Effects of bamboo vinegar powder on growth performance and mRNA expression levels of interleukin-10, interleukin-22, and interleukin-25 in immune organs of weaned piglets.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of bamboo vinegar powder on growth performance, diarrhea situation and mRNA expression levels of cytokines i.e., interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-22 (IL-22), and interleukin-25 (IL-25) in immune organs of weaned piglets, and to accumulate theoretical data for the application of bamboo vinegar powder in weaned piglet production. Forty-five crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, all male) weaned piglets with similar body weight (6.74 ± 0.17 kg) at 31 days of age were randomly assigned to 5 treatments with 3 replicates per treatment and 3 piglets in each replicate. The five treatments were as follows: CON (a basal diet), ANT (the basal diet + 0.12% antibiotics), BV1 (the basal diet + 0.1% bamboo vinegar powder), BV5 (the basal diet + 0.5% bamboo vinegar powder), BV10 (the basal diet + 1.0% bamboo vinegar powder). This experiment lasted 35 days. The growth performance and diarrhea situation were recorded. The relative mRNA expression levels of IL-10, IL-22 and IL-25 in liver, spleen, duodenum and mesenteric lymph nodes were detected by real-time PCR. Feed: gain of BV5 was significantly lower than that of CON (P < 0.05). In comparison with CON, diarrhea rate and diarrhea index of BV1 and BV5 all tended to decrease (P < 0.1). Compared with CON, mRNA expression level of IL-10 in liver of ANT tended to be lower (P < 0.1) and these of BV1, BV5 and BV10 were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of IL-10 in duodenum of ANT, BV1, BV5 and BV10 were all lower than those of CON, of which BV10 had significantly decreased IL-10 mRNA expression in duodenum (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of IL-22 in duodenum of ANT, BV1, BV5 and BV10 all tended to be inhibited compared with CON (P < 0.1). With the increase of bamboo vinegar powder dosage, mRNA expression levels of IL-25 in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of BV1, BV5 and BV10 tended to be up-regulated. Overall, bamboo vinegar powder could improve growth performance, and regulate mRNA expression levels of IL-10, IL-22 and IL-25 in immune organs of weaned piglets. The dosage at 0.5% showed optimum effects.
Project description:This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii (LAB) on intestinal morphology, barrier function, immune response, and antioxidant capacity in weaned piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 36 two-line crossbred (Landrace?×?large Yorkshire) weaned piglets (28 days old) were divided into three groups: (1) nonchallenged control (CON); (2) LPS-challenged control (LPS); and (3) LAB+LPS treatment (0.2% LAB+LPS). Compared to the LPS piglets, the LAB+LPS piglets improved intestinal morphology, indicated by greater (P < 0.05) villus height in the duodenum and ileum; villus height?:?crypt depth ratio in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, as well as decreased (P < 0.05) crypt depth in the jejunum and ileum; and better intestinal barrier function, indicated by upregulated (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of tight junction proteins in the intestinal mucosa. Moreover, compared to the LPS piglets, LAB significantly decreased (P < 0.05) concentrations of TNF-? and IL-1? in the small intestine and increased (P < 0.05) IL-10 levels in the jejunum and ileum. Additionally, LAB increased (P < 0.05) T-AOC activities of the colon, GSH concentrations of the jejunum, and mRNA expression of CAT and Cu/Zn-SOD, while reduced (P < 0.05) MDA concentrations in the jejunum and ileum in LPS-changed piglets. Collectively, our results indicate that supplementation of LAB improved intestinal integrity and immune response and alleviated intestinal oxidative damage in LPS-challenged piglets.
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri LR1, a new strain isolated from the feces of weaned pigs, on the growth performance, intestinal morphology, immune responses, and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs. A total of 144 weaned pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire, 21 d of age) with an initial BW of 6.49 ± 0.02 kg were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 8 replicate pens, each of per treatment and 6 pigs. Pigs were fed a basal diet (CON, controls), the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg olaquindox and 75 mg/kg aureomycin (OA) or the basal diet supplemented with 5 × 1010 cfu/kg L. reuteri LR1 for a 14-d period. At the end of study, the ADG, ADFI, and G:F were calculated, and 1 randomly selected pig from each pen was euthanized for sample collection. The LR1 increased ADG (22.73%, P < 0.05) compared with CON. The villus height of the ileum was increased (P < 0.05) and crypt depth in duodenum was reduced (P < 0.05), along with increased (P < 0.05) villus height to crypt depth ratio of the jejunum and ileum by LR1 compared with CON and OA. LR1 increased (P < 0.05) ileal mucosal content of IL-22 and transforming growth factor-? compared with OA. Compared with CON, LR1 increased (P < 0.05) and OA decreased (P < 0.05) the ileal content of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and the abundance of transcripts of porcine ?-defensin 2 and protegrin 1-5. Compared with CON, LR1 increased (P < 0.05) tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 and occludin transcripts in the mucosa of the jejunum and ileum, and those of mucin-2 in ileal mucosa. The relative expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 were increased (P < 0.05) in ileal mucosa in pigs fed LR1 compared with CON. In conclusion, these data indicated that dietary LR1 supplementation at 5 × 1010 cfu/kg improved growth performance, intestinal morphology, and intestinal barrier function in weaned pigs.
Project description:Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a natural phenolic acid, which is an important component of biologically active dietary phenols isolated from various species. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of CGA on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, nutrient digestibility, diarrhea incidence, intestinal digestion and absorption function, and the expression levels of intestinal digestion and absorption-related genes in weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, 200 weaned pigs were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments and fed with a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with 250, 500, or 1,000 mg/kg CGA, respectively, in a 14-d trial. Pigs on the 1,000 mg/kg CGA-supplemented group had greater (P < 0.05) G:F compared with those on the control (CON) group. In Exp. 2, 24 weaned pigs were randomly allotted to two groups and fed with a basal diet (CON group) or a basal diet supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg CGA (the optimum does from Exp. 1; CGA group). After a 14-d trial, 8 pigs per treatment were randomly selected to collect serum and intestinal samples. Compared with the CON group, the ADG, G:F, as well as the apparent total tract digestibility of CP, crude fat, and ash were increased (P < 0.05), whereas the diarrhea incidence was decreased (P < 0.05) in the CGA group. Pigs on the CGA group had greater (P < 0.05) serum albumin and IGF-1, and lower (P < 0.05) serum urea nitrogen than pigs on the CON group. Furthermore, dietary CGA supplementation enhanced (P < 0.05) the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) in the serum, the activity of maltase in the jejunum and ileum, as well as the activities of sucrase and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) in the jejunum. The mRNA levels of sodium glucose transport protein-1 (SGLT1) and zinc transporter-1 (ZNT1) in the duodenum and the mRNA levels of SGLT1, glucose transporter-2 (GLUT2), and divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) in the jejunum were upregulated (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the CGA diet. These results suggested that dietary CGA supplementation has the potentials to improve the growth performance and decrease the diarrhea incidence of the weaned pigs, possibly through improving the antioxidant capacity and enhancing the intestinal digestion and absorption function.
Project description:Background:Tannic acid (TA) is potential to reduce diarrhea in weaning pigs, but knowledge about the influence of TA on intestinal barrier integrity and function is still scarce. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary TA supplementation on growth performance, diarrhea rate, intestinal barrier integrity and function of weaned pigs. Methods:A total of 108 crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) piglets, with an initial average body weight of 6.60?±?0.27?kg, were allotted to 3 groups (6 pigs/pen and 6 replicates/group) in a randomized complete block design according to their gender and body weight. Piglets were fed the basal diet with 0 (control, CON), 0.2% and 1.0% TA, respectively. The trial lasted for 28?d. Results:Compared with the CON group, dietary 0.2% and 1.0% TA supplementation didn't affect ADFI, ADG and F:G (P?>?0.05), but reduced diarrhea rate, diarrhea index and diarrhea score of piglets (P?<?0.05), reduced diamine oxidase (DAO) activity and D-lactic acid concentration in serum (P?<?0.01). The higher occludin expression and localization were observed in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum after supplementation with 0.2% or 1.0% TA (P?<?0.05). Adding 0.2% TA to diet significantly decreased crypt depth, increased villus height/crypt depth ratio in the duodenum (P?<?0.05), and dietary 1.0% TA tended to decrease crypt depth (P?<?0.10) and significantly decreased villus height (P?<?0.05) of the ileum. Moreover, lower malondialdehyde content in the ileum was detected in the pigs fed 1.0% TA (P?<?0.05). In the duodenum, both 0.2% and 1.0% TA groups had higher occludin (OCLN) mRNA and 0.2% TA group had higher zonula occludens-2 (ZO-2) level (P?<?0.05). Meanwhile, dietary 1.0% TA supplementation tended to up-regulate OCLN mRNA levels in the jejunum (P?<?0.10) and 0.2% TA supplementation tended to up-regulate zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) mRNA levels in the ileum (P?<?0.10). Conclusion:In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 0.2% or 1.0% TA could effectively alleviate post-weaning diarrhea without altering growth performance in weaned piglets, which might be achieved by improving intestinal barrier integrity and function.
Project description:Human infants or piglets are vulnerable to intestinal microbe-caused disorders and inflammation due to their rapidly changing gut microbiota and immaturity of their immune systems at weaning. Resveratrol and curcumin have significant anti-inflammatory, bacteria-regulating and immune-promoting effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dietary supplementation with resveratrol and curcumin can change the intestinal microbiota and alleviate intestinal inflammation induced by weaning in piglets. One hundred eighty piglets weaned at 21 ± 2 d were fed a control diet (CON group) or supplemented diet (300 mg/kg of antibiotics, ANT group; 300 mg/kg of resveratrol and curcumin, respectively, HRC group; 100 mg/kg of resveratrol and curcumin, respectively, LRC group; 300 mg/kg of resveratrol, RES group; 300 mg/kg of curcumin, CUR group) for 28 days. The results showed that compared with the CON group, curcumin alone and antibiotics decreased the copy numbers of Escherichia coli. Both curcumin and resveratrol down-regulated the level of Toll-like-receptor 4 mRNA and protein expression in the intestine to inhibit the release of critical inflammation molecules (interleukin-1?, tumor necrosis factor-?), and increase the secretion of immunoglobulin. Our results suggested that curcumin and resveratrol can regulate weaned piglet gut microbiota, down-regulate the TLR4 signaling pathway, alleviate intestinal inflammation, and ultimately increase intestinal immune function.
Project description:We investigate the effects of postbiotic Lactobacillus plantarum RG14 on gastrointestinal histology, haematology, mucosal IgA concentration, microbial population and mRNA expression related to intestinal mucosal immunity and barrier function. Twelve newly weaned lambs were randomly allocated to two treatment groups; the control group without postbiotic supplementation and postbiotic group with supplementation of 0.9% postbiotic in the diet over a 60-day trial. The improvement of rumen papillae height and width were observed in lambs fed with postbiotics. In contrast, no difference was shown in villi height of duodenum, jejunum and ileum between the two groups. Lambs received postbiotics had a lower concentration of IgA in jejunum but no difference in IgA concentration in serum and mucosal of the rumen, duodenum and ileum. In respect of haematology, postbiotics lowered leukocyte, lymphocyte, basophil, neutrophil and platelets, no significant differences in eosinophil. The increase in of IL-6 mRNA and decrease of IL-1?, IL-10, TNF mRNA were observed in the jejunum of lambs receiving postbiotics. Postbiotics also improved the integrity of the intestinal barrier by the upregulation of TJP-1, CLDN-1 and CLDN-4 mRNA. Postbiotic supplementation derived from L. plantarum RG14 in post-weaning lambs enhance the ruminal papillae growth, immune status and gastrointestinal health.
Project description:Our previous studies on intranasal tolerance induction demonstrated reduction of allergic responses with different allergen constructs. The underlying mechanisms varied depending on their conformation or size.The aim of the present study was to compare the uptake of two structurally different allergen molecules within the respiratory tract following intranasal application.The three-dimensional Bet v 1 (Bv1-Protein) and the T cell epitope peptide of Bet v 1 (Bv1-Peptide) were labelled with 5,6-Carboxyfluorescein (FAM) and their uptake was investigated in lung cells and cells of the nasal associated lymphoid tissue from naive and sensitised BALB/c mice. Phenotypic characterisation of FAM+ lung cells after antigen incubation in vitro and after intranasal application was performed by flow cytometry. Impact of Bv1-Protein and Bv1-Peptide on cytokine profiles and gene expression in vivo or in an alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cell line were assessed in mono- and co-cultures with monocytes using ELISA and quantitative real-time PCR.Both antigens were taken up preferably by ATII-like cells (ATII-LCs) in naive mice, and by macrophages in sensitised mice. After intranasal application, Bv1-Peptide was taken up faster and more efficiently than Bv1-Protein. In vivo and in vitro experiments revealed that Bv1-Protein induced the transcription of thymic stromal lymphopoietin mRNA while Bv1-Peptide induced the transcription of IL-10 and MCP1 mRNA in ATII-LCs.Both tested antigens were taken up by ATII-LCs under steady state conditions and induced different polarisation of the immune responses. These data may have an important impact for the generation of novel and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic tools targeting the respiratory mucosa.
Project description:Taste receptors including calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) are expressed in various animal tissues, and CaSR plays important roles in nutrient sensing and the physiology, growth, and development of animals. However, molecular distribution of porcine CaSR (pCaSR) in different tissues, especially along the longitudinal axis of the digestive tract in weaned piglets, is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and localization of pCaSR in the different tissues including intestinal segments of weaned piglets. Six male pigs were anesthetized and euthanized. Different tissues such as intestinal segments were collected. The pCaSR mRNA abundance, protein abundance, and localization were measured by real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The mRNA and protein of pCaSR were detected in the kidney, lung, liver, stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon. The pCaSR mRNA was much higher (five to 180 times) in the kidney when compared with other tissues (P < 0.05). The ileum had higher pCaSR mRNA and protein abundances than the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and colon (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining results indicated that the pCaSR protein was mostly located in the epithelia of the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon. These results demonstrate that pCaSR is widely expressed in different tissues including intestinal segments in weaned piglets and the ileum has a higher expression level of pCaSR. Further research is needed to confirm the expression of CaSR in the different types of epithelial cells isolated from weaned piglets and characterize the functions of pCaSR, its potential ligands and cell signaling pathways related to CaSR activation in enteroendocrine cells and potentially in enterocytes.
Project description:A total of 75 pigs were used to investigate effects of feeding Two Macrocephala Flavored Powder (TMFP) on small intestinal morphology, intestinal microbiota in weaning pigs. The dietary treatments were: a control diet; control diet + 3 g/kg TMFP; control diet + 0.3 g/kg colistin sulfate (ANT). The results showed that supplementation with TMFP increased (P < 0.05) villus height at duodenum, jejunum at 3 time points, increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth at duodenum, jejunum at day 14, improved villus height: crypt depth ratio (P < 0.05) in jejunum at day 21 as compared with ANT. Supplementation of TMFP and ANT had lower (P < 0.05) E. coli counts in the ileum, cecum and colon at day 7 as compared with control. Supplementation of TMFP had higher (P < 0.05) bifidobacteria counts in the ileum, cecum and colon compared with ANT, except for colon at day 21. No effect (P > 0.05) on lactobacilli in colon has been seen with supplementation of TMFP and ANT at 3 time points, while both of supplementations showed increased the number of lactobacilli in cecum at day 14 and day 21. Analysis of DGGE fingerprints indicated that a highest similarity was observed for profiles from samples taken 14 d, 21 d from TMFP. The diversity of DGGE fingerprints of TMFP was higher than those of ANT and control. The results suggest that TMFP is potential to enhancing intestinal morphology and microbiota of weaning pigs, and can be served as an effective and safe dietary additive for weaning pigs.
Project description:Background:Weanling pigs, with immature immune system and physiological function, usually experience post-weaning diarrhea. This study determined the effects of dietary Clostridium butyricum supplementation on growth performance, diarrhea, and immunity of weaned pigs challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods:In Experiment (Exp.) 1, 144 weaned piglets were weaned at 21 d and randomly assigned to six groups, with six replicates per group and four pigs per replicate, receiving a control diet (CON) or diet supplemented with antibiotics (AB) or C. butyricum (CB) (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, or 0.8%), respectively. All diets in Exp. 1 were a highly digestible basal diet, with 3,000 mg/kg zinc oxide supplied in the first 2 wk only. In Exp. 2, 180 piglets were weaned at 21 d and randomly assigned to five groups, with six replicates per group and six pigs per replicate, receiving CON, AB, or CB (0.2%, 0.4%, or 0.6%) diets. The digestibility of diets was lower than those in Exp. 1, and did not include zinc oxide. At 36 d of Exp. 2, 12 piglets were selected from each of the CON and 0.4% CB groups, six piglets were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (50 ?g/kg body weight) and the other six piglets with normal saline; animals were killed at 4 h after injection to collect blood, intestine, and digesta samples for biochemical analysis. Results:In Exp. 1, CB and AB diets had no effect on growth performance of piglets. In Exp. 2, 0.4% CB decreased feed-gain ratio (P?<?0.1), diarrhea score (P?<?0.05), and increased duodenal, jejunal, and ileal villus height and jejunal villus height/crypt depth (P?<?0.05). The 0.4% CB decreased the plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ? (P?<?0.05) but increased ileal mucosa IL-10 and TLR2 mRNA expression (P?<?0.05). Furthermore, 0.4% CB altered the microbial profile, with Bacillus and Ruminococcaceae UGG-003 at genus level and Lactobacillus casei and Parasutterella secunda at species level were higher than CON in colonic content (P?<?0.05). Conclusions:Dietary C. butyricum supplementation had positive effects on growth of weaned piglets with less digestible diets. There was a tendency to reduce the feed-gain ratio, which could reduce feed costs in pig production. Moreover, C. butyricum decreased post-weaning diarrhea by improving the intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora profile, and immune function.