On the design of random metasurface based devices.
ABSTRACT: Metasurfaces are generally designed by placing scatterers in periodic or pseudo-periodic grids. We propose and discuss design rules for functional metasurfaces with randomly placed anisotropic elements that randomly sample a well-defined phase function. By analyzing the focusing performance of random metasurface lenses as a function of their density and the density of the phase-maps used to design them, we find that the performance of 1D metasurfaces is mostly governed by their density while 2D metasurfaces strongly depend on both the density and the near-field coupling configuration of the surface. The proposed approach is used to design all-polarization random metalenses at near infrared frequencies. Challenges, as well as opportunities of random metasurfaces compared to periodic ones are discussed. Our results pave the way to new approaches in the design of nanophotonic structures and devices from lenses to solar energy concentrators.
Project description:Metasurfaces offer a unique platform to precisely control optical wavefronts and enable the realization of flat lenses, or metalenses, which have the potential to substantially reduce the size and complexity of imaging systems and to realize new imaging modalities. However, it is a major challenge to create achromatic metalenses that produce a single focal length over a broad wavelength range because of the difficulty in simultaneously engineering phase profiles at distinct wavelengths on a single metasurface. For practical applications, there is a further challenge to create broadband achromatic metalenses that work in the transmission mode for incident light waves with any arbitrary polarization state. We developed a design methodology and created libraries of meta-units-building blocks of metasurfaces-with complex cross-sectional geometries to provide diverse phase dispersions (phase as a function of wavelength), which is crucial for creating broadband achromatic metalenses. We elucidated the fundamental limitations of achromatic metalens performance by deriving mathematical equations that govern the tradeoffs between phase dispersion and achievable lens parameters, including the lens diameter, numerical aperture (NA), and bandwidth of achromatic operation. We experimentally demonstrated several dielectric achromatic metalenses reaching the fundamental limitations. These metalenses work in the transmission mode with polarization-independent focusing efficiencies up to 50% and continuously provide a near-constant focal length over ??=?1200-1650?nm. These unprecedented properties represent a major advance compared to the state of the art and a major step toward practical implementations of metalenses.
Project description:Subwavelength metal-dielectric plasmonic metasurfaces enable light management beyond the diffraction limit. However, a cost-effective and reliable fabrication method for such structures remains a major challenge hindering their full exploitation. Here, we propose a simple yet powerful manufacturing route for plasmonic metasurfaces based on a bottom-up approach. The fabricated metasurfaces consist of a dense distribution of randomly oriented nanoscale scatterers composed of aluminum (Al) nanohole-disk pairs, which exhibit angle-independent scattering that is tunable across the entire visible spectrum. The macroscopic response of the metasurfaces is controlled via the properties of an isolated Al nanohole-disk pair at the nanoscale. In addition, the optical field confinement at the scatterers and their random distribution of sizes result in a strongly enhanced Raman signal that enables broadly tunable excitation using a single substrate. This unique combination of a reliable and lithography-free methodology with the use of aluminum permits the exploitation of the full potential of random plasmonic metasurfaces for diagnostics and coloration.
Project description:Metasurfaces of mechanical resonators have been successfully used to control in-plane polarized surface waves for filtering, waveguiding and lensing applications across different length scales. In this work, we extend the concept of metasurfaces to anti-plane surface waves existing in semi-infinite layered media, generally known as Love waves. By means of an effective medium approach, we derive an original closed-form dispersion relation for the metasurface. This relation reveals the possibility to control the Love waves dispersive properties by varying the resonators mechanical parameters. We exploit this capability to manipulate the metasurface refractive index and design two gradient index (GRIN) metalenses, i.e. a Luneburg lens and a Maxwell lens. We confirm the performance of the designed lenses using full 3D finite element simulations. Our work demonstrates the possibility of realizing wave control devices for anti-plane waves.
Project description:Chromatic dispersion spatially separates white light into colours, producing rainbows and similar effects. Detrimental to imaging but essential to spectroscopy, chromatic dispersion is the result of material properties in refractive optics and is considered an inherent characteristic of diffractive devices such as gratings and flat lenses. Here, we present a fundamental relation connecting an optical system's dispersion to the trajectories light takes through it and show that arbitrary control over dispersion may be achieved by prescribing specific trajectories, even in diffractive systems. Using cascaded metasurfaces (2D arrays of sub-micron scatterers) to direct light along predetermined trajectories, we present an achromatic twisted metalens and experimentally demonstrate beam deflectors with arbitrary dispersion. This new insight and design approach usher in a new class of optical systems with wide-ranging applications.
Project description:Metasurfaces in the ultraviolet spectrum have stirred up prevalent research interest due to the increasing demand for ultra-compact and wearable UV optical systems. The limitations of conventional plasmonic metasurfaces operating in transmission mode can be overcome by using a suitable dielectric material. A metalens holds promising wavefront engineering for various applications. Metalenses have developed a breakthrough technology in the advancement of integrated and miniaturized optical devices. However, metalenses utilizing the Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase or resonance tuning methodology are restricted to polarization dependence and for various applications, polarization-insensitive metalenses are highly desirable. We propose the design of a high-efficiency dielectric polarization-insensitive UV metalens utilizing cylindrical nanopillars with strong focusing ability, providing full phase delay in a broadband range of Ultraviolet light (270-380 nm). The designed metalens comprises Silicon nitride cylindrical nanopillars with spatially varying radii and offers outstanding polarization-insensitive operation in the broadband UV spectrum. It will significantly promote and boost the integration and miniaturization of the UV photonic devices by overcoming the use of Plasmonics structures that are vulnerable to the absorption and ohmic losses of the metals. The focusing efficiency of the designed metalens is as high as 40%.
Project description:Focal adjustment and zooming are universal features of cameras and advanced optical systems. Such tuning is usually performed longitudinally along the optical axis by mechanical or electrical control of focal length. However, the recent advent of ultrathin planar lenses based on metasurfaces (metalenses), which opens the door to future drastic miniaturization of mobile devices such as cell phones and wearable displays, mandates fundamentally different forms of tuning based on lateral motion rather than longitudinal motion. Theory shows that the strain field of a metalens substrate can be directly mapped into the outgoing optical wavefront to achieve large diffraction-limited focal length tuning and control of aberrations. We demonstrate electrically tunable large-area metalenses controlled by artificial muscles capable of simultaneously performing focal length tuning (>100%) as well as on-the-fly astigmatism and image shift corrections, which until now were only possible in electron optics. The device thickness is only 30 ?m. Our results demonstrate the possibility of future optical microscopes that fully operate electronically, as well as compact optical systems that use the principles of adaptive optics to correct many orders of aberrations simultaneously.
Project description:Planar structured interfaces, also known as metasurfaces, are continuously attracting interest owing to their ability to manipulate fundamental attributes of light, including angular momentum, phase, or polarization. However, chromatic aberration, limiting broadband operation, has remained a challenge for metasurfaces-based optical components and imagers. The limitation stems from the intrinsic dispersion of existing materials and design principles. Here we report and experimentally demonstrate polarization-independent fishnet-achromatic-metalenses with measured average efficiencies over 70% in the continuous band from the visible (640?nm) to the infrared (1200?nm). Results of the scalable platform are enabling for applications requiring broad bandwidth and high efficiency including energy harvesting, virtual reality and information processing devices, or medical imaging.
Project description:Metasurfaces enable the design of optical elements by engineering the wavefront of light at the subwavelength scale. Due to their ultrathin and compact characteristics, metasurfaces possess great potential to integrate multiple functions in optoelectronic systems for optical device miniaturisation. However, current research based on multiplexing in the 2D plane has not fully utilised the capabilities of metasurfaces for multi-tasking applications. Here, we demonstrate a 3D-integrated metasurface device by stacking a hologram metasurface on a monolithic Fabry-Pérot cavity-based colour filter microarray to simultaneously achieve low-crosstalk, polarisation-independent, high-efficiency, full-colour holography, and microprint. The dual functions of the device outline a novel scheme for data recording, security encryption, colour displays, and information processing. Our 3D integration concept can be extended to achieve multi-tasking flat optical systems by including a variety of functional metasurface layers, such as polarizers, metalenses, and others.
Project description:Metasurfaces are planar optical elements that hold promise for overcoming the limitations of refractive and conventional diffractive optics. Previous metasurfaces have been limited to transparency windows at infrared wavelengths because of significant optical absorption and loss at visible wavelengths. Here we report a polarization-insensitive, high-contrast transmissive metasurface composed of crystalline titanium dioxide pillars in the form of metalens at the wavelength of 633 nm. The focal spots are as small as 0.54 λ d , which is very close to the optical diffraction limit of 0.5 λ d . The simulation focusing efficiency is up to 88.5%. A rigorous method for metalens design, the phase realization mechanism and the trade-off between high efficiency and small spot size (or large numerical aperture) are discussed. Besides, the metalenses can work well with an imaging point source up to ±15° off axis. The proposed design is relatively systematic and can be applied to various applications such as visible imaging, ranging and sensing systems.
Project description:Recent years have heralded the introduction of metasurfaces that advantageously combine the vision of sub-wavelength wave manipulation, with the design, fabrication and size advantages associated with surface excitation. An important topic within metasurfaces is the tailored rainbow trapping and selective spatial frequency separation of electromagnetic and acoustic waves using graded metasurfaces. This frequency dependent trapping and spatial frequency segregation has implications for energy concentrators and associated energy harvesting, sensing and wave filtering techniques. Different demonstrations of acoustic and electromagnetic rainbow devices have been performed, however not for deep elastic substrates that support both shear and compressional waves, together with surface Rayleigh waves; these allow not only for Rayleigh wave rainbow effects to exist but also for mode conversion from surface into shear waves. Here we demonstrate experimentally not only elastic Rayleigh wave rainbow trapping, by taking advantage of a stop-band for surface waves, but also selective mode conversion of surface Rayleigh waves to shear waves. These experiments performed at ultrasonic frequencies, in the range of 400-600?kHz, are complemented by time domain numerical simulations. The metasurfaces we design are not limited to guided ultrasonic waves and are a general phenomenon in elastic waves that can be translated across scales.