The YABBY Genes of Leaf and Leaf-Like Organ Polarity in Leafless Plant Monotropa hypopitys.
ABSTRACT: Monotropa hypopitys is a mycoheterotrophic, nonphotosynthetic plant acquiring nutrients from the roots of autotrophic trees through mycorrhizal symbiosis, and, similar to other extant plants, forming asymmetrical lateral organs during development. The members of the YABBY family of transcription factors are important players in the establishment of leaf and leaf-like organ polarity in plants. This is the first report on the identification of YABBY genes in a mycoheterotrophic plant devoid of aboveground vegetative organs. Seven M. hypopitys YABBY members were identified and classified into four clades. By structural analysis of putative encoded proteins, we confirmed the presence of YABBY-defining conserved domains and identified novel clade-specific motifs. Transcriptomic and qRT-PCR analyses of different tissues revealed MhyYABBY transcriptional patterns, which were similar to those of orthologous YABBY genes from other angiosperms. These data should contribute to the understanding of the role of the YABBY genes in the regulation of developmental and physiological processes in achlorophyllous leafless plants.
Project description:Plastid genomes of parasitic plants represent apt systems, in which the effects of relaxed selective pressure on photosynthetic function are studied. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of nonphotosynthetic mycoheterotrophic plant <i>Monotropa hypopitys</i> was determined. With only 19 protein-coding, four rRNA and 17 tRNA genes in 34?800?bp long genome, it is one of the most reduced plastid genomes characterized until now. <i>Monotropa</i> chloroplast genome lacks all genes encoding photosynthetic functions and RNA polymerase subunits but retains most of the ribosomal protein genes and housekeeping genes infA and matK. <i>Monotropa</i> represents the late stages of chloroplast genome decay following the transition to heterotrophy.
Project description:Heterotrophic plants-plants that have lost the ability to photosynthesize-are characterized by a number of changes at all levels of organization. Heterotrophic plants are divided into two large categories-parasitic and mycoheterotrophic (MHT). The question of to what extent such changes are similar in these two categories is still open. The plastid genomes of nonphotosynthetic plants are well characterized, and they exhibit similar patterns of reduction in the two groups. In contrast, little is known about the mitochondrial genomes of MHT plants. We report the structure of the mitochondrial genome of Hypopitys monotropa, a MHT member of Ericaceae, and the expression of its genes. In contrast to its highly reduced plastid genome, the mitochondrial genome of H. monotropa is larger than that of its photosynthetic relative Vaccinium macrocarpon, and its complete size is ~810 Kb. We observed an unusually long repeat-rich structure of the genome that suggests the existence of linear fragments. Despite this unique feature, the gene content of the H. monotropa mitogenome is typical of flowering plants. No acceleration of substitution rates is observed in mitochondrial genes, in contrast to previous observations in parasitic non-photosynthetic plants. Transcriptome sequencing revealed the trans-splicing of several genes and RNA editing in 33 of 38 genes. Notably, we did not find any traces of horizontal gene transfer from fungi, in contrast to plant parasites, which extensively integrate genetic material from their hosts.
Project description:Monotropa hypopitys (pinesap) is a non-photosynthetic obligately mycoheterotrophic plant of the family Ericaceae. It obtains the carbon and other nutrients from the roots of surrounding autotrophic trees through the associated mycorrhizal fungi. In order to understand the evolutionary changes in the plant genome associated with transition to a heterotrophic lifestyle, we performed de novo transcriptomic analysis of M. hypopitys using next-generation sequencing. We obtained the RNA-Seq data from flowers, flower bracts and roots with haustoria using Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. The raw data obtained in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession number of SRP069226. A total of 10.3 GB raw sequence data were obtained, corresponding to 103,357,809 raw reads. A total of 103,025,683 reads were filtered after removing low-quality reads and trimming the adapter sequences. The Trinity program was used to de novo assemble 98,349 unigens with an N50 of 1342 bp. Using the TransDecoder program, we predicted 43,505 putative proteins. 38,416 unigenes were annotated in the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database using BLASTX. The obtained transcriptomic data will be useful for further studies of the evolution of plant genomes upon transition to a non-photosynthetic lifestyle and the loss of photosynthesis-related functions.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Peripheral populations of plant species are often characterized by low levels of genetic diversity as a result of genetic drift, restricted gene flow, inbreeding and asexual reproduction. These effects can be exacerbated where range-edge populations are fragmented. The main aim of the present study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity in remnant populations of Hypopitys monotropa (syn. Monotropa hypopitys; yellow bird's nest) at the edge of the species' European range in Northern Ireland, since these remnant populations are small and highly fragmented. METHODS: Every plant found through surveys of 21 extant populations was genotyped for eight microsatellite loci to estimate levels and patterns of genetic diversity and clonality. KEY RESULTS: Levels of genetic diversity were relatively high in the populations studied, and the incidence of clonal reproduction was generally low, with a mean of only 14·45 % of clonal individuals. Clones were small and highly spatially structured. Levels of inbreeding, however, were high. CONCLUSIONS: The observed low levels of clonality suggest that the majority of genets in the populations of H. monotropa studied are fertile and that reproduction is predominantly sexual. As the species is highly self-compatible, it is likely that the high levels of inbreeding observed in the populations in the present study are the result of self-pollination, particularly given the small numbers of individuals in most of the patches. Given this extent of inbreeding, further genetic monitoring would be advisable to ensure that genetic diversity is maintained.
Project description:Chloroplasts of most plants are responsible for photosynthesis and contain a conserved set of about 110 genes that encode components of housekeeping gene expression machinery and photosynthesis-related functions. Heterotrophic plants obtaining nutrients from other organisms and their plastid genomes represent model systems in which to study the effects of relaxed selective pressure on photosynthetic function. The most evident is a reduction in the size and gene content of the plastome, which correlates with the loss of genes encoding photosynthetic machinery which become unnecessary. Transition to a non-photosynthetic lifestyle is expected also to relax the selective pressure on photosynthetic machinery in the nuclear genome, however, the corresponding changes are less known.Here we report the complete sequence of the plastid genome of Monotropa hypopitys, an achlorophyllous obligately mycoheterotrophic plant belonging to the family Ericaceae. The plastome of M. hypopitys is greatly reduced in size (35,336 bp) and lacks the typical quadripartite structure with two single-copy regions and an inverted repeat. Only 45 genes remained presumably intact- those encoding ribosomal proteins, ribosomal and transfer RNA and housekeeping genes infA, matK, accD and clpP. The clpP and accD genes probably remain functional, although their sequences are highly diverged. The sets of genes for ribosomal protein and transfer RNA are incomplete relative to chloroplasts of a photosynthetic plant. Comparison of the plastid genomes of two subspecies-level isolates of M. hypopitys revealed major structural rearrangements associated with repeat-driven recombination and the presence of isolate-specific tRNA genes. Analysis of the M. hypopitys transcriptome by RNA-Seq showed the absence of expression of nuclear-encoded components of photosystem I and II reaction center proteins, components of cytochrome b6f complex, ATP synthase, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase components, as well as chlorophyll from protoporphyrin IX biosynthesis pathway.With the complete loss of genes related to photosynthesis, NADH dehydrogenase, plastid-encoded RNA polymerase and ATP synthase, the M. hypopitys plastid genome is among the most functionally reduced ones characteristic of obligate non-photosynthetic parasitic species. Analysis of the M. hypopitys transcriptome revealed coordinated evolution of the nuclear and plastome genomes and the loss of photosynthesis-related functions in both genomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While photosynthesis is the most notable trait of plants, several lineages of plants (so-called full heterotrophs) have adapted to obtain organic compounds from other sources. The switch to heterotrophy leads to profound changes at the morphological, physiological and genomic levels. RESULTS:Here, we characterize the transcriptomes of three species representing two lineages of mycoheterotrophic plants: orchids (Epipogium aphyllum and Epipogium roseum) and Ericaceae (Hypopitys monotropa). Comparative analysis is used to highlight the parallelism between distantly related fully heterotrophic plants. In both lineages, we observed genome-wide elimination of nuclear genes that encode proteins related to photosynthesis, while systems associated with protein import to plastids as well as plastid transcription and translation remain active. Genes encoding components of plastid ribosomes that have been lost from the plastid genomes have not been transferred to the nuclear genomes; instead, some of the encoded proteins have been substituted by homologs. The nuclear genes of both Epipogium species accumulated nucleotide substitutions twice as rapidly as their photosynthetic relatives; in contrast, no increase in the substitution rate was observed in H. monotropa. CONCLUSIONS:Full heterotrophy leads to profound changes in nuclear gene content. The observed increase in the rate of nucleotide substitutions is lineage specific, rather than a universal phenomenon among non-photosynthetic plants.