffuse quite readily into phase-change materials (particularly the archetypal Ge<sub>2</sub>Sb<sub>2</sub>Te<sub>5</sub> alloy used here), and into dielectric resonators such as Si or Ge. In this work, we introduce a novel hybrid dielectric/plasmonic metasurface architecture, where we incorporated a thin Ge<sub>2</sub>Sb<sub>2</sub>Te<sub>5</sub> layer into the body of a cubic silicon nanoresonator lying on metallic planes that simultaneously acted as high-efficiency reflectors and resistive heaters. Through systematic studies based on changing the configuration of the bottom metal plane between high-melting-point diffusive and low-melting-point nondiffusive metals (Au and Al, respectively), we explicitly show how thermally activated diffusion can catastrophically and irreversibly degrade the optical performance of chalcogenide phase-change metasurface devices, and how such degradation can be successfully overcome at the design stage via the incorporation of ultrathin Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub> barrier layers between the gold plane and the hybrid Si/Ge<sub>2</sub>Sb<sub>2</sub>Te<sub>5</sub> resonators. Our work clarifies the importance of diffusion of noble metals in thermally tunable metasurfaces and how to overcome it, thus helping phase-change-based metasurface technology move a step closer towards the realization of real-world applications.
Project description:Metasurfaces are engineered interfaces that contain a thin layer of plasmonic or dielectric nanostructures capable of manipulating light in a desirable manner. Advances in metasurfaces have led to various practical applications ranging from lensing to holography. Metasurface holograms that can be switched by the polarization state of incident light have been demonstrated for achieving polarization multiplexed functionalities. However, practical application of these devices has been limited by their capability for achieving high efficiency and high image quality. Here we experimentally demonstrate a helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with high efficiency and good image fidelity over a broad range of frequencies. The metasurface hologram features the combination of two sets of hologram patterns operating with opposite incident helicities. Two symmetrically distributed off-axis images are interchangeable by controlling the helicity of the input light. The demonstrated helicity multiplexed metasurface hologram with its high performance opens avenues for future applications with functionality switchable optical devices.
Project description:Metasurfaces are ultrathin, two-dimensional arrays of subwavelength resonators that have been demonstrated to control the flow of light in ways that are otherwise unattainable with natural materials. These arrays are typically composed of metallic Ag or Au nanostructures shaped like split rings, nanowire pairs or nanorods (commonly referred to as meta-atoms) that are arranged to produce a collective optical response spanning an impressive range of properties, from the perfect absorption of incident light to superresolution imaging. However, metasurfaces pose major challenges in their fabrication over large areas, which can be prohibitively expensive and time consuming using conventional nanolithography techniques. Here we show that differently shaped colloidal nanocrystals can be organized into metasurface architectures using robust, scalable assembly methods. These metasurfaces exhibit extreme in-plane electromagnetic coupling that is strongly dependent on nanocrystal size, shape and spacing. Colloidal metasurfaces that display near-ideal electromagnetic absorbance can be tuned from the visible into the mid-infrared wavelengths.